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# My favorite graphs

Jonathan Gross, graph theory professor at Columbia University, has composed the following graph
theory song:
My Favorite Graphs (sung to the tune of My Favorite Things from Sound of Music)

## Labeled, bipartite, complete and directed;

transitive, rigid, and strongly connected.
Tournaments, trees; null and empty for laughs;
These are a few of my favorite graphs ...

## Math 104, Graph Theory

Tuesday, January 22, 2013

## Colors and voltages, brightly adorning,

new special cases that greet each new morning.
Hamilton circuits thru each vertex go,
Minimum cut equals maximum flow ...
Think of Polya, Kuratowski -Heawood, Cayley, and Euler before.
Inspiring us now to work hard to derive
graph theorems evermore.

Basic notation

## Subgraphs and subsets of vertices

E(G), E
m, |E(G)|, (G), e(G), size of G

## (G) = min degree of G

(G) = max degree of G

V (G), V
n, |V (G)|, (G), n(G), order of G

{u, v} E
uv E
u v
u N (v)

1
5

3
graph G

subgraph

1
5

graph G

1
5

graph G

spanning
subgraph

G [{1, 3, 4, 6}]

1

S = {1, 4}

3
graph G

induced subgraph

1
5

independent set

S = {3, 4, 6}

3
graph G

clique

Graph complement

Graph complement

1
5

1
2

1
2

graph G

graph G

Isomorphism

1
2

1
2

3
graph G

V (G) = V (H)
but {1, 2} E(G)
and {1, 2} E(H)

4
NO

YES

## G and H have the

same structure
(redraw G, ignore
the labels)

NO

and {1, 2} E(H)

YES

V (G) = V (H)

1
4

3
graph G

graph H

5
Are these graphs
the same?

## Are these graphs the

same?

complete graph
on 6 vertices, K6

Same or different?

3
graph H

## G and H have the

same structure
(redraw G, ignore
the labels)

1
4

## G and H are isomorphic

Graph fundamentals
Isomorphisms and automorphisms
Definition A graph G is isomorphic to H if there exists a bijection
f : V (G) ! V (H) such that uv 2 E(G) if and only if f (u)f (v) 2 E(H).
Example

f (1) = a
f (2) = b
f (3) = d
f (4) = c

## How can we prove two graphs are not isomorphic?

We could check all n! bijections to discover this fact. But even for
small values of n (such as n = 100), n! is unmanageably large (larger
than the # of particles in the universe!), so this brute force approach
is not feasible.
We can find some structural property in which the two graphs dier;
e.g., one graph has a vertex of degree 5 and the other does not.
It may not be easy to find an isomorphism between two graphs or prove
that none exists. However, once an isomorphism f has been found, it is
straight forward to verify that f is indeed an isomorphism: we need only
check that for each of the n2 pairs of vertices u, v,
uv 2 E(G) () f (u)f (v) 2 E(H).1

Curiously, the graph isomorphism problem is one of only a few problems in computational complexity theory
belonging to NP, but not known to belong to either of its well-known subsets: P and NP-complete.
Math 104 - Prof. Kindred - Lecture 1

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Example

1

## An important graph class bipartite graphs

Recall the following definition from set theory...
Definition A partition of a set A is a collection of pairwise disjoint
subsets A1, A2, . . . , Ak of A whose union is A. The sets A1, A2, . . . , Ak are
often called parts or partite sets.
Example The set of even integers and the set of odd integers partition
Z.
Now were ready to define a very important class of graphs: bipartite!
Example:
Definition A graph G is bipartite if we can
partition V (G) into two independent sets2 X
and Y , i.e., V (G) = X [ Y and X \ Y = ;.
The sets X, Y are called a bipartition of G.

x1
x2
x3

y1

y2

x4

Problem

## T/F: for a bipartite graph G with bipartition X, Y ,

max size of an independent set in G = max{|X|, |Y |}?

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## Complete + bipartite = ...

Definition A complete bipartite graph is a bipartite graph such that
two vertices are adjacent if and only if they are in dierent parts of the bipartition. It is denoted Ka,b if there are a vtcs. in one part of the bipartition
and b vtcs. in the other.
Example

K3,3

Problem

=)

## How can we generalize complete bipartite graphs?

Definition A complete multipartite graph is a graph whose vtcs. can
be partitioned into into sets so that u v if and only if u and v belong to
dierent parts of the partition.
Example

K2,2,3
Math 104 - Prof. Kindred - Lecture 1

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