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Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2016

Simultaneous Multicriteria Scheduling

Problems

Ali Musaddak Delphi

Department of Mathematics, College of Basic education, University of Misan, Iraq

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we discuss the multicriteria scheduling problem on single machine to minimize total completion time , total

earliness, and maximum tardiness or earliness. We proposed approximation algorithm to solve the first problem

C i ,E max ,

E i ) to find

1 // F ( C i ,T max , E i ) , and approximation algorithm to solve the second problem 1 // F (

problem 1 // F (

, T max , E max ,

Ei ) ,

we proposed constructive

approximation algorithm based on the previous two approximation algorithms to find some of the efficient solutions for the

four criteria optimality.

1. Introduction

We address the following single machine multicriteria scheduling problem. A set of n independent jobs has to be

scheduled on single machine, which can handle only one job at a time. The machine is assumed to be continuously

available from time zero and awards. Each job i ( i =1,, n) requires p i time units to be processed on the machine

and due date d i

i.

( (1),..., (n)) specifies for each job when it is executed while observing the machine availability constraints and

the schedule produce a completion time C

(i)

p (

j)

j 1

lateness ( L max max{ C i d i ,0} ), maximum earliness ( Emax Max{Ei }, Ei Max{di Ci ,0} ), and maximum tardiness

( T max Max {T i }, T i Max { C i d i , 0 } ). Throughout this paper, we use the three field notation scheme / /

i

introduced by Graham et.al., [1] to denote the scheduling problem under consideration. Most of the work done in the

bicriteria problems has been on the single machine bicriteria problems. Many researchers used branch and bound (BAB)

type of algorithms to solve the problem while some approaches have utilized dynamic programming (DP) algorithms. In

this paper, we will use the following sequencing rules:

1. SPT: Jobs are sequenced in non-decreasing order of processing times, (this rule is well known to minimize C i )

for 1 // C i problem. [1]

2. EDD: Jobs are sequenced in non-decreasing order of due dates, (this rule is well known to minimize Tmax ) for

1 // T max problem. [2]

3. MST: Jobs are sequenced in nondecreasing order of slack time, (non-decreasing order of S i d i p i ) , (this rule

is well known to minimize ( 1 // E max ) problem subject to no machine idle time). [2]

As to bicriteria scheduling problems, two different criteria are considered together this can be accomplished in a

number of ways. One approach is to minimize the less important criterion, subject to the restriction that the most

important criterion optimized. The two criteria are assumed to be prioritized as primary and secondary with the

objective of finding the best schedule for the secondary criterion among all alternative optimal schedules for the

primary criterion. The optimal solution obtained from this approach is called a hierarchical (lexicographical)

1

is the

secondary criterion. The second approach is called simultaneous optimization this approach unlike hierarchical

Page 1

Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org

Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2016

1

2

1

2

have two type of problems the first one is 1 // F ( , ) and the second one 1 //( ) .

minimization approach, where the performance criteria

Definition (1) [3]: A measure of performance is said to be regular if it is a non-decreasing function of job completion

times. Examples of regular measures are job flow time (

C ) , schedule makespan

i

performance measures.

Definition (2)[3]: A non-regular performance measure is usually not a monotone function of the job completion

times. An example of such a measure is the job earliness.

Definition (3)[4]: A feasible solution is called efficient if there is no other solution such that

i ( ) i ( )

called a non-dominated point. The set of all efficient solutions is called efficient set and the set of all nondominated points ( ) is called non-dominated set or Pareto front.

There are many algorithms that can be used for solving multicriteria scheduling problems, which is to find the efficient

solutions or at least approximation to it. The running time for the algorithm often increasing with the increase of the

instance size. The purpose of any algorithm process is to find, for each instance a feasible solution called optimal, that

minimize the objective function. This usual meaning of the optimum makes no sense in the multicriteria case because it

doesnt exist, in most of the cases, a solution optimizing all objectives simultaneously. Hence we search for feasible

solutions yielding the best compromise among objectives that constitutes a so called efficient solution set. These

efficient solutions that cannot be improved in one objective without decreasing their performance in at least one of the

others. It is clear that this efficient solutions set is difficult to find. Therefore, it could be preferable to have an

approximation to that set in a reasonable amount of time. In this section, we shall try to find efficient (Pareto optimal)

C , T , E ) , 1 // F ( C , E , E ) and

1 // F ( C , T , E , E ) , which are NP-hard multicriteria scheduling problems.

Let the first problem 1 // F ( C , T , E ) denoted by ( P ) . This multicriteria scheduling problem

solutions for the 1 // F (

i

max

max

max

max

max

( P1 ) has

C ,T

i

max

efficient for any feasible schedules. The following approximation algorithm (SCTSE) gives the efficient solutions for

the problem ( P1 ) .

Page 2

Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org

Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2016

Example(1): Consider the problem

Pi

Di

10

15

13

11

Hence, efficient schedules for the three criteria NP-hard problem ( P1 ) of minimizing

C ,T

i

max

and

are

Proof :

it suffices to show

that

the algorithm

1 / T max / F ( C i , E i ) and 1 / C i

not

solves 1 / T max / F (

This

leads

C , E

i

to

that

generates a schedule

,T max , E i ) .

that solves

the problem

T max ( ) Tmax ( ) ;

hence,

( ) / F (T max , E i ) ,

is

also

feasible

for

starting at the end, let that the first difference occurs at the k th position , which is occupied by job i and j in

and respectively. Since T max ( ) and because of the choice of job i in the algorithm, we have p i p j .

If

p i p j , then cannot be optimal , as schedule that is obtained by interchanging job i and j in is feasible

T max and has smaller completion time. Hence, it must be that p i p j . This

implies, however that the job i and j can be interchanged in without effecting the cost of the schedule. Repetition

with respect to the constraint

of this argument shows that

the

assumption

1/ Ci

T max ( ) T max ( ) .

that

Therefore,

also

solves

C , E

i

max

Page 3

Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org

Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2016

For this problem ( P2 ) , (

C , E

i

max

efficient for any feasible schedules. The following approximation algorithm (SCESE) gives the efficient solutions for

the problem ( P2 ).

Modify this procedure as follows: break tie in step(2) by selecting the job with smallest slack time S J for the last

sequence such that

number of efficient solutions which can be found by algorithm(2) and modified procedure are determined at least by

(n 1) efficient solutions for each number of jobs (n). As shown in the following example:

Example(2): Consider the problem

Pi

Di

10

15

13

11

Hence, efficient schedules for the three criteria NP-hard problem ( P2 ) of minimizing

C , E

i

max

and

are

Proof :

it suffices

to

show

solves 1 / E max

the

algorithm

generates

schedule

,E max , E i ) .

that

solves

the

/ F ( C , E ) and optimal for 1 / C C ( ) / F ( E , E ) ,

problem 1 / E max / F (

that

max

max

Page 4

Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org

Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2016

not

This

leads

E max ( ) E max ( ) ;

to that

is

also feasible

for

starting at the end, let that the first difference occurs at the k th position , which is occupied by job i and j in

and respectively. Since E max ( ) and because of the choice of job i in the algorithm, we have p i p j .

If

hence,

p i p j , then cannot be optimal , as schedule that is obtained by interchanging job i and j in is feasible

E max and has smaller completion time. Hence, it must be that p i p j . This

implies, however that the job i and j can be interchanged in without effecting the cost of the schedule. Repetition

with respect to the constraint

can be transformed into without affecting the cost, and so this a contradiction with

E max ( ) E max ( ) .Therefore, also solves 1 / C i C i ( ) / F ( E max , E i ) ;

the assumption that

hence,

(1 // F ( C i , Tmax , E max , E i )) ,

,E max , E i ) .

when all the four criteria

C ,T

i

max

multicriteria scheduling problem

, E max

C ,T

i

and

max

, E max

E

,E

are of

)).This

The main idea of the following approximation algorithm is depending on the previous approximation algorithms

(SCTSE and SCESE )and the definition of efficient solutions.

Page 5

Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org

Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2016

Hence, efficient schedules for the four criteria NP-hard problem (P) of minimizing

C ,T

i

max m

E max and

Schedules

Ci

Tmax

Emax

Ei

SPT=(3,1,2,4)

31

12

20

(3,1,4,2)

34

12

19

(3,2,1,4)

35

16

(2,3,1,4)

40

11

(3,2,4,1)

42

10

(2,3,4,1)

47

(4,3,1,2)

49

(4,3,2,1)

53

C ,T

i

max

, Emax , Ei ) .

4. Conclusion

In this paper, we conclude that the three approximation algorithms found almost efficient schedules for the three

problems optimality compared with complete enumeration method.

References

[1]. Smith, W.E., "Version optimization for single stage production", Naval Res. Logistics Quarter 3, 59-66 (1956).

[2]. Jackson, J.R., "Scheduling a production line to minimize maximum tardiness'', Res. Report 43, Management

Science Res. Project, Univ. of California, Los Angeles (1955).

[3]. Nagar, A., Haddock, J., and Heragu, S., "Multiple and Bicriteria scheduling: A literature survey", European

Journal of Operational Res. 81, 88-104(1995).

[4]. Reis, R.J.O., "Solving the car sequencing problem from a multiobjective perspective", M.Sc. thesis, Technical

Univ. of Lisbon, Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Management(2007).

AUTHOR

Ali Musaddak Delphi received the B.Sc. in Mathematics from Mathematics Department, College of

Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, from the period of 2004-2007. M.Sc. in Mathematics from

Mathematics Department, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, from 2009-2011. He is

now assistant lecturer in Mathematics Department, College of basic education, Misan University, Iraq. He

is interesting in scheduling theory, approximation theory and functional analysis.

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