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Lecture notes on graph theory.

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Jonathan Gross, graph theory professor at Columbia University, has composed the following graph

theory song:

My Favorite Graphs (sung to the tune of My Favorite Things from Sound of Music)

transitive, rigid, and strongly connected.

Tournaments, trees; null and empty for laughs;

These are a few of my favorite graphs ...

Tuesday, January 22, 2013

new special cases that greet each new morning.

Hamilton circuits thru each vertex go,

Minimum cut equals maximum flow ...

Think of Polya, Kuratowski -Heawood, Cayley, and Euler before.

Inspiring us now to work hard to derive

graph theorems evermore.

Basic notation

E(G), E

m, |E(G)|, (G), e(G), size of G

(G) = max degree of G

V (G), V

n, |V (G)|, (G), n(G), order of G

{u, v} E

uv E

u v

u N (v)

1

5

3

graph G

subgraph

1

5

graph G

1

5

graph G

spanning

subgraph

G [{1, 3, 4, 6}]

1

S = {1, 4}

3

graph G

induced subgraph

1

5

independent set

S = {3, 4, 6}

3

graph G

clique

Graph complement

Graph complement

1

5

1

2

1

2

graph G

graph G

Isomorphism

1

2

1

2

3

graph G

V (G) = V (H)

but {1, 2} E(G)

and {1, 2} E(H)

4

NO

YES

same structure

(redraw G, ignore

the labels)

NO

and {1, 2} E(H)

YES

V (G) = V (H)

1

4

3

graph G

graph H

5

Are these graphs

the same?

same?

complete graph

on 6 vertices, K6

Same or different?

3

graph H

same structure

(redraw G, ignore

the labels)

1

4

Graph fundamentals

Isomorphisms and automorphisms

Definition A graph G is isomorphic to H if there exists a bijection

f : V (G) ! V (H) such that uv 2 E(G) if and only if f (u)f (v) 2 E(H).

Example

f (1) = a

f (2) = b

f (3) = d

f (4) = c

We could check all n! bijections to discover this fact. But even for

small values of n (such as n = 100), n! is unmanageably large (larger

than the # of particles in the universe!), so this brute force approach

is not feasible.

We can find some structural property in which the two graphs dier;

e.g., one graph has a vertex of degree 5 and the other does not.

It may not be easy to find an isomorphism between two graphs or prove

that none exists. However, once an isomorphism f has been found, it is

straight forward to verify that f is indeed an isomorphism: we need only

check that for each of the n2 pairs of vertices u, v,

uv 2 E(G) () f (u)f (v) 2 E(H).1

Curiously, the graph isomorphism problem is one of only a few problems in computational complexity theory

belonging to NP, but not known to belong to either of its well-known subsets: P and NP-complete.

Math 104 - Prof. Kindred - Lecture 1

Page 1

3

Example

1

Recall the following definition from set theory...

Definition A partition of a set A is a collection of pairwise disjoint

subsets A1, A2, . . . , Ak of A whose union is A. The sets A1, A2, . . . , Ak are

often called parts or partite sets.

Example The set of even integers and the set of odd integers partition

Z.

Now were ready to define a very important class of graphs: bipartite!

Example:

Definition A graph G is bipartite if we can

partition V (G) into two independent sets2 X

and Y , i.e., V (G) = X [ Y and X \ Y = ;.

The sets X, Y are called a bipartition of G.

x1

x2

x3

y1

y2

x4

Problem

max size of an independent set in G = max{|X|, |Y |}?

Page 2

Definition A complete bipartite graph is a bipartite graph such that

two vertices are adjacent if and only if they are in dierent parts of the bipartition. It is denoted Ka,b if there are a vtcs. in one part of the bipartition

and b vtcs. in the other.

Example

K3,3

Problem

=)

Definition A complete multipartite graph is a graph whose vtcs. can

be partitioned into into sets so that u v if and only if u and v belong to

dierent parts of the partition.

Example

K2,2,3

Math 104 - Prof. Kindred - Lecture 1

Page 3

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