You are on page 1of 68

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND

AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

EXPERIMENT NO: 01
AIM:
Study a given single cylinder four stroke C.I. engine test rig.
Measuring the performance of the engine at constant speed
Obtaining the bmep Vs bsfc, bmep Vs efficiency and bmep Vs exhaust gas
temperature curves for the engine
Drawing Williams line and obtaining frictional power and mechanical
efficiency.
EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:
Single cylinder 4- stroke diesel engine (KIRLOSKAR) Test Rig with Alternator,
Laod Panel, Stop Watch etc.
ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS& DATA:
Engine Type
:
Single cylinder Four stroke Diesel engine
Make
:
Kirloskar
Model
:
AV1
Bore Dia
:
87.5 mm
Stroke Length
:
110 mm
Capacity
:
661.5 cc
Power
:
7.5 H.P.
Torque
:
2.96 kg.m @ 1500 rpm
Compression Ratio
:
17.5:1
RPM
:
1500

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
Cd
Orifice Dia

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

0.62
:
25 mm

PROCEDURE:
1. Always check the oil level in the engine before starting and make sure
that sufficient oil is present in the engine.
2. Check for all connections. They should be proper.
3. Clear all restriction.
4. Check for fuel level.
5. Check water level in the manometer.
6. Check the load pannel.
7. Keep the decompression lever in operating position.
8. Crank the engine manually using crank handle.
9. Down the decompression lever, when flywheel attained the enough
momentum and remove handle.
10.Engine is started now. Record all the observations as mentioned in the
table given
below.
11.Repeat and record all observation approx. 5 times.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

MEASUREMENTS:

S.NO
.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

RPM

MANOMETER
READING
(H1 - H2)

LOAD
VOLTAGE (V)

CURRENT (I)

BRAKE
POWER

TIME in

(BP in KW)

(For 10 ml FUEL )

(S)

TEMPERATURE
EHAUST
(C)

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

CALCULATIONS:
We know that,
1. Brake

2. Total Fuel

power (BP) = V x I =

(Final Reading Initial


reading)
Time

KW

Sp. Gravity
x

Consumption(TFC) =

1000

Where T is in second
Specific gravity of fuel ___________

C C (ml)
Time

Sp.
Gravity
1000

3. BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (BSFC)


BSFC =

TFC
BP

x 3600 Kg/Kw.Hr.
Where

TFC in Kg/Hr

TFC =

KG/S

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

and

BP in Kw

4. BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY


BP
TFC x CV

x 100

Where

BP in Kw

and

TFC in Kg/Sec

5. Brake Mean Effective Pressure (bmep)

BMEP

BP x 60
LxAxn

Where, BMEP in N/mm2

d2
4

= Stroke Length in metres

= Cross sectional area in m2


=

(d = dia of bore in m) =.m2

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

= N for 2 Stroke engine RPM

= N/2 for 4 stroke engine RPM


N is engine RPM.

AIRT FUEL RATIO:


6.

Mass of air (Ma)


Q

=
=

Q x pa
Cd A 2gha

0.62

Area of Orifice Meter m2

9.81

Where Cd

Dia of Orifice
Ha

pw x Hw
pa

m
Hw

= 25 mm

=
=

H1 - H2
Where
pw =

Mass of air (Ma) =

Density of water = 1000

Hw =

Manometer Reading (mtrs)

Pa =

Density of air = 1.178

Q x pa

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

EXPERIMENT NO: 02
AIM:
Study of a multi cylinder four stroke S.I. engine.
Measure the performance of the engine at constant speed.
Performing Morse test on the engine and obtaining frictional power and
mechanical
efficiency at that speed.
EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:
Four cylinder four stroke petrol engine (Maruti Wagon R) with Hydraulic
Dynamometer, Load Panel, Stop Watch etc.
ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS:
Engine Type: Four cylinder Four stroke MPFI petrol engine (Maruti Wagon R)
Type
:
DOHC MPFI
Bore
:
72 mm
Stroke
:
61 mm
Capacity
:
996 cc
Power
:
68 PS @ 6200 rpm
Torque
:
90 Nm @ 3500 rpm
Compression Ratio
:
9.4:1
Cd
:
0.62

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
Orifice Dia

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

25 mm

PROCEDURE:
1. Always check the oil level in the engine before starting and make sure
that sufficient oil is present in the engine.
2. Check for all mechanical and electrical connections. They should be
proper.
3. Check battery connection.
4. Check for fuel level.
5. Check water supply connection for engine and dynomometer.
6. Check the load pannel.
7. Switch on the ignition switch and crank the engine.
8. Engine is started now.Wait for some time till the temperature of the
engine stabilize.
9. Apply load at constant speed and records all the observations.
10. For morse test cut the one cylinder by discharging one spark plug.
Repeat for all other
cylinder.
11.Record all the observations as mentioned in the table given below
and repeat

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

experiment at least 5 time.

MEASUREMENTS:

S.NO.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

RPM

MANOMETER
READING
( H1 - H2 )

LOAD
(W in KG)

TIME
in (S)
(For 50 ml FUEL)

BRAKE POWER
(KW)

TEMPERATURE
EHAUST
(C)

WORKING
CYLINDER

ALL

2,3,4

1,3,4

1,2,4

1,2,3

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

CALCULATIONS:
We know that,

1.

WxN
2000

2. Total Fuel
) =

Brake power (BP) =

(Final Reading Initial


reading)

Sp. Gravity
x
Time

1000
Where T is in second
Specific gravity of fuel ___________

Consumption

(TFC

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

C C (ml)

Sp. Gravity

TFC = KG/S
1000

Time

3. BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (BSFC)

BSFC =

TFC
BP

x 3600 Kg/Kw.Hr.
Where

TFC in Kg/Hr

and

BP in Kw

4. BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY


BP
TFC x CV

x 100

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

Where

BP in Kw

and

TFC in Kg/Sec

5. Brake Mean Effective Pressure (bmep)

BP x 60
100 x L x A x N x
n

(bmep) =

Where,
L

Stroke Length in m

Area of bore (m2)

d2

4
N

(d = dia of bore in m) =.m2

RPM (N = Number of power strokes per minute)

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

For 4 stroke engine N =N/2


For 2 stroke engine N = N

Number of cylinders

MORSE TEST:
Indicated Power (IP) of each Cylinder:
IP1 = (BPT - BP2, 3, 4) = KW

IP2 = (BPT - BP1, 3, 4) = KW

IP3 = (BPT - BP1, 2, 4) = KW

IP4 = (BPT - BP1, 2, 3) = KW

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

Total IP of the Engine:


IPT = (IP1 + IP2 + IP3 + IP4) = KW

BP
IP

Mechanical Efficiency (mech) =

AIRT FUEL RATIO:


6.

Mass of air (Ma)


Q
=

=
Q x pa
Cd A 2gha

Where Cd

0.62

Area of Orifice Meter M2

9.81

Dia of Orifice
pw x Hw
pa

= 25 mm

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
Ha

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

=
Hw

H1 - H2
Where
pw =

Density of water = 1000

Hw =

Manometer Reading (mtrs)

Pa =

Density of air = 1.178

Mass of air (Ma) = Q x pa

EXPERIMENT NO: 03
AIM:
Study the given six cylinders four stroke diesel engine cut model.
Measure the performance characteristics of the four cylinder four stroke
C.I. engine test rig at constant speed.
Drawing Williams line and obtaining frictional power at constant speed,
and mechanical efficiency at constant speed.
EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:
Four cylinder 4- stroke diesel engine (Make : TATA) Test Rig with Hydraulic
Dynamometer, Load Panel, Stop Watch etc.
ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS:
Engine Type
:
Four cylinder Four stroke Diesel engine (TATA)

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
TYPE
Bore
Stroke
:
Capacity
:
Power
:
Torque
:
Compression Ratio
Cd
:
Orifice Dia

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

:
SOHC
:
69.9 mm
82 mm
1396 cc
70 PS at 4000 rpm
140 Nm @ 3000 rpm
:
17.3:1
0.62
:
25 mm

PROCEDURE:
1. Always check the oil level in the engine before starting and make sure
that sufficient oil is present in the engine.
2. Check for all mechanical and electrical connections. They should be
proper.
3. Check battery connection.
4. Check for fuel level.
5. Check water supply connection for engine and dynomometer.
6. Check the load pannel.
7. Switch on the preheater of engine upto 2 minutes.
8. Crank the Engine now.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

9. Engine is started now.Wait for some time till the temperature of the
engine stabilize.
10. Apply load at constant speed and records all the observations.
11. Record all the observations as mentioned in the table given below
and repeat
experiment at least 5 time.

MEASUREMENTS:

S.NO.

1.

2.

RPM

MANOMETER READING
( H1 - H2 )

LOAD
(W in KG)

BRAKE
POWER
(KW)

TIME IN (S)
(For 10 ml FUEL )

TEMPERATURE
EXHAUST (C)

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

3.

4.

5.

CALCULATIONS:
We know that,

1.

WxN
2000

Brake power (BP) =

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

2. Total Fuel
) =

(Final Reading Initial


reading)

Sp. Gravity
x

Consumption

(TFC

Time
1000
Where T is in second
Specific gravity of fuel ___________

C C (ml)

Sp. Gravity
Time

3. BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (BSFC)

BSFC =

TFC
BP

x 3600 Kg/Kw.Hr.
=

TFC = KG/S
1000

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

Where

TFC in Kg/Hr

and

BP in Kw

4. BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY


=

BP
TFC x CV

x 100
=

Where
BP in Kw
and

TFC in Kg/Sec

5. Brake Mean Effective Pressure (bemp)

(bmep) =

BP x 60
100 LANn

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

Where,

Stroke Length in m

Area of bore(m2)

(d = dia of bore in

d2
4

m) =.m2

RPM (N = Number of power strokes per minute)


For 4 stroke engine N =N/2
For 2 stroke engine N = N

Number of cylinders

EXPERIMENT NO: 04
AIM:

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

Study the single cylinder four stroke SI engine and measure the performance
of the engine at constant speed.
EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:
Single cylinder 4- stroke SI engine (BULLET) Test Rig with Electric Alternator,
Laod Panel, Stop Watch etc.
ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS:
Make
:
Bullet, Single cylinder Four stroke Petrol Engine
Type
:
OHV
Speed
:
900 2500 RPM with Accelerator Control
Bore
:
0.073m
Stroke Length
:
0.0889m
Capacity
:
1489cc
Power
:
18 BHP @ 5625 rpm
Torque
:
2.74 kg.m @ 2875 rpm
Compression Ratio
:
7.25:1
Cd
:
0.62
Orifice Dia
:
25 mm

PROCEDURE:

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

1. Always check the oil level in the engine before starting and make sure
that sufficient oil is present in the engine.
2. Check for all connections. They should be proper.
3. Clear all restriction.
4. Check for fuel level.
5. Check water level in the manometer.
6. Check the load pannel.
7. Start the engine now.
8. Engine is started now.
9. Apply the load. Record all the observations as mentioned in the table
given below.
10. Repeat the experiment at various load atleast 5 time and record all the
observations.

MEASUREMENTS:

S.NO.

RPM

MANOMETER

LOAD

BRAKE

TIME

TEMPERATURE

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

READING
( H1 - H2 )

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

VOLTAGE
(V)

CURRENT
(I)

POWER
(BP in KW)

in (S)
(For 10 ml FUEL )

EXHAUST (C)

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

CALCULATIONS:
We know that,

1. Brake

2. Total Fuel

power (BP) = V x I =

KW

(Final Reading Initial


reading)
Time

Sp. Gravity
x

Consumption

(TFC ) =

1000
Where T is in second

Specific gravity of fuel ___________

C C (ml)
Time

Sp. Gravity
1000

TFC = KG/S

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

3. BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (BSFC)

BSFC =

TFC
BP

x 3600 Kg/Kw.Hr.
=
Where
and

TFC in Kg/Hr
BP in Kw

4. BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY


BP
TFC x CV

x 100

=
=

Where
and

BP in Kw
TFC in Kg/Sec

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

5. Brake Mean Effective Pressure (bmep)

BP x 60
100 x L x A x N x
n

(bmep) =

Where,

Stroke Length in m

Area of bore(m2)

(d = dia of bore in m)

d2
4

=.m2

RPM (N = Number of power strokes per minute)


For 4 stroke engine N =N/2
For 2 stroke engine N = N

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

Number of cylinders

EXPERIMENT NO: 05
AIM:
Study the single cylinder four stroke Variable compression ratio CI engine
and measure the performance of the engine with constant speed at
different compression ratio.
EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:
Single cylinder 4- stroke diesel engine (KIRLOSKAR) Test Rig with Eddy current
Dynamometer, Load Panel, Stop Watch etc.
ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS:
Engine Type
Make
Bore
Stroke Length
Capacity
Power
Torque

:
:
:
:
:

Single cylinder Four stroke Diesel engine


Kirloskar
:
87.5 mm
:
110 mm
1489cc
36 H.P. at 4000 rpm
8.5 kg.m at 2250 rpm

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
Compression Ratio
Cd
:
Orifice Dia

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

:
Vary from 11 to 16
0.62
:
25 mm

PROCEDURE:
1. Always check the oil level in the engine before starting and make sure
that sufficient oil is present in the engine.
2. Check for all connections. They should be proper.
3. Clear all restriction.
4. Check for fuel level.
5. Check water level in the manometer.
6. Check the load pannel.
7. Keep the decompression lever in operating position.
8. Crank the engine manually using crank handle.
9. Down the decompression lever, when flywheel attained the enough
momentum and remove handle. Engine is started now.
10. Record all the observations as mentioned in the table given below at
initial CR.
11. Now stop the engine and adjust its compression ratioo as per the CR
Chart. And again

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

start the engine and repeat all observation.

12. Repeat and record all observation atleast 4 different compression


ratio.

MEASUREMENTS:

S.NO
.

1.

2.

3.
4.

RPM

MANOMETER
READING
( H1 - H2 )

COMPRESSION
RATIO

15

13

12

LOAD
In
(KG)

BRAKE POWER
(BP in KW)

TIME
in (S)
(For 10 ml FUEL)

TEMPERATURE
EXHAUST
(C)

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

11

CALCULATIONS:
We know that,

1 Brake

2 Total Fuel
) =

power (BP) = V x I =

(Final Reading Initial


reading)

KW

Sp. Gravity
x
Time

1000

Where T is in second

Consumption

(TFC

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

Specific gravity of fuel ___________

C C (ml)

Sp. Gravity

TFC = KG/S
1000

Time

3 BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION (BSFC)

BSFC =

TFC
BP

x 3600 Kg/Kw.Hr.
Where

TFC in Kg/Hr

and

BP in Kw

4 BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY


BP
TFC x CV

x 100

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

Where

BP in Kw

and

TFC in Kg/Sec

5 Brake Mean Effective Pressure (bmep)


BP x 60
100 LANn

(bmep) =

Where,

d2
4

Stroke Length in m

Area of bore (m2)

(d = Dia of bore in m) =.m2

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

RPM (N = Number of power strokes per minute)


For 4 stroke engine N =N/2
For 2 stroke engine N = N

Number of cylinders

EXPERIMENT NO: 6
AIM:
Study the given engine and obtain the valve timing diagram and valve lift
profile as function of crank angles with reference to TDC.
EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:
Single cylinder 4- stroke diesel engine (KIRLOSKAR), Magnetic stand, Dial
Gauge Indicator with expansion rod arrangement, Crank angle measuring
scale. Garaph Paper etc.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

THEORETICAL VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM


The exact moment at which the inlet and outlet valve opens and closes with
reference to the position of piston and crank shown diagrammatically is known
as Valve Timing Diagram. The timing is expressed in terms of degrees of crank
rotation.
SUCTION STROKE:
Inlet valve is open. Piston moves from the Top Dead Centre(TDC) to Bottom
Dead Centre(BDC). Air-fuel mix is sucked in by negative pressure in cylinder.
COMPRESSION STROKE:
Inlet and outlet valves closed. Piston moves upwards from BDC to TDC. Air-fuel
mixture is compressed.

EXPANSION/POWER STROKE:
Inlet and outlet remains closed here also. Piston moves from down from TDC
to BDC. This happens as a result of ignition of the mixture inside the cylinder.
Ignition is started by spark plug/self ignition.
EXHAUTSTROKE:Exhaust valve opens. Piston moves up from BDC to TDC.
Exhaust gases are pushed out of the engine.

ACTUAL VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM:

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

The Actual Valve Timing Diagram has slight variations with respect to the
Theoretical Valve Timing Diagram. The variations are made in order to
maximize the engine performance.
OPENING ANDCLOSING OF INLET VALVE:
The inlet valve is made to open 12 degree to 15 degree before the piston
reaches the Top Dead Center (TDC) during Suction Stroke and is allowed to
close only after 30degree to 60degree after the piston reaches and leaves the
BDC in the beginning of compression stroke.
OPENING ANDCLOSING OFEXHAUST VALVE:
The exhaust valve is made to open 30degree to 50 degree before the BDC in
the exhaust stroke and allowed to close only after 20 to 30 degree the
beginning of the suction stroke.

TABLE:

S.N

FLYWHEE

INTAKE VALVE

EXHAUST VALVE

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

O.

L
ROTATIO
N

OPEN

VALVE LIFT:
INTAKE VALVE

: mm

EXHAUST VALVE : . mm

CLOSE

OPEN

CLOSE

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

EXPERIMENT NO: 7
AIM:
Study the dismantled Maruit engine and study its different parts e.g. Crank
Shaft, Cam Shaft, Connecting Rod, Lubricating oil pump, water pump, intake
manifold, exhaust manifold. Explain each in brief. Draw neat and clean
diagram of the given parts and list different parts and assemble the same
engine.
EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:
Maruti Engine, Tool Kit, Plastic Tary
INTRODUCTION:
A Heat engine is a device, which converts the chemical energy of a fuel into
thermal energy and uses this energy to produce mechanical work.
If fuel is burnt in a colsed vessel and due this thermal energy impact on the
piston to do useful mechanical wok, the heat engine which converts this
chemical and thermal energy into usefuel mechanical work is known as I.C.
Engine.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

CRANKSHAFT

GEAR

MAIN
CRANK PIN

CRANKSHAFT
FLANGE

SHAF
T

OIL
CRANK PIN
CRANK ARM/WEB

GROVE

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

Crank shaft is a jig jag type structure. It is manufactured by forging process. Steel alloy is used to
manufacture a high strength crankshaft. A crankshaft contains two or more centrally located
vccoaxial main journals and one more offset cylindrical crankpin. Main journals are supported by
engine block having journals bearing fittings. The crankpin and main journals are suitably drilled

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

for lubricant. Crankshaft receives reciprocating motion of the piston and converts it into rotary
motion.

CAM SHAFT

A
camshaft
is
long straight shaft. It contains lobes usually known as cam, main journals and thrust collar
bearing. Chilled cast iron or billet steel is used for its manufacturing. Camshaft actuate intake and

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

exhaust valve. It gets drive from crankshaft by means of gear, timing belt or timing chain. In diesel
engine it gives drive to fuel pump. Speed of the camshaft is half of the crankshaft.

CONNECTING ROD (CON


ROD)
CON ROD SMALL
END

CON ROD BUSHING

ICON ROD BOLT

CON ROD

CON ROD
BEARING
INSERTS

ROD

Connecting rod connects the piston to the cranshafts. It is fastened to the piston at its small end, by
a piston pin known as gudgeon pin. While other end i.e. big end with the cranshft. Con rod

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

transmits all the thrust develop on the piston to crankshaft by means of push or pull of the piston.
It is forged to form H near small end and an I near big end. Titanium and aluminium are two
popular materials used in the construction of connecting rods, especially for performance vehicles.
For heavy load without bending, breaking or twisting a forged steel is considered.

LUBRICATING OIL

PUMP

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

Various type of lubricating pump is available e.g. gear pumps, trochoid pumps, vane pump and
plunger types pumps etc. In maruti car engine sun planetry (gear within gear) type gear pump is
commomly used. It has one drive gear and other driven. Drive gear and driven gear is placed
inside pump casing. Circumference of the driven gear and casing cavity has only allowance to fit
within and it dosent allow lube oil to escape through the clearnce. At the inlet, a pipe with stainer
is attached to it. This pipe remains dip into oil in the oil pan. Drive gear is mounted on crankshaft.
As the crankshaft rotate at high rpm, drive gear also rotate at the same speed and hence driven
gear. Due to high rpm rotation of the both gear results in vaccum at the inlet of the pump. Thus
lube oil through stainer pipe sucks into the pump. This lube oil traped in between the clearnce of
the both gears teeth and have sprinkled action near the outlet of the pump. From the
outlet of the pump oil under pressure enter into the oil gallery and from oil gallery to various
moving parts of the engine.

WATER PUMP

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

A water pump is a belt driven device


which transfers water from the radiator
to the engine, thereby helping to keep it
cool. Impeller and hub carrying flange
for water pulley is mounted on the
same same shaft. Impeller is placed
inside the casing with proper sealing
arrangement. A water pump gets belt
drive from the fan belt of the radiator
fan. Engine runs, the fan belt, turning
the axle at the center of the
waterpump.The pump operates on
cenrifugal force. In the center hollow of
the pump is the axle on the inside of the
pump, connected to a series of vanes,
which turn along with the axle. This
turning motion creates suction, pulling water from the radiator. The water reaches the pump and is
thrown against the exterior walls of the pump by the power of the vanes which are generating the
centrifugal force. As the water circles against the outer wall, it presses down a drain, which sends
the water into the engine block. From there it passes into the cylinder heads, and drains back into
the
radiator
for
the
process
to
repeatitself.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

INTAKE MANIFOLD AND EXHAUST

MANIFOLD

INTAKE

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

An inlet manifold or intake manifold is the part of an engine that supplies the fuel/air mixture to
the cylinders. The primary function of the intake manifold is to evenly distribute the combustion
mixture (or just air in a direct injection engine) to each intake port in the cylinder head(s). Even
distribution is important to optimize the efficiency and performance of the engine. It may also
serve as a mount for the carburetor, throttle body, fuel injectors and other components of the
engine.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

EXHAUST
An exhaust manifold collects the exhaust gases from multiple cylinders into one pipe. Exhaust
manifolds are generally simple cast iron or stainless steel units which collect engine exhaust from
multiple cylinders and deliver it to the exhaust pipe.

EXPERIMENT NO: 8

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

AIM:
Study the fuel pump and injector of a single cylinder 4- stroke diesel enine.
Explain the working of fuel pump and injector wit diagram.
EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:
Fuel Pump of single cylinder 4- stroke diesel engine (KIRLOSKAR), Injector, Tool
kit
CONSTRCTION AND WORKING OF JERK PUMP
A jerk type pump consists of a barrel and plunger. At the top of barrel a
delivery valve is placed. This delivery has a relief valve and delivery valve
seat. Relief valve retains its position at delivery valve seat with the help of a
spring tension. Thus no fuel is delivered to pressure pipe when engine is at
rest. Inside the barrel, plunger is placed. Plunger carry helical grove which
helps in controlling of fuel supply.Plunger always remain at bottom position
with help of plunger spring and is locked in bottom position by a plunger lock.
The whole assembly is placed inside the pump body and is suitably fixed by
the botttom plate and lock.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
WORKING:

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

Fuel from fuel tank, enter into pump at very low pressure. The fuel goes to
barrel through feed hole. Fuel inside the barrel pumped up by the plunger. The
plunger is always at bottom position and reciprocate inside the barrel. Plunger
pump get drive from the camshaft of the engine. When cam hit the plunger at
the bottom, plunger moves upward. Thus, fuel inside the barrel
pushed up with a jerk due to upward movement of plunger and developed fuel
pressure. This pressure is so high that fuel inside the barrel, lifts the relief
valve against the spring pressure.
Hence fuel is delivered to deliver pipe holder. As the fuel is delivered, pressure
dropped and relief again closes the delivery valve opening with help of spring
action. From delivery pipe holder, fuel is transfered to pressure pipe.
Therefore, fuel in the pressure pipe is delivered to injector.
CONSTRCTION AND WORKING OF INECTOR/ATOMISER
In an injector, nozzle is held by the nozzle body holder. The nozzle carry a
nozzle valve called needle vale valve. At the top end of needle valve, spindle
is placed in such a manner that spindle with help of pressurized spring, keep

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

the nozzle in clsed position. Pressure at needle is adjusted through the


pressure adjusting screw. A leak off line is also provided. The function of leak
off line is to returned back the extra fuel to fuel tank.
WORKING :
Fuel under pressure entered into the injector. From inlet, it moves under
pressure to nozzle through indicated fuel line. Nozzle is in closed position. This
is done due to action of spindle. The spindle under tension exerted pressure
on needle valve because of spring action. Spring presure is adjusted with the
help of presure adjusting srew, it is mounted at the top of spring. We know
high pressure is required for better atomisation of fuel. This pressure may as
high as 250 bar or more. The spring tension is adjusted to this desire pressure.
Needle valve bears this pressure and keep closes nozzle hole at the
mentioned pressure. Fuel under pressure keeps its supply from the pump
continuously. Thus pressure gradually increases inside the fuel line. When
pressure of the fuel inside the fuel ine reaches to its desire pressure, it lifts the
needle
valve. Then fuel escape through a tiny hole provided in the nozzle and spray
into the combustion chamber in atomizsed form. As the pressure drop, spring
again pushes the needle valve downward through spindle and closes the
nozzle.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

EXPERIMENT NO: 9
AIM:
Study the spark ignition system of S.I. Engine and explain its working with
diagram
EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:
12V Battery, Ignition Switch, Ignition Coil, Distributor/CB, andSpark Plug
INDTRODUCTION:
A igniton coil is made up of primary and secondary coil.The coil constructed with a special laminated
iron core. Around this central core, secondary winding of many thousands of turns of very fine copper is
wound. This fine wire is covered by by a thin coating of high temperature insulating varnish. One end of
the secondary winding is connected to the high tension terminal and other is connected to the primary
circuit wire within the coil.

Primary winding of the coil is wrapped around the secondary coil winding. Each end is connected to a
primary circuit terminal on the coil. Primary winding are also insulated. The primary winding is made up
of thick wire of copper and has very less number of turns as compared to secondary winding.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

As per the circuit diagram primary terminal of the coil is connected to positive end of the battery through
ignition switch. While the other end of primary is connected with ground of the circuit. Through other
end condensor of contact breaker (CB) is connected. One end of Secondary coil is

connected with primary circuit of the coiland other with high tension terminal. Spark plug is connected
with this high tension terminal through wire. CB is fixed inside the distributor and is operated by a cam.
This cam gets drive from camshaft of the engine and timed with engine compression.

WORKING OF SPARK IGNITION SYSTEM


At closed point, when ignition switch is turned on, the current flows through primary windings of the coil
to ground. When a current flows through a wire , a magnetic field is built up around the conductor. Since
primary coils have several hundred turns of wire windings, a strong magnetic field is produced. This
magnetic field surrounds the secondary coil as well as primary coil. If CB is open quickly then there is
quick and clean interrution of current flow on its way to ground after passing through the coil. This
results in collapse of magnetic field into the laminated iron core.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

Quick collapse in manetic field through the primary winding cause increase in voltage of primary
windings due to self induction. As the magnetic filed collapse, it passes through the secondary winding,
producing a tiny current in each turn. The secondary windings possess thousand of turns of wire, since
they are in series, the voltage of each turn of wire is multiplied by the number of turns. Hence high
voltage is developed in secodary winding and this voltage is feed to spark plug. Spark plug thus ionised
this high voltage.

SPARK IGNITION SYSTEM

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

EXPERIMENT NO: 10
AIM:
Name various type of Gear Box. Study and explain synchromesh type gear
box, turbocharger and clutch in automobile.
EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:
Cut Section of synchromesh gear box, cut section of turbocharger, Clutch
INDTRODUCTION:
Gear box, turbocharger and clutch are the accessories of the engine. It helps
in smooth running of the engine or vehicle. Gear box minimise the required
torque and transfer the mechanical power to rear axle from the engine at
desire speed.
Turbocharger is used to enhance the effieciency of the engine.
Clutch helps in tranmitting power of the engine to main shaft and disengage
from engine when required.
GEAR BOX
A gearbox is a collection of mechanical components that deliver maximum
power from an engine by managing a series of gear ratios that in turn operate
transmission. These components include: a gear selector, fork, collar, dog
teeth and a gear set.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

Gear Selector
This is a hand-operated device that allows a driver to choose a gear that
creates a match between engine revolutions per minute (RPM) and a
particular gear ratio
Fork
The fort is a connecting device that accepts forward and backward movement
between the gear selector and the fork by use of a horizontal rod.
Collar
Also known as a "dog ring," the collar is a rotating component that slides
across a horizontal shaft connected to the car's differential. The purpose of the
collar is to positively engage a selected gear.
Dog Teeth
These are extruded features around the collar that create a connection
between collar and gear by inserting them into holes around a gear. When the
collar/gear combination is secured, the system creates power synchronization
between the engine, transmission, differential and the final drive.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
Gear Set

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

A gear set is a collection of rotating components that engage an


engine/transmission combination to produce a desired RPM.

Basically there are three different types of gear box. They are :
1. Manual Transmission
(a)
(b)

Sliding mesh or Crash mesh gear box

Constant mesh gear box


(c)

Synchromesh gear box

2. Planetary or Epicyclic gear box

3. Automatic transmission
(a)

Hydraulic gear box

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
(b)

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

Torque convertor gear box

SYNCHROMESH GEAR BOX


In asynchromesh gear box, primary shaft have an integral gears and always in
contact with the counter gear. Synchronising unit and sliding sleeve. Sleeve
slide over spline of main shaft of the gear box. Synchromesh unit is used to
transmit power only in 3rd to top gear. Gears on main shafft have free rotation
and hence does not tranfer any power till they engage by sleeve or
synchronising unit.
Lay shaft carry counter gear, first, second third and fourth gear arrangement.

WORKING
Primary gear is fixed on primary shaft (Clutch shaft). Primary gear is made an
integral part of clutch shaft.Primary gear always remains engaged with the
counter gear of the lay shaft. When engine shaft rotates, counter shaft rotates
as the primary gear of clutch shaft is inmesh with counter gear. It means as
long as the engine remain in running position, countershaft keeps on revolving
(except without pressing clutch pedal). All the power available on primary
shaft is transferred to lay shaft/counter shaft through counter gear. In line with
the clutch shaft there is another shaft called main shaft having gear of first,

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

second,third and forth gear speed. The speed gear mounted on main shaft has
free rotation on main shaft and only work when engage through either by
sleeve or synchromesh unit. When driver shift the gear using gear selector of
desired gear arrangenet, it pushes the fork to push sleeve or synchromesh
unit to the selected gear. Doing this sleeve or synchronising unit slide over
spline of main shaft and engaged with the selected gear. Now power on
counter shaft matched with gear arrangment and desire speed is available on
main shaft. From main shaft,power is transferred to propeller shaft and from
propeller shaft to rear axle.

GEAR BOX
SYNCHRONIZING
TOP

PRIMARY

THIRD
GEAR
SECOND
GEAR
MAIN SHAFT

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

MAIN
SHAFT
FIRST
GEAR

LAY SHAFT / COUNTER


SHAFT

BUSH
SHAFT
TURBINE BLADE

IMPELLER BLADE

TURBOCHARGER

AIR INTAKE

EXHAUST OULET

LUBE OIL RETURENED GALLERY


AIR TO INTAKE MANIFOLD

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

IMPELLER
BLADE

EXHAUST
INTAKE

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

TURBOCHARGER

Turbocharger is a n accessory use to increase the efficiency of engine. A turbocharger consist of turbine
blade and impeller. Bothe impeller and turbine mounted on a same shaft. A turbocharger received power
from waist exhaust. The turbine blades of the turbocharger is mounted on the exhaust manifold while
impeller is connected with the intake manifold. Exhaust of the engine run the turbine at very high speed
upto100000 rpm. Thus turbocharger extracts wasted kinematic and thermal energy from the high
temperature exhaust gas flow and produces power to drive impeller /compressor. Since the power a
piston engine can produce is directly dependent upon the mass of air it can ingest, the purpose of forced
induction is to increase the inlet manifold pressure and density so as to make the cylinders ingest a
greater mass of air during each intake stroke. Hence it helps to enhance the efficiency of the engine

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND


AUTOMOBILE LAB
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, SHIV NADAR UNIVERSITY

CLUTCH
The main function of the clutch is to engage and disengage the power of the engine from the gear box.