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This presentation gives details about how to find aerodynamic forces and moments.

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You are on page 1of 11

basic sources:

body surface is a resultant aerodynamic force R and moment M.

L lift component of R

perpendicular to V

D drag component of R

perpendicular to V

N normal foce component of R

perpendicular to c

A axial force component of R

parellel to c

The relation between these forces

is:

L=N cos() A sin ()

D= N sin ()+ A cos()

Pressure

Pressure (Contd.)

clockwise from vertical line to the direction of p and from

horizontal line to the direction of

The primes on N' and A' denote force per unit span

TE

TE

LE

TE

LE

TE

LE

LE

Aerodynamic Moments

on the point about which the moments are taken.

By convention moments that tend to increase (pitch up)

are positive, and moments that tend to decrease (pitch

down) are negative.

TE

TE

M L E ' = [( p u cos + u sin ) x( p u sin u cos ) y ]ds u + [(p l cos + l sin ) x+( p l sin + l cos ) y ]ds l

LE

LE

before and y is a positive number above the chord and

negative number below the chord.

1

q = V 2

2

The the dimensionless force and moment

coefficients are:

Lift coefficient, C L =

q S

D

Drag coefficient, C D =

q S

Axial force coefficient, C A =

q S

N

Normal force coefficient, C N =

q S

lengths

dimensional body. For a two dimensional body the aerodynamic

coefficients are:

L'

cl =

q c

D'

cd=

q c

M'

c m=

q c 2

Pressure coefficient:

p p

C p=

q

Cf =

q

Center of Pressure

about the leading edge as shown previously.

The forces N' and A' should be placed at such a location to

generate the same moment about the leading edge.

If A' is placed is placed on the chord line, then N' must be

located at a distance xcp downstream the LE such that,

M L E ' =( x cp ) N '

M L E '

x cp =

N'

If moments were taken about the COP, the integrated effect of distributed

loads would be zero.

However, as N' decreases xcp increases and as the force approaches zero,

the COP moves to infinity.

For this reason the resultant moment is usually placed at a quarter chord

point, with finite value M'c/4

M ' L E=

c

N ' + M ' c / 4 =x cp N '

4

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