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# Chapter 1

basic sources:

## The net effect of p and distributions integrated over the complete

body surface is a resultant aerodynamic force R and moment M.

## Lift, Drag, Normal and Axial Forces

L lift component of R
perpendicular to V
D drag component of R
perpendicular to V
N normal foce component of R
perpendicular to c
A axial force component of R
parellel to c
The relation between these forces
is:
L=N cos() A sin ()
D= N sin ()+ A cos()

Pressure

## Normal and Axial forces in terms of Shear Stress and

Pressure (Contd.)

## The sign convention for is positive when measured

clockwise from vertical line to the direction of p and from
horizontal line to the direction of
The primes on N' and A' denote force per unit span
TE

TE

LE

TE

LE

TE

## A '= ( pu sin + u cos )dsu + ( pl sin + l cos )dsl

LE

LE

Aerodynamic Moments

## The aerodynamic moment exerted on the body depends

on the point about which the moments are taken.
By convention moments that tend to increase (pitch up)
are positive, and moments that tend to decrease (pitch
down) are negative.

## Aerodynamic Moments (Contd.)

TE

TE

M L E ' = [( p u cos + u sin ) x( p u sin u cos ) y ]ds u + [(p l cos + l sin ) x+( p l sin + l cos ) y ]ds l
LE

LE

## In the above equation the sign convention for applies as

before and y is a positive number above the chord and
negative number below the chord.

1
q = V 2
2

## Let S be a reference area l be a reference length.

The the dimensionless force and moment
coefficients are:

Lift coefficient, C L =

q S
D
Drag coefficient, C D =
q S
Axial force coefficient, C A =

q S
N
Normal force coefficient, C N =
q S

lengths

## The coefficnets defined previously are for a complete three

dimensional body. For a two dimensional body the aerodynamic
coefficients are:

L'
cl =
q c

D'
cd=
q c

M'
c m=
q c 2

## Two additional dimensionless quantities are:

Pressure coefficient:

## Skin friction coefficient:

p p
C p=
q
Cf =
q

Center of Pressure

## The distributed load on a two-dimensional produces a moment

The forces N' and A' should be placed at such a location to
If A' is placed is placed on the chord line, then N' must be
located at a distance xcp downstream the LE such that,
M L E ' =( x cp ) N '
M L E '
x cp =
N'

## More on Center of Pressure

If moments were taken about the COP, the integrated effect of distributed