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United States Patent [191

[11]

Patent Number:

4,987,735

DeLong

[45]

Date of Patent:

Jan. 29, 1991

[54]

HEAT AND POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM

[75] Inventor:

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Bradley W. DeLong, West Columbia.

Brown, Michael L. "Alternate Fuel Gas Turbine Cy

Tex.

cles", In: 1982 17th Inzersociezy Energy Conversion Engi


neering Conference, vol. 3, (New York, IEEE. 1982), pp.

[73] Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company,

1112-1117.

Bartlesville, Okla.

Considine, Douglas M., Energy Technology Handbook.

[21] Appl. No.: 445,520

New York, McGraw-Hill, 1977, pp. 9-166 to 9-169 and

[22] Filed:

Garner, Phillip B., Total Energy, In: Sawyer, John

9-178 to 9-181.

Dec. 4, 1989
5

[51]
[52]

W., ed. Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook ( Stamford,

Int. Cl. .............................................. .. F02C 7/10


U.S. Cl. ................................ .. 60/3904; 60/3907;

[581 FM f s a h
1

56

rc

mfggg?ffllg
60/3917, 39132, 39511

............... ..

R f

[ 1

DOC

[57]

TI'BUPIEl ............................ ..

9/1955 Barr

ABSTRACT

An apparatus and method are provided which are capa

ble of independent adjustment of the heat and power in

216051362 8/1952 Hem! er al- "


SO/39182
663
lsigir?lette et a1 """""""
2717491

Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1945, pp. 68, 69, 92-95, 110-113.


Primary ExaminerLouis J. Casaregola
Attorney, Agent, or Firm-William R. Sharp

U s P TeEfNe'lweS lijiin NTS


' '

Conn Gas Turbine Publications 1966) pp. 255_27O.


Sawyer, R_ Tom_ The Modern Gas Turbine, New YorkY

""""""" "

a combined system. Intermediate heat and pressure


exhaust is extracted from an intermediate point in the

60/39'182

main turbine system. This exhaust goes to a regenerator

3:054:25? 9/1962 Sche1p"::........::::::ii::i:::: (so/39.511

and the" an auxiliary turbine- The exhaust that is not

3,150,437
4,446,694

extracted continues to power the main turbine system


and ?ows from the low pressure end to the turbine

9/1964 Mangan? aL
_____ __ 60/3918;
5/1984 Walton ........................... .. 60/39.182

FOREIGN PATENT DQCUMENTS


1187060

system to a waste heat boiler.

9/1959 France ............................ .. 60/319511

19 Claims, 5 Drawing Sheets

18

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CH

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Al F?

IN

19

FUEL

11

16
7

124
C

K TA

>\

20

K TM

H
L

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7o

22\_.

21\

STEAM
23

WATER

US. Patent

Jan. 29, 1991

Sheet 1 of 5

4,987,735

18
10
4

>

CH
17 >

AIR

IN

i
FUEL

11
7

1s

14

22
21

STEAM

23

FIG.

WATER

U.S.

Patent

Jan. 29, 1991

Sheet 2 of 5

4,987,735

30,000 -.

3000a:

25, 000 -

2SO0F

2000F

2o,_ooo -

MAIN
TURBINE

' ll

BE(TNU/HMAOLP)Y

SYSTEM '
1500F

FUEL
comeusnow

15,000 -

5'

1000F
32

'

WASTE

AIR

10,000 -COMPRESSOR

HEAT

BOILER
S0OF
34

I '

"III! 50320 F
5, 000
30

as

40

4s

50

55

so

as

ENTROPY ( BTU/MOL- F)

FIG.

US. Patent

30, 000 -

Jan. 29, 1991

Sheet 3 of 5

'

4,987,735

'

30000 F

25, 000 _

2SO0F

2000F
20, 000 -

MAIN

TURBINE
SYSTEM

BE(TNU/HMAOLP)Y

1500' F
.

FUEL
'

COMBUSTION

15,000

I!

I"

1000 F

'

AIR
'

REGENERATOR

.
U

'

10 000 ___COMPRESSOR

'-

AUXILIARY

TURBINE

" "y,

.
500 F

40

In! ' 038 F


5, 000

1
3O

35

40

'

45

50

S5

60

65

ENTROPY ( BTU/MOL- F)

FIG. 3

US. Patent

Jan. 29, 1991

{><r

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Sheet 4 of 5

CH
AIR
IN

52

FUEL

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44

45

42

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STEAM
WATER

FIG.

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CH

AIR
IN
FUEL

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STEAM

50

FIG. '5

WATER

US. Patent

Jan. 29, 1991

Sheet 5 of 5

4,987,735

30, 000 -

3000F

25, 000 -

250, F

2000F

: 20, 000 -

MAIN

2
5

TURBINE
SYSTEM

E
21

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FUEL
COMBUSTION

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15, 000

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1000F
REGENERATOR
AND WASTE
HEAT BOILER

AIR

10, 000 _coMRREss0R


F .

AUXILIARY TURBINE

5, 000

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30

35

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45

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I 55

ENTROPY ( BTU/MOL-F)

F I G.

so

65

4,987,735

HEAT AND POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM


BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1

In one aspect, the invention relates to a method for

operating a combined heat and power supply system.


According to another aspect, the invention relates to an
apparatus for supplying heat and power.
In a gas turbine process, compressed air is fed to a
combustion chamber in which combustion of a fuel

takes place. The combustion produces high pressure


and temperature exhaust gas. This high pressure and

through the heat exchanger in heat exchange relation


ship with the low pressure and temperature exhaust.
According to another aspect of the invention, there is
provided an apparatus for supplying heat and power of
the type which includes a compressor, combustion
chamber and main turbine system as discussed above,

wherein the improvement comprises: exhaust extraction


means for extracting intermediate pressure and temper
ature exhaust from a point in between the inlet and
outlet ends of the main turbine system; a regenerator for
receiving intermediate pressure and temperature ex

haust from the main turbine system and compressed

temperature gas drives the turbine blades which turn a


oxidant gas from the compressor such that the interme
shaft. The mechanical power of the shaft is used to
diate pressure and temperature exhaust ?ows in the
15
drive a load; typically an electrical generator.
regenerator in heat exchange relationship with the com
Most gas turbine processes require waste heat recov
pressed oxidant gas so as to preheat the compressed
ery on the turbine exhaust to achieve an acceptable
oxidant gas before the oxidant gas enters the combus
overall ef?ciency. This is called a combined cycle. Usu
tion chamber, thereby cooling the intermediate pressure
ally, the turbine exhaust gas is directed through a steam
and temperature exhaust to yield a regenerator exhaust; '
boiler to produce low-pressure steam or hot water that
an auxiliary turbine'which is also adapted to drive the
is used for operation of space heating equipment, do~
shaft; means for feeding the regenerator exhaust from
mestic hot water heaters, and absorption refrigeration
the regenerator to the auxiliary turbine; a heat ex
equipment.
changer (i.e. waste heat boiler) for receiving low pres
. A problem arises in utilizing a combined cycle be
cause the waste heat boiler duty will be dependent on 25 sure and temperature exhaust from the outlet end of the
main turbine system such that the low pressure and
the shaft power load even though the steam demand
temperature exhaust flows in the heat exchanger in heat
may be totally unrelated to the shaft power load de
exchange relationship with a ?uid so as to heat the fluid.
mand. Thus at times an excess of useful exhaust heat
The ?ow of intermediate pressure and temperature
will exist, and at other times a de?ciency will exist.
In the past a deficiency in useful exhaust heat has 30 exhaust can be regulated so as to control the ?ow of low
pressure and temperature exhaust from the outlet end of
been overcome by burning additional fuel in the exhaust
the main turbine system to the waste heat boiler. Since
stream or by providing a supplemental furnace. The
the extracted intermediate pressure and temperature
later is not thermally efficient, and the former is expen
exhaust determines, after passing through the regenera
sive and complex to install. 0n the other hand, an excess
of exhaust heat results in wasted energy, lower thermal 35 tor, the input to the auxiliary turbine, the mechanical

efficiency and lowered pro?tability.


' SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is, therefore, an object of the, present invention to


provide an improved apparatus and method which can

accomodate for changes in demand for steam from the

waste heat boiler without sacri?cing efficiency.


The above object is realized in a method of supplying

power supplied to the shaft will not be substantially


affected by control of the low pressure and temperature
exhaust flow to the wast heat boiler. This is particularly
advantageous where the shaft drives a load, such as an
electrical generator, for which a constant output is de

sired, but where there is a varying demand for steam


from the waste heat boiler.

heat and power of the type which includes feeding

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

compressed oxidant gas from a gas compressor to a


combustion chamber in which combustion of a fuel

FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of an embodi


ment of a combined heat and power supply system in

takes place, flowing high pressure and temperature

accordance with the invention.


FIG. 2 illustrates diagrammatically the waste heat
an-inlet end of a main turbine system so as to supply
boiler portion of a calculated heat cycle for the'FIG. 1
mechanical power to a shaft to thereby drive the shaft 50
embodiment.

combustion products from the combustion chamber to

and so as to produce low pressure and temperature


exhaust from an outlet end of the main turbine system,

wherein the improvement comprises: extracting at least

FIG. 3 illustrates diagrammatically the regenerator


auxiliary turbine portion of the above-mentioned cycle.

of the main turbine system; passing the intermediate


pressure and temperature exhaust through a regenerator

FIG. 6 illustrates diagrammatically the regenerator


auxiliary turbine portion of a calculated heat cycle for

FIGS. 4 and S are schematic representations of two


a portion of an intermediate pressure and temperature
exhaust from a point in between the inlet and outlet ends 55 other respective embodiments of the invention.

in heat exchange relationship with the compressed oxi


dant gas so as to preheat the compressed oxidant gas
before the oxidant gas enters the combustion chamber,

thereby cooling the intermediate pressure and tempera

the embodiment of FIG. 5.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE


INVENTION

ture exhaust to yield a regenerator exhaust; passing the


regenerator exhaust from the regenerator to an auxil

In the embodiments hereinafter described air is uti


lized as an oxidant gas; however, other forms of oxidant

iary turbine which also drives the shaft; and flowing

gas may be used. Furthermore, these embodiments use a

low pressure and temperature exhaust from the outlet 65 waste heat boiler to recover waste heat by producing
steam from water; however, other forms of heat ex
end of the main turbine system to a heat exchanger (i.e.
changers and other fluids may be utilized to accomplish
waste heat boiler) so that heat is transferred from the
recovery of waste heat.
low pressure and temperature exhaust to a fluid ?owing

4,987,735
3

' In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 1, the air enters

air compressor (C) 2 and is compressed without any


cooling means. If such a cooling were performed it
would constitute a loss of heat to the cold source which

would reduce general ef?ciency. The high pressure


compressed air leaves compressor 2 and is passed
through line 4 to regenerator (R) 6 where it passes in

heat exchange relationship with intermediate pressure


and temperature exhaust coming from the main turbine
system (TM) 7 in a manner further described below.
This results in preheating of the compressed air. The use
of intermediate pressure and temperature exhaust better
preheats the compressed air than the use of low pressure

steam, valve 18 can be adjusted to decrease the ?ow of


intermediate pressure and temperature exhaust. This
causes an increase in flow of low pressure and tempera

ture exhaust from outlet end 7b of main turbine system


7 so as to increase the steam production capacity of
waste heat boiler 23. With respect to the power outputs

of auxiliary turbine 20 and main turbine system 7, de


creasing the intermediate pressure and temperature
exhaust ?ow has the effect of increasing the power
output of main turbine system 7, but decreasing the
power output of auxiliary turbine 20. The net result is
that the power supplied to shaft 14 remains relatively

ature difference between the former and the com

constant, while at the same time the increased demand


for steam has been satis?ed. Similarly, in case of a de
creased demand for steam, valve 18 can be adjusted to

pressed air. Often low temperature exhaust will be ap


proximately the same temperature as the compressed air

ate pressure and temperature exhaust. The power sup

and temperature exhaust because of the greater temper

and, thus, heat exchange will be minimal.


After preheating, the compressed air ?ows through
line 8 to a combustion chamber (CI-I)v 10, operating

appropriately increase the ?ow of extracted intermedi

plied to shaft 14 by the combination of auxiliary turbine


20 and main turbine system 7 will remain relatively
constant as the result 'of a decrease in power from main

under constant pressure, in which combustion of a fuel

turbine system 7 and a corresponding increase in power


takes place to produce a hot combustion exhaust gas.
from auxiliary turbine 20.
Typical conditions of this exhaust gas include a temper
It should, therefore, be apparent that the invention is
ature of about 2000 F. and a pressure of about 200 psia.
particularly advantageous in situations where there are
This high temperature and pressure exhaust gas flows to 25 varying demands for steam from the waste heat boiler
the inlet end 7a of main turbine system 7 via line 11. The
but a relatively constant demand for power as supplied
main turbine system 7 accordingly supplies mechanical
to shaft 14 which drives load 16. Furthermore, heat
power to shaft 14 so as to drive shaft 14 and perform
work on the load (L) 16'and run the compressor 2. At a

from the intermediate pressure and temperature exhaust


is effectively utilized in accordance with the invention
point between inlet end 7a and outlet end 7b of main 30 to preheat the compressed air and, therefore, lower fuel

turbine system 7, which in the illustrated embodiment

consumption.

comprises only one turbine, exhaust is extracted at an

FIGS. 2 and 3 show diagrammatically a calculated


heat cycle for the apparatus of FIG. 1. FIG. 2 illustrates
the waste heat boiler portion of the cycle, while FIG. 3

intermediate pressure and temperature. Typical condi

tions of the intermediate pressure and temperature ex


haust include a pressure of about 25 psia to about 100 35 illustrates the regenerator-auxiliary turbine portion of
psia and a temperature of about 1000' F. to about 1500'
the cycle.
F. The amount of exhaust extracted depends on the
The evolution of the waste heat boiler portion of the
waste heat boiler duty, as will be discussed further be
cycle on the enthalpy'entropy diagram of FIG. 2 may
low, with more exhaust being extracted when the duty
be described as follows.
is low and less when the duty is high. The intermediate 40 From 24 to 26 the air is compressed without any

pressure and temperature exhaust is channeled via line


cooling in compressor 2; from 26 to 28 the compressed
17 from main turbine system 7 to regenerator 6 to pre
air gains heat while passing through regenerator 6; from
heat the compressed air. As shown, a valve 18 is posi
28 to 30 the combustion is operated under constant
tioned along line 17 and is adapted to regulate the flow
pressure in combustion chamber 10; from 30 to 32 ex
of extracted intermediate pressure and temperature 45 pansion takes place in main turbine system 7, where
exhaust from main turbine system 7 and through line 17.
both the temperature and pressure of the gas are re
In the regenerator the exhaust remains at constant pres
duced; from 32 to 34 the temperature of the exhaust is
sure but cools to yield a regenerator exhaust which
reduced, as heat from the exhaust is used to make steamv
flows to auxiliary turbine (TA) 20 via line 19. The ex
in waste heat boiler 23.
haust expands to propel turbine 20, which aids in driv 50 The evolution of the regenerator-auxiliary turbine
ing the shaft 14 and then flows off as waste exhaust
portion of the cycle on the enthalpy-entropy diagram of

through line 21.


Gas that is not extracted at an intermediate point in
main turbine system 7 continues to power the turbine

FIG. 3 may be described as follows.


From 24A to 30A is the same as from 24 to 30 in FIG.

2; from 30A to 36 expansion is provided in main turbine


system and is ?nally discharged at the outlet end 7b of 55 system 7 and extraction of exhaust takes place at point
the turbine system 7. This low temperature and pressure
36 where the exhaust temperature and pressure are
exhaust at conditions of, for example, less than 1000' F.
higher than at point 32 of FIG. 2; from 36 to 38 the
and about atmospheric pressure, then flows through
exhaust loses heat to compressed air in regenerator 6,
line 22 to waste heat boiler (BH) 23, where such exhaust
which takes place at constant pressure; from 38 to 40 the
is passed in heat exchange relationship with water to
exhaust is expanded in the auxiliary turbine 20, resulting .
produce steam for heating and cooling purposes. The
in exhaust that is at approximately the same temperature
exhaust from auxiliary turbine 20 and waste heat boiler
and pressure at point 40 as the exhaust was at point 34 of
23 will be similar in pressure and temperature.
FIG. 2.
Varying demands for steam from waste heat boiler 23
FIG. 4 is a modi?cation of the embodiment of FIG. 1.
can be accomodated' by adjusting the setting of valve 18 65 In FIG. 4, main turbine system (TM) 42 includes two
as to regulate the flow of extracted intermediate pres
separate turbines 44 and 46 situated such that the inlet
sure and temperature exhaust from main turbine system
end of turbine 44 is the inlet end of turbine system 42
7. For example, in case there is an increased demand for

and the outlet end of turbine 46 is the outlet end of

4,987,735

3. An improved method according to claim 2,

turbine system 42. The exhaust from the outlet end of


turbine 44 is at intermediate pressure and temperature
and is split with part going to regenerator 48 via line 50
and the rest going through line 52 to the inlet end of
turbine 46.
FIG. 5 represents another modi?cation of the FIG. 1
embodiment. In FIG. 5 an additional boiler (BA) 54 has

wherein the intermediate pressure and temperature


exhaust has a pressure of about 25 psia to about 100 psia.

4. An improved method according to claim 2,


wherein the intermediate pressure .and temperature
exhaust has a temperature of about 1000" F. to about
1500 F.

been added between regenerator (R) 56 and auxiliary


turbine (TA) 58. Regenerator exhaust is accordingly

5. An improved method according to claim 2,


wherein the heat exchanger is a waste heat boiler and__
said ?uid is water, and wherein in step (d) heat transfer
to said ?uid produces steam.

passed through boiler 54 so as to heat a ?uid, such as

water. This embodiment has the advantage of produc

6. An improved method according to claim 5, further

ing a lower stack temperature, as can be seen from FIG.

6.

comprising passing the regenerator exhaust through a

FIG. 6 illustrates diagrammatically a calculated heat


cycle of the embodiment of FIG. 5. From 24B to 30B is

second boiler located between the regenerator and the

auxiliary turbine.

7. An improved method according to claim 6,


30A in FIG. 3; from 3013 to 62 expansion is provided in
wherein the intermediate pressure and temperature
the main turbine system and extraction of exhaust takes
exhaust has a pressure of about 25 psia to about 100 psia
place at point 62 where the exhaust is at an intermediate
and a temperature of about 1000 F. to about 1500 F.
temperature and pressure as at point 36 of FIG. 3; from 20 8. An improved method according to claim 2,
62 to 64 the exhaust loses heat to compressed air in the
wherein the main turbine system includes only one
turbine.
regenerator, which takes place at constant pressure;
from 64 to 66 the exhaust loses additional heat at con
9. An improved method according to claim 2,
stant pressure in boiler 54; ?nally from 66 to 68 the
wherein the main turbine system comprises a ?rst tur
exhaust is expanded in the auxiliary turbine.
25 bine and a second turbine having respective inlet and
Obviously, many modi?cations and variations of the
outlet ends such that the inlet'end of the ?rst turbine is
present invention are possible in light of the above, the inlet end of the main turbine system and the outlet
teachings. It is, therefore, to be understood that within
end of the second turbine is the outlet end of the main
the scope of the appended claims the invention may be
turbine system, at least a portion of exhaust from the
practiced otherwise than as speci?cally described.
outlet end of the ?rst turbine being passed to the inlet
That which is claimed is:
end of the second turbine, and wherein in step (a) the
1. A method of supplying heat and power of the type
remainder of the exhaust from the outlet end of the ?rst
which includes feeding compressed oxidant gas from a
turbine is extracted as intermediate pressure and tem
gas compressor to a combustion chamber in which
perature exhaust.
combustion of a fuel takes place, ?owing high pressure
10. An improved method according to claim 2
and temperature combustion products from the com
wherein the shaft drives a load.
bustion chamber to an inlet end of a main turbine system
11. An apparatus for supplying heat and power of the
the same as from 24 to 30 in FIG. 2 and from 24A to

so as to supply mechanical power to a shaft to thereby


drive the shaft and so as to produce low pressure and
temperature exhaust from an outlet end of the main

the compressor such~that combustion of a fuel takes

turbine system, wherein the improvement comprises:

place in the combustion chamber, and a main turbine

type which includes a gas compressor, a combustion

chamber which receives compressed oxidant gas from

system for receiving high pressure and temperature

(a) extracting at least a portion of an intermediate


pressure and temperature exhaust from a point in

combustion products at an inlet end from the combus

between the inlet and outlet ends of the main tur


bine system;

'

tion chamber so as to supply mechanical power to a


45 shaft to thereby drive the shaft and so as to produce low

(b) passing the intermediate pressure and temperature


exhaust through a regenerator in heat exchange

pressure and temperature exhaust from an outlet end,

relationship with the compressed oxidant gas so as

exhaust extraction means for extracting intermediate

to preheat the compressed oxidant gas before the

' pressure and temperature exhaust from a point in

wherein the improvement comprises:

oxidant gas enters the combustion chamber, 50

thereby cooling the intermediate pressure and tem


perature exhaust to yield a regenerator exhaust;
(c) passing the regenerator exhaust from the regener

bine system;

ator to an auxiliary turbine which also drives the

shaft; and
(d) ?owing low pressure and temperature exhaust

between the inlet and outlet ends of the main tur~

55

from the outlet end of the main turbine system to a


heat exchanger so that heat is transferred from the
low pressure and temperature exhaust to a ?uid

?owing through the heat exchanger in heat ex


change relationship with the low pressure and tem

a regenerator for receiving intermediate pressure and


temperature exhaust from the main turbine system
and compressed oxidant gas from the compressor
such that the intermediate pressure and tempera
ture exhaust ?ows in the regenerator in heat ex

change relationship with the compressed oxidant


gas so as to preheat the compressed oxidant gas
before the oxidant gas enters the combustion cham

ber, thereby cooling the intermediate pressure and

temperature exhaust to yield a regenerator exhaust;


an auxiliary turbine which is also adapted to drive the

2. An improved method according to claim 1, further


comprising regulating the ?ow of extracted intermedi

means for feeding the regenerator exhaust from the

perature exhaust.

ate pressure and temperature exhaust from the main 65


turbine system so as to control the ?ow of low pressure

and temperature exhaust from the outlet end of the main


turbine system to the heat exchanger.

shaft;
regenerator to the auxiliary turbine;
a heat exchanger for receiving low pressure and tem
perature exhaust from the outlet end of the main
turbine system such that the low pressure and tem

4,987,735

perature exhaust ?ows in the heat exchanger in

outlet ends such that the inlet end of the ?rst turbine is
the inlet end of the main turbine system and the outlet
end of the second turbine is the outlet end of the main
turbine system, at least a portion of exhaust from the
outlet end of the ?rst turbine being passed to the inlet
end of the second turbine, and wherein said exhaust

heat exchange relationship with a ?uid so as to heat


the fluid.

12. An improved apparatus according to claim 11,


further comprising a valve means which is adapted to

regulate the flow of extracted intermediate pressure and


temperature exhaust from the main turbine system.
13. An improved apparatus as recited in claim 12,

extraction means extracts the remainder of the exhaust

wherein the main turbine system includes only one


turbine.
14._An improved apparatus as recited in claim 13,

pressure and temperature exhaust.


17. An improved apparatus as recited in claim 16,

from the outlet end of the ?rst turbine as intermediate

wherein the heat exchanger is a waste heat boiler and


the ?uid is water.
18. An improved apparatus as recited in claim 17

wherein the heat exchanger is a waste heat boiler and


the ?uid is water.
15. An improved apparatus as recited in claim 14,

further comprising:

15

further comprising:
a second boiler located between the regenerator and

a second boiler located between the regenerator and

the auxiliary turbine; and

the auxiliary turbine; and

a means for passing the regenerator exhaust through


a means for passing the regenerator exhaust through
the second boiler.
the second boiler.
16. An improved apparatus according to claim 12, 20 19. An improved apparatus as recited in claim 12
further comprising a load which is driven by the shaft.
wherein the main turbine system comprises a ?rst tur
Q
i
i
*
i
bine and a second turbine having respective inlet and
25

30

35

50

55

65