You are on page 1of 13

PREPOSICIONES

Transportes en ingls + preposiciones que rigen

Las preposiciones que utilizamos con los transportes en ingls.

Veamos.

by: con cualquier medio de transporte, cuando hablamos de una manera


generalizada (cmo viajo o voy a algn sitio)

Examples: I go to work by car

I like travelling by train

on + train/ bus/ plane/ bike/ motorbike: cuando hablamos de forma


ms especfica.

Examples: I was on the bus when my mother phoned me


on the train

You are not allowed to eat

Compare:
1.

Peter always goes to work by bus as he hates driving = decimos cmo va


Peter a trabajar (sentido general)

2.

Peter always listens to music when he is on the bus to work (es una situacin
especfica, cuando Peter se encuentra en el bus)

in + car/ taxi: situacin especfica = sta opcin siempre lleva un possessive


adjective (my, your, his, her, our, their) o un artculo indefinido (a).

Examples: a) How did you come to work?


especfica, concreta)

b) I came in my car (situacin

Common mistakes:
By my car
By the train
By a car

Por tanto veis que la preposicin by va directamente seguida del medio de transporte,
sin posesivo y sin artculo.

on + foot = a pie, caminando

Example: I let my children go to school on foot.


1

Para expresar que vamos a un sitio andando, lo podemos hacer con on foot o de la
siguiente manera:
I walk to work every day = voy andando a trabajar todos los das
My children walk to school with their friends.
Ejemplos:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Shall we go _by___ car?


Do you like travelling __by___ plane? I just hate it.
I saw an accident when I was __in___ my car.
We can have a sandwich _on__ the train while going to Madrid.
Going to work _by__ train is tiring as it is always crowded.
When I was a child I used to go to school __on__ foot.

Siguiendo con los transportes en ingls, pasamos a explicaros los verbos que se
utilizan para decir subirse y bajarse de un transporte.
SUBIRSE

Get on + a train/ a bus/ a plane/ a bike

Get into + a car/ a taxi

Examples:
When I got on the plane, I remembered I had forgotten my underwear at home.
Phone me when you get on the train.
When I got into the taxi I asked the driver to take me to my hotel.
BAJARSE

Get off + a train/ a bus/ a plane/ a bike

Get out of + a taxi/ a car

Examples:
Only when I got off the plane did I phone my mother to tell her I had arrived in New
York (advanced example with an inversion)
You should get off the train at Atocha Station (easier example)
I got out of the taxi and paid the driver.

Preposiciones de lugar
2

Recuerda:
opposite = enfrente (de)
in front of = es un false friend, significa delante (de), no enfrente (de)
Te haran falta ejercicios de preposiciones? Aqu te dejo uno de traduccin
espaol ingls.
1.
Al lado de mi casa hay una guardera.
2.

No me quiero sentar enfrente de l.

3.

Hay muchos bares cerca de mi casa.

4.

Sigue recto y delante de la iglesia hay un supermercado.

5.

Al lado de mi colegio no hay bloques de pisos.

KEYS:
1.
Al lado de mi casa hay una guardera: Next to my house there is a nursery
school.
2.

No me quiero sentar enfrente de l: I dont want to sit opposite him.

3.

Hay muchos bares cerca de mi casa: There are a lot of bars near my house.

4.

Sigue recto y delante de la iglesia hay un supermercado: Go straight on and in


front of the church there is a supermarket.

5.

Al lado de mi colegio no hay bloques de pisos: Next to my school there arent


any apartment blocks.
Preposiciones in, on, at

Vamos a explicar hoy cundo utilizar las preposiciones in, on, at en ingls, que
suelen presentar muchos problemas a los estudiantes de ingls. Para ello haremos
una distincin entre preposiciones de lugar y preposiciones de tiempo. Empecemos
con las preposiciones de lugar.
PREPOSICIONES DE LUGAR
1) ON
3

On es una preposicin de lugar que se utiliza para expresar que un objeto o persona
est encima de una superficie, es decir, que ese objeto o persona tocan la superficia.
Por ejemplo:
The boy is on the box = Por qu on? Porque est encima, tocando la caja.

Hay que destacar que con la palabra floor, tambin decimos on, por qu? Por lo que
hemos dicho, lo que est en el suelo est encima, tocndolo.

Y lo mismo pasa con balcony, tambin on. Utilizamos on cuando el lugar tiene altura,
como balcn.
2) IN
La preposicin in, cuando hablamos de lugar, se utiliza para indicar que algo o
alguien est dentro de un lugar. Nos referimos a un lugar cerrado.
The mouse is in the cup = porque est dentro.

3) AT
La preposicin at significa en y la tenemos que ver junto con in, que es donde
encontramos la confusin para los alumnos. Ambas las traducimos por en.
cundo usar in y cundo usar at?
Usamos in cuando hablamos de un lugar cerrado (o casi cerrado), como la taza.
Sin embargo, cuando utilizamos at no nos referimos a un lugar cerrado, ni dentro de
nada, sino que decimos en en un sentido ms amplio. Veamos un ejemplo para que
lo entendis.
Imaginaos que quedamos con un amigo en un sitio para ir a
tomar algo, en este caso escogemos la estacin de tren de la ciudad en la que
vivimos, y le decimos a nuestro amigo: nos vemos en la estacin. En ingls diramos:
Ill see you at the station = si decimos at es porque no estamos diciendo dentro de
la estacin, sino por la estacin, por fuera mismo.
4

Ill see you in the station = con in lo vamos a esperar dentro del edificio, no fuera.
Si fuera una estacin pequea, yo dira at, porque seguro que tu amigo cuando llegue
a la puerta del edificio te ve, sin embargo, en una estacin muy grande, sera mejor
especificar dnde, tanto si decimos in como si decimos at, habra que dar ms
detalles (al lado de, detrs de)
Por tanto, la preposicin at significa en, pero no especificamos dnde. In, en cambio,
s es dentro del edificio.

PREPOSICIONES DE TIEMPO
1) ON
Das de la semana: on Monday, on Wednesday, etc.
Fechas concretas: on 5th May, on Christmas Day, on New Years Eve, on St.
Valentines Day, on my birthday = siempre que sea una fecha concreta, ese da y no
otro, utilizamos la preposicin on.
On + adjective + day = on a rainy day, on a sunny day. Ejemplo: I dont let my
children go out on a rainy day = no dejo a mis hijos salir en das lluviosos.
2) IN
Meses del ao: in May, in August, etc.
Aos: in 1999, in 2015, etc.
Seasons (estaciones): in summer, in winter.
Con partes del da: in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, pero at night (es
una excepcin)
in 2 years time = dentro de dos aos.
3) AT
Horas: at 10 oclock
at the moment
at night = por la noche

Preposiciones in on at
Las preposiciones in on at van seguidas de ciertos sustantivos y verbos que se
deben ir aprendiendo poco a poco.
5

1)

Degree

Course

Masters degree

+ in

Examples:
I have a degree in economics.
I did an intensive course in English to improve my level.
Hes doing a masters degree in history.
In Spanish we would say something different. estudi econmicas, hice un curso
intensivo de ingls, etc.
2)
Its a common mistake to use the preposition for in for my surprise. Although in
Spanish we say para mi sorpresa, in English we use to.
Other similar phrases are as follows:
To my suprise
Example: to my surprise (para mi sorpresa), she had told me the truth.
To my relief (para mi alivio)
Example: to my relief, I arrived in time to get the plane.
To my disappoinment
Example: to my disappoinment, my husband didnt have time to attend the
conference where I gave a speech.
To my dismay
Example: to his dismay (para su disgusto), the bus left without him and as a
consequence, he missed the meeting.
3)
Spend + money + on sth (something) Common mistake: spend money in
Invest + money + in sth
Waste + money + on sth
Examples
1. I was paid last week and I spent all my money on clothes.
2. I am going to invest the savings I have in a new business.
3. He wastes all his money on electronic gadgets.
4)
Common mistake: arrive + to. Students usually use the preposition to after the verb
arrive as in Spanish we say llegar a. But remember, this is the rule:
Arrive + in + countries, cities, towns, villages, continents
6

Arrive + at + smaller places (train station, airport, office y cualquier lugar que no sean
los de arriba).
Arrive + to doesnt exist in English!
Examples:

When I arrived in Madrid, it started to rain.

(city)
When I arrived at the airport, my plane had already taken off. I lost it.
Be careful with the word home as it is a very special one in English! Home no
lleva preposicin delante nunca cuando el verbo es de movimiento.
Example:

I arrived x home at 8 p.m. (x significa que no ponemos nada)

I got x home very late last Saturday night (got means arrive)
But: I was at home yesterday afternoon. Aqu s lleva preposicin porque was no es
verbo de movimiento, sino esttico.
Adjetivos que van con preposicin

En este caso vamos a ver adjetivos que van seguidos de preposicin, y el problema
es que no hay reglas para elegir una preposicin u otra. Estudiar by heart.

1. Be aware of sth =ser consciente de algo


Children must be aware of the importance of studies.
Tambin podemos encontrar aware en negativo, unaware: my parents are unaware of
how hard Im studying = mis padre no son conscientes de lo mucho que estoy
estudiando.
2. Be fond of somebody = querer a alguien, tenerle cario
Im fond of all my dogs = le tengo cario/ aprecio a todos mis perros.
3. Be capable of sth = ser capaz de hacer algo
Are you capable of making cakes?
4. Because of sth = debido a algo
The plane was delayed because of the fog = el avin se retras debido a la niebla.
5. Be sick of sth = estar harto de algo
Im sick of studying so hard and failing.
6. Be based on sth = estar basado en algo
7

That film is based on a book with the same name.


7. Be keen on sth = tener ganas de hacer algo
Im not very keen on buying a new car = no tengo ganas/ no estoy por la labor de
comprar un coche nuevo.
Be keen on sth = gustarte algo
Im very keen on pop music = me gusta mucho la msica pop.
8. Be hooked on sth = estar enganchado a algo
Do you think teenagers are hooked on technology?
9. Be allergic to sth = ser alrgico a algo
Are you allergic to anything? I am allergic to prawns.
10. Be identical to sth = ser idntico a algo
That dress is identical to mine.
11. Due to sth = debido a algo
The plane was delayed due to the fog = el avin se retras debido a la niebla.
12. Be familiar with sth = estar familiarizado con algo
Im not familiar with the topic you are dealing with.
13. Be fed up with sth = estar harto de algo
Im fed up with her bad behaviour.
14. Be dissatisfied with sth = no estar satisfecho con algo
His parents are dissatisfied with their childs result.
15. Be upset with sth = estar molesto con
Shes very upset with the way her friends are treating her.
16. Be responsible for sth = ser responsable de algo
She is responsible for the IT department.
17. Be short for sth = ser la abreviatura de, el diminutivo de
My names Patty, which is short for Patricia.
18. Be fluent in sth = tener fluidez/ soltura en algo
8

Shes fluent in English and French.


19. Be mad about sth = algo te vuelve loco (te gusta mucho)
Hes really mad about computers = le vuelven loco los ordenadores.
Vale, pues esto es todo por ahora. Como dije al principio, no hay reglas, por tanto, te
aconsejo que las vayas estudiando poco a poco. Como ves, en todos los casos (salvo
en due to y because of) aplicamos el verbo to be delante del adjetivo, igual que en
espaol.

Superlativos con la preposicin in


Uso de la preposicin in con el superlativo. Vamos a un ejemplo para que lo
entendis bien:
Sharon is the tallest girl in her class.
En espaol diramos: Sharon es la chica ms alta de su clase = mientras que en
espaol utilizo la preposicin de con el superlativo (ms alta), en ingls la
preposicin es in y el superlativo (the tallest).
Otro ejemplo: My partner is the most beautiful woman in the world
Common mistake: My partner is the most beautiful woman of the world
Sustantivos precedidos de preposicin

Como sucede con los adjetivos que van con preposicin, no hay regla, por tanto,
tendrs que estudiarlo by heart.
In theory/ in practice = en teora/ en prctica
In theory, if I do exercise every day, I will lose some weight and keep fit, but in
practice, its not so easy.
In advance = por adelantado, con antelacin
You will have to pay the tickets in advance
Be in a good/ bad mood = estar de buen/ mal humor
I didnt dare talk to my boss as she was in a bad mood.
In the end = finalmente
It was difficult but in the end, I got it = fue difcil pero al final/ finalmente lo consegu.
9

In principle = en principio
In principle, they agreed to come, but Im still waiting for a definite answer.
Be in debt = estar en deuda, deber dinero
I pay my bills as soon as I can, I dont like to be in debt.
On purpose = a propsito
Im very angry with him because he did it on purpose.
On good terms =de manera amistosa
They split up, but they are still on good terms.
On principle = por principios
He wouldnt work there on principle.
By heart = de memoria
You have to learn these prepositions by heart if you really want to improve your
English.
By chance = de casualidad
I didnt expect to see him, it was by chance.
By mistake = por error
I phoned him instead of you by mistake.
At the latest = como muy tarde
Let me know if you are coming to my party next Friday at the latest.
At the end (of sth) = al final de algo
At the end of the book you can find vocabulary.
Be against the law = estar en contra de la ley
Smoking inside restaurants is against the law.

La preposicin in en ingls, cmo se usa?

Nos centramos en la preposicin in.


10

La regla general dice que in se utiliza con:


1. Meses del ao. Ejemplo: in May, in September, in April.
2. Lugares cerrados, cuando nos referimos al edificio en s.
Ejemplos:
I told you I would be in the pub, waiting for you to join me = te refieres a dentro del
pub, que es un lugar cerrado.
See you in the airport, where the arrivals are, when I pick you up, ok? = dentro de
aeropuerto, no fuera y concretando adems dnde.
3. Aos. Ejemplo: in 2010, in 1998.
4. Con medios de transporte como car y taxi, tambin se utiliza in, cuando estoy
dentro. Ejemplo: When I was in the car, my phone rang, but I didnt answer.
5. Con partes del da: in the morning, in the evening, in the afternoon. Excepcin: at
night
6. In the week = durante la semana. Ejemplo: I get up very early in the week, but very
late at the weekend = fjate que aunque con week usamos la preposicin in, con
weekend, usamos at. No te confundas con esto, las preposiciones son distintas!
Esto es un trminos generales el uso de la preposicin in.
Tambin decir que se utiliza in con ciertos verbos/adjetivos/sustantivos.
Ejemplos:
I am interested in languages = me interesan los idiomas, donde interested es un
adjetivo que rige la preposicin in.
Los sutantivos increase and decrease + in:
Examples:
1. The decrease in violence is undeniably encouraging in this city, but the council still
has to work on it.
2. There has been a 20% decrease in the production of grapes.
3. The increase in prices is notable.
4. There has been an increase in tourists.
Its also possible to mention that if we write a number after increase and decrease, in
that case we use the preposition of:
There has been an increase of a 5% in the production of strawberries.
11

PRONUNCIATION
Let me tell you something about the pronunciation of these words.
Increase and decrease are both noun and verb. When they are nouns, they have
the stressed syllables on the first one, for example:
increase [nkr:s]

decrease [d:kr:s]

However, when they are verbs, the stressed syllable is on the second one:
increase [nkr:s] decrease [dkr:s]

12

Los conectores o conjunciones son palabras que usamos para unir dos o
ms frases o dos palabras dentro de la misma oracin. Aqu tienes los
conectores ms comunes agrupados en categoras.
Copulativos
and, not only but also , not only but as well, both and , no sooner tan
Disyuntivo
or, either or , neither nor , whether or , else, otherwise
Condicionales
if, whether, unless, provided, providing, as long as, in case, in case of
Concesivos
although, though, even though, even if, despite, in spite of, not even if, regardless of
Conclusivos
therefore, hence, thus, so, consequently
Continuativos
then, moreover, furthermore, besides, in addition to
Adversativos
but, however, nonetheless, yet, still, on the other hand, instead, instead of, on the
contrary
Causales
because, for, because of, as a result of, due to, owing to, since, as
Comparativos
as, as as , not as as , not so as , just as so , as if, as though
Funcionales
so, so that, so as to, so as not to, in order to

13