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lower mark to the upper mark.

4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.
The manual is divided

As engine temperature increases, the coolant expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools,
the coolant is automatically drawn back into the system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies
with the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and

mark on the dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the
lower mark to the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.

(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' battenes)

Turbo Diesel models

A Engine oil level dipstick and filler cap, (Use Multigrade engine oil, SAE 10W/40 or 15W/50 to API SG/CD 1.5 litres
approximate difference between MIN and MAX marks) B Coolant expansion tank
(Use 50/50 mixture of water and ethylene glycol-based antifreeze) C Brake fluid reservoir
(Use universal brake fluid) D Power steering fluid reservoir
(Use automatic transmission fluid) E Screen washer fluid reservoir F Battery
(Use distilled water - not ap
(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' battenes)

Turbo Diesel models

A Engine oil level dipstick and filler cap, (Use Multigrade engine oil, SAE 10W/40 or 15W/50 to API SG/CD 1.5 litres
approximate difference between MIN and MAX marks) B Coolant expansion tank
(Use 50/50 mixture of water and ethylene glycol-based antifreeze) C Brake fluid reservoir
(Use universal brake fluid) D Power steering fluid reservoir
(Use automatic transmission fluid) E Screen washer fluid reservoir F Battery
(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' batteries) 1 Engine oil level check

The engine oil level is checked with a dipstick that extends through the dipstick tube and into the
sump at the bottom of the engine. The dipstick is located at the rear of the engine on 1.8 litre petrol engine models, and
at the front of the engine on all other models. The dipstick top is brightly-coloured for easy identification.
2
The oil level should be checked with the vehicle standing on level ground, before it is driven, or at
least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off. If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of
the oil will remain in the upper engine components and oil galleries, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.
3
Withdraw the dipstick from the tube, and wipe all the oil from the end with a clean rag or paper towel.
Insert the clean dipstick back into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it once more. Note the oil level on the end of
the dipstick. Add oil as necessary until the level is between the upper ("MAX") mark and lower ("MIN") mark on the
dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the lower mark to
the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.

MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.
(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' battenes)

Turbo Diesel models

A Engine oil level dipstick and filler cap, (Use Multigrade engine oil, SAE 10W/40 or 15W/50 to API SG/CD 1.5 litres
approximate difference between MIN and MAX marks) B Coolant expansion tank
(Use 50/50 mixture of water and ethylene glycol-based antifreeze) C Brake fluid reservoir
(Use universal brake fluid) D Power steering fluid reservoir
(Use automatic transmission fluid) E Screen washer fluid reservoir F Battery
(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' batteries) 1 Engine oil level check

The engine oil level is checked with a dipstick that extends through the dipstick tube and into the
sump at the bottom of the engine. The dipstick is located at the rear of the engine on 1.8 litre petrol engine models, and
at the front of the engine on all other models. The dipstick top is brightly-coloured for easy identification.
2
The oil level should be checked with the vehicle standing on level ground, before it is driven, or at
least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off. If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of
the oil will remain in the upper engine components and oil galleries, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.
3
Withdraw the dipstick from the tube, and wipe all the oil from the end with a clean rag or paper towel.
Insert the clean dipstick back into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it once more. Note the oil level on the end of
the dipstick. Add oil as necessary until the level is between the upper ("MAX") mark and lower ("MIN") mark on the
dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the lower mark to
the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.

plicable to 'Maintenance Free' batteries)1 Engine oil level check

The engine oil level is checked with a dipstick that extends through the dipstick tube and into the
sump at the bottom of the engine. The dipstick is located at the rear of the engine on 1.8 litre petrol engine models, and
at the front of the engine on all other models. The dipstick top is brightly-coloured for easy identification.
2
The oil level should be checked with the vehicle standing on level ground, before it is driven, or at
least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off. If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of
the oil will remain in the upper engine components and oil galleries, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.
3
Withdraw the dipstick from the tube, and wipe all the oil from the end with a clean rag or paper towel.
Insert the clean dipstick back into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it once more. Note the oil level on the end of
the dipstick. Add oil as necessary until the level is between the upper ("MAX") mark and lower ("MIN") mark on the
dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the lower mark to
the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.
The manual is divided into thirteen Chapters, each covering a logical sub-division of the vehicle. The Chapters are each divided into
Sections, numbered with single figures, eg 5; and the Sections into paragraphs (or sub-sections), with decimal numbers following on from
the Section they are in, eg 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 etc.
It is freely illustrated, especially in those parts where there is a detailed sequence of operations to be carried out. There are two forms of
illustration: figures and photographs. The figures are numbered in sequence with decimal numbers, according to their position in the
Chapter - eg Fig. 6.4 is the fourth drawing/illustration in Chapter 6. Photographs carry the same number (either individually or in related
groups) as the Section or sub-section to which they relate.
There is an alphabetical index at the back of the manual as well as a contents list at the front. Each Chapter is also preceded by its own
individual contents list.
References to the 'left' or 'right' of the vehicle are in the sense of a person in the driver's seat facing forwards.

Unless otherwise stated, nuts and bolts are removed by turning anti-clockwise, and tightened by turning clockwise.

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10/08/2015
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10/06/2015
10/05/2015
10/04/2015
10/03/2015
10/02/2015
10/01/2015
09/30/2015
09/29/2015
09/28/2015
09/27/2015
09/26/2015
09/25/2015
09/24/2015
09/23/2015
09/22/2015
09/21/2015
09/20/2015
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09/18/2015
09/17/2015
09/16/2015
09/15/2015
09/14/2015
09/13/2015
09/12/2015
09/11/2015
09/10/2015
09/09/2015
09/08/2015
09/07/2015
09/06/2015
09/05/2015
09/04/2015
09/03/2015
09/02/2015
09/01/2015
08/31/2015

01-10-13-21-22-23-28-30-33-35-38-47-52-54-55-59-62-63-65-66
06-15-17-20-21-22-33-34-37-41-42-45-46-53-54-56-66-69-71-79
02-06-08-14-25-29-34-36-42-43-44-45-49-56-58-60-72-75-77-80
03-06-08-11-14-19-23-24-33-42-52-54-56-64-66-68-69-78-79-80
02-03-05-08-20-23-25-26-29-31-32-36-37-40-47-54-58-60-63-76
01-04-05-07-15-16-19-31-42-46-47-53-57-58-59-67-68-73-74-79
03-06-08-11-15-16-17-23-25-29-30-33-41-49-52-55-59-67-74-75
08-11-12-14-17-18-24-28-29-30-31-38-43-51-53-62-64-65-75-78
02-04-08-11-15-20-21-22-31-33-34-40-41-45-49-50-51-57-65-73
01-09-16-17-19-21-34-37-40-49-52-54-57-58-60-63-71-75-78-80
01-03-10-14-17-19-20-22-24-36-37-38-42-52-55-56-60-72-79-80
01-08-17-20-21-22-24-33-39-45-50-52-57-58-63-69-72-76-79-80
01-02-03-12-14-17-24-25-26-30-32-34-35-38-44-48-49-53-57-67
13-16-20-23-25-37-43-44-46-49-51-54-56-57-58-62-64-66-69-73
01-03-09-10-11-22-26-29-35-38-39-42-46-50-53-62-64-67-69-78
01-05-06-07-11-18-19-23-24-26-29-32-35-36-37-50-77-78-79-80
02-12-17-24-25-30-31-39-41-45-48-49-56-57-58-62-65-66-71-72
04-09-11-12-23-25-27-30-32-34-35-45-46-54-55-68-70-73-74-76
03-05-06-07-08-09-11-25-30-34-37-39-41-42-57-63-67-74-77-79
03-09-12-15-24-25-28-31-33-37-40-44-46-47-48-58-59-65-68-79
03-04-12-13-20-21-22-26-28-34-36-38-42-44-45-48-53-57-67-77
01-02-04-10-13-14-15-16-21-31-32-35-42-46-57-62-72-74-77-79
04-12-15-26-28-31-36-42-45-46-50-53-55-58-63-70-71-72-75-76
07-08-10-15-19-23-25-27-29-32-33-45-49-53-58-60-69-71-75-79
01-02-03-15-23-27-32-41-42-43-44-46-51-53-55-61-64-65-70-78
02-04-05-07-10-13-14-19-21-23-28-31-39-46-48-51-54-59-63-64
03-04-05-06-09-10-16-21-22-37-38-39-42-47-50-56-60-62-70-79
10-12-15-19-21-25-27-31-33-34-37-38-42-45-47-52-56-69-71-73
01-02-07-09-18-25-27-33-36-43-44-46-47-56-59-62-67-71-74-79
01-09-15-21-23-25-35-47-50-52-57-59-60-61-63-64-67-70-74-78
16-20-23-27-31-36-46-47-48-51-53-54-57-58-60-64-68-74-78-80
01-02-03-04-06-10-22-28-32-39-42-49-51-52-66-68-71-75-79-80
01-02-03-04-08-13-16-17-20-25-27-28-34-41-44-45-52-68-73-77
06-13-15-16-20-25-31-35-39-43-44-45-47-56-57-60-61-65-74-76
07-08-09-11-13-16-19-23-26-30-35-41-44-50-56-59-64-69-73-79
04-12-17-31-32-37-40-43-44-45-47-57-60-62-65-69-70-72-77-79
04-05-07-16-24-26-28-30-36-42-47-48-50-58-59-62-64-68-74-79
01-02-15-16-22-23-24-26-29-35-41-42-43-49-50-53-62-67-79-80
12-13-15-18-19-22-23-24-30-32-34-43-44-47-49-53-65-66-69-73
03-10-14-18-19-21-26-36-38-39-46-49-50-52-61-62-64-66-73-74
03-07-13-21-25-33-38-39-40-43-49-51-56-59-62-65-70-72-74-79
03-05-06-09-12-13-22-27-31-44-50-51-57-58-60-61-62-73-75-77
02-05-10-16-20-24-28-30-38-48-49-50-52-55-59-61-62-63-67-77
03-04-11-21-23-25-32-33-34-36-46-47-58-59-65-69-71-74-76-78
05-08-12-14-15-19-23-24-29-36-38-46-47-53-55-62-63-65-75-77
03-04-11-12-17-24-25-27-32-37-39-43-44-46-51-54-55-59-64-68

08/30/2015
08/29/2015
08/28/2015
08/27/2015
08/26/2015
08/25/2015
08/24/2015
08/23/2015
08/22/2015
08/21/2015
08/20/2015
08/19/2015
08/18/2015
08/17/2015
08/16/2015
08/15/2015
08/14/2015
08/13/2015
08/12/2015
08/11/2015
08/10/2015
08/09/2015
08/08/2015
08/07/2015
08/06/2015
08/05/2015
08/04/2015
08/03/2015
08/02/2015
08/01/2015
07/31/2015
07/30/2015
07/29/2015
07/28/2015
07/27/2015
07/26/2015
07/25/2015
07/24/2015
07/23/2015
07/22/2015
07/21/2015
07/20/2015
07/19/2015
07/18/2015
07/17/2015
07/16/2015

08-09-11-12-14-17-21-31-33-34-39-43-51-58-60-61-65-69-74-78
07-12-21-22-26-29-30-37-39-40-42-49-52-55-56-60-68-72-75-78
05-07-09-17-21-30-34-35-41-49-53-54-55-57-61-67-69-70-75-78
04-06-10-11-19-26-32-34-36-40-41-43-54-55-59-64-72-75-76-77
01-02-04-08-12-13-14-23-34-38-39-42-44-45-48-51-57-74-75-78
03-07-10-11-13-15-22-25-26-30-31-32-33-36-40-43-55-58-64-75
01-08-11-12-18-23-29-30-33-34-35-42-45-53-55-57-58-59-76-79
01-17-18-20-21-30-34-37-40-50-60-61-63-66-67-68-71-72-78-80
01-04-09-20-27-35-36-41-42-43-45-47-48-51-58-60-65-71-72-78
09-11-12-16-26-27-29-42-47-48-52-53-54-59-63-66-69-75-77-79
08-11-12-16-22-24-32-34-42-43-49-53-54-60-66-67-71-73-75-78
05-07-08-09-10-12-18-24-26-35-40-46-49-50-61-62-70-71-74-75
05-06-15-16-17-25-28-29-35-40-48-49-53-65-69-70-71-72-73-79
04-08-09-14-17-20-24-31-33-34-36-37-40-41-51-63-67-71-72-79
06-11-19-20-23-26-28-29-34-36-47-54-55-57-58-61-69-71-73-77
03-10-11-23-29-31-37-42-47-50-55-56-58-65-66-67-68-75-76-80
03-04-11-12-25-26-36-49-50-58-59-60-64-66-70-71-73-74-77-80
05-08-10-14-17-21-23-26-42-44-46-56-57-59-65-70-71-73-76-79
01-02-06-09-15-23-26-30-33-35-38-40-44-47-56-62-65-67-69-77
02-04-06-07-12-15-19-20-22-23-25-26-27-37-43-45-52-57-58-64
01-02-03-09-15-21-24-28-33-34-40-43-54-59-66-73-74-76-77-78
07-09-13-18-24-28-34-35-36-43-46-51-58-65-66-68-69-73-76-78
08-10-11-13-14-16-25-26-32-34-37-38-43-47-50-61-67-75-79-80
01-07-16-28-29-34-35-38-43-44-45-49-52-61-63-66-73-75-77-80
04-06-13-16-25-33-39-42-47-51-52-53-56-58-59-61-63-64-66-68
03-17-22-25-26-32-33-37-38-42-44-45-46-48-49-53-55-57-60-66
02-06-08-09-15-17-25-30-32-33-37-40-42-44-45-63-68-70-75-79
01-09-10-15-18-19-22-26-27-30-38-41-42-47-53-58-59-66-73-74
03-05-08-14-15-29-30-31-32-34-46-47-48-55-59-62-69-71-73-76
01-02-10-12-17-20-21-22-28-29-33-36-39-42-45-47-52-63-66-79
06-07-08-10-11-14-15-16-26-30-31-34-35-44-50-56-63-65-66-72
01-04-06-12-16-17-19-21-22-23-25-33-41-47-49-54-58-67-69-78
01-06-10-14-19-20-23-26-29-32-36-40-45-46-51-52-55-66-68-70
01-03-08-11-12-13-15-18-24-25-26-28-32-33-36-38-43-55-71-76
02-03-05-09-11-22-23-33-40-48-49-50-54-57-63-64-66-77-78-80
04-05-07-11-15-17-18-20-24-31-34-44-46-49-50-62-64-66-67-68
06-08-12-19-38-39-45-47-50-52-53-56-61-66-67-69-70-72-73-76
04-05-06-21-24-30-31-38-44-47-52-60-67-69-70-74-75-78-79-80
01-03-11-19-21-30-35-36-37-39-40-42-43-51-65-72-73-74-75-77
03-05-11-15-26-27-34-39-49-51-52-56-61-62-67-72-75-76-77-80
01-04-10-11-12-13-14-16-20-24-26-29-37-42-43-46-61-65-68-75
14-19-26-27-28-29-31-33-35-36-38-41-42-45-49-51-55-59-60-70
01-02-03-06-09-17-20-21-24-33-37-42-47-52-56-63-67-75-77-79
01-02-04-05-06-08-09-10-21-27-30-31-32-43-60-70-72-73-77-79
05-08-12-18-19-27-35-38-43-44-46-47-51-55-58-59-60-64-66-74
02-10-11-12-25-35-36-39-41-44-45-51-52-54-66-70-73-75-78-80

07/15/2015
07/14/2015
07/13/2015
07/12/2015
07/11/2015
07/10/2015
07/09/2015
07/08/2015
07/07/2015
07/06/2015
07/05/2015
07/04/2015
07/03/2015
07/02/2015
07/01/2015
06/30/2015
06/29/2015
06/28/2015
06/27/2015
06/26/2015
06/25/2015
06/24/2015
06/23/2015
06/22/2015
06/21/2015
06/20/2015
06/19/2015
06/18/2015
06/17/2015
06/16/2015
06/15/2015
06/14/2015
06/13/2015
06/12/2015
06/11/2015
06/10/2015
06/09/2015
06/08/2015
06/07/2015
06/06/2015
06/05/2015
06/04/2015
06/03/2015
06/02/2015
06/01/2015
05/31/2015

01-05-06-07-11-14-19-23-37-38-40-41-42-43-46-50-53-56-59-73
02-04-11-13-17-19-22-24-27-39-40-41-43-49-63-69-71-74-76-78
06-07-10-12-13-14-21-26-27-28-35-37-39-42-53-56-58-59-72-77
06-07-08-12-13-16-28-30-31-39-41-43-47-51-52-55-58-59-60-63
04-06-08-10-11-14-22-23-31-32-35-37-44-49-54-58-67-68-72-78
06-09-10-13-25-27-30-31-35-36-37-40-41-44-45-50-56-63-71-78
01-09-12-16-23-24-26-28-34-36-41-43-44-51-54-57-66-68-70-77
01-02-08-12-14-16-17-20-24-29-33-38-43-44-48-53-59-62-67-72
02-04-10-22-26-29-30-39-41-51-52-53-56-60-61-62-65-68-70-79
03-04-08-15-16-21-25-27-28-40-51-56-58-59-62-67-74-76-78-79
07-09-13-17-19-20-25-31-39-41-42-49-51-52-57-60-70-71-78-79
04-06-09-12-13-25-29-30-33-40-44-46-47-55-62-69-71-73-75-78
02-05-08-21-28-32-33-37-38-40-41-42-44-45-54-59-76-77-79-80
05-06-07-08-13-16-23-24-26-30-31-41-43-47-51-58-61-64-68-69
01-16-21-23-24-26-31-35-36-45-46-48-51-52-53-54-62-66-67-79
03-07-08-09-16-20-27-30-35-51-53-55-58-60-62-65-66-74-77-80
02-03-09-15-17-23-26-33-34-36-43-44-53-57-61-64-70-75-76-79
06-10-17-21-23-33-35-36-37-38-39-43-45-49-58-63-65-66-75-79
01-02-13-15-20-22-32-33-35-36-37-39-42-53-56-66-68-69-78-79
02-03-09-25-27-28-33-34-38-42-47-49-50-56-59-60-62-63-64-75
10-20-23-26-28-32-33-36-38-47-48-49-52-54-64-70-74-75-77-78
03-04-05-09-13-15-26-27-32-40-42-49-51-53-56-59-60-66-76-78
08-09-11-13-17-18-21-22-23-29-31-32-34-36-41-43-46-67-69-73
01-07-14-18-26-28-35-37-38-39-41-42-44-47-56-61-62-70-76-80
02-03-05-10-15-18-21-22-24-28-40-42-47-49-59-69-70-74-76-80
03-10-15-17-21-23-27-28-29-30-32-34-35-58-65-66-68-71-74-76
01-03-07-10-14-18-25-34-35-37-44-49-57-58-65-69-71-72-78-79
04-06-07-08-15-19-23-32-36-43-44-46-54-62-64-66-67-69-75-80
02-03-04-05-06-07-15-19-26-28-33-39-41-46-52-53-54-64-65-77
03-04-05-10-11-17-26-29-39-41-48-49-53-56-58-64-68-72-73-79
05-16-27-30-36-37-39-41-42-50-51-62-63-64-65-66-70-77-78-79
01-05-06-07-11-12-21-28-33-41-50-54-57-59-64-69-73-74-75-77
03-06-08-12-14-16-19-22-24-28-30-32-39-44-55-56-59-62-64-71
04-05-06-07-09-12-13-21-25-31-32-37-47-50-54-59-60-66-70-73
05-10-11-15-17-18-31-34-36-45-49-50-54-60-61-62-72-74-76-78
03-04-05-06-14-17-21-23-26-31-42-44-48-49-54-62-65-74-76-79
03-05-06-07-11-13-20-34-35-38-39-43-46-48-49-53-54-66-69-71
18-20-21-23-24-25-31-32-33-38-51-52-55-58-60-67-68-73-75-79
05-07-09-15-16-18-27-28-33-37-41-44-46-48-51-57-65-68-72-74
03-04-07-08-13-17-21-25-26-27-31-36-51-54-64-66-67-75-76-78
02-04-08-10-11-12-27-30-39-43-46-47-59-65-69-70-76-77-78-80
03-04-13-18-22-28-30-31-42-43-45-54-57-62-67-70-72-73-75-79
01-16-19-20-21-23-26-30-32-33-35-40-41-53-57-66-71-74-79-80
06-08-14-15-18-20-22-28-29-31-33-37-43-52-57-71-72-74-76-80
01-03-05-12-19-21-22-24-25-26-27-33-36-37-39-44-46-57-72-77
01-02-03-17-20-25-28-29-36-37-38-47-51-55-59-62-64-66-73-76

05/30/2015
05/29/2015
05/28/2015
05/27/2015
05/26/2015
05/25/2015
05/24/2015
05/23/2015
05/22/2015
05/21/2015
05/20/2015
05/19/2015
05/18/2015
05/17/2015
05/16/2015
05/15/2015
05/14/2015
05/13/2015
05/12/2015
05/11/2015
05/10/2015
05/09/2015
05/08/2015
05/07/2015
05/06/2015
05/05/2015
05/04/2015
05/03/2015
05/02/2015
05/01/2015
04/30/2015
04/29/2015
04/28/2015
04/27/2015
04/26/2015
04/25/2015
04/24/2015
04/23/2015
04/22/2015
04/21/2015
04/20/2015
04/19/2015
04/18/2015
04/17/2015
04/16/2015
04/15/2015

10-15-18-20-22-25-26-28-30-36-41-42-51-53-58-59-63-65-71-75
01-02-05-06-08-25-33-37-41-43-44-48-49-52-54-58-65-66-74-76
05-14-16-22-26-30-31-38-44-47-50-54-58-60-62-63-68-75-77-79
01-02-12-23-26-28-29-32-34-35-38-42-45-47-48-52-55-56-70-78
02-05-08-09-12-15-19-21-22-25-32-33-40-56-59-61-64-69-73-80
03-06-11-12-16-18-21-22-31-32-33-44-49-51-55-59-70-71-79-80
01-03-15-16-19-21-24-27-35-36-37-42-45-49-51-54-59-74-75-76
02-05-07-09-11-13-26-35-36-43-45-52-55-56-59-66-67-69-75-78
03-04-06-09-12-18-22-23-24-28-36-42-43-44-45-48-63-64-75-77
01-02-07-20-21-22-23-37-39-41-44-48-54-57-59-64-69-71-75-77
04-05-09-14-16-18-25-29-32-40-43-46-47-50-52-58-59-71-75-76
02-03-10-12-13-22-33-36-41-49-50-52-60-65-67-70-71-77-78-80
02-09-10-14-15-18-20-26-36-37-39-40-49-50-53-62-70-76-77-80
02-03-08-09-18-21-27-30-31-39-51-53-54-55-58-60-62-69-75-80
02-10-15-16-23-24-28-29-33-36-37-48-50-56-60-64-68-75-77-80
09-10-14-20-24-29-31-40-43-46-49-52-55-57-63-66-67-75-78-79
01-06-13-21-30-32-33-35-36-38-42-46-52-53-55-58-66-68-75-77
03-08-13-14-15-24-27-34-39-48-52-56-61-63-65-70-71-72-73-75
04-14-19-21-29-30-36-48-49-54-57-58-59-61-63-64-65-66-69-79
08-09-10-17-23-26-28-30-31-41-53-59-60-61-62-63-67-68-72-76
08-12-15-16-17-19-24-25-26-27-32-55-60-64-68-69-72-74-79-80
04-05-06-10-11-15-22-24-30-34-39-43-45-50-60-64-67-71-77-80
02-03-04-12-25-27-28-32-37-38-42-44-48-52-55-57-67-68-71-74
07-08-12-15-19-23-25-27-36-38-43-51-53-60-66-67-69-72-74-78
05-11-13-20-21-22-27-35-38-39-41-44-50-56-57-58-60-64-70-76
08-14-15-16-18-20-22-28-29-30-31-41-47-54-57-61-68-69-76-78
02-05-08-10-11-13-17-27-28-42-44-57-61-63-67-68-73-76-77-80
09-19-21-25-26-33-36-37-40-43-47-56-58-64-68-71-73-75-76-77
02-03-12-14-15-27-30-37-43-50-52-53-63-66-67-72-74-77-78-80
01-05-06-08-10-11-13-20-26-35-44-48-49-51-53-55-65-68-72-74
06-08-16-20-24-25-26-33-34-36-37-41-49-53-54-55-63-67-72-77
08-14-15-16-19-25-27-38-41-44-49-52-55-57-60-62-70-71-76-80
04-07-22-23-27-33-37-40-41-42-44-50-53-54-60-62-67-72-76-79
02-04-12-16-18-19-21-24-26-32-43-44-48-49-61-68-71-73-74-79
01-08-12-15-16-18-19-24-33-37-38-47-48-58-62-63-64-67-68-73
09-11-20-24-26-35-37-38-41-43-44-48-54-57-58-59-60-64-71-75
07-18-20-23-27-30-33-34-36-39-54-56-57-64-65-67-69-76-77-80
01-03-06-09-11-14-17-19-24-26-28-30-33-41-44-54-58-62-66-73
05-06-17-19-24-25-27-36-37-40-51-53-54-62-63-64-65-66-68-78
02-13-15-28-29-32-36-42-44-49-53-55-57-58-61-62-63-64-72-78
04-11-18-22-24-27-29-30-33-40-43-45-46-50-51-60-61-77-78-79
01-04-08-12-14-16-21-30-33-39-40-45-47-53-55-57-59-62-66-77
06-11-12-17-18-25-32-35-36-37-39-43-44-45-54-63-65-70-74-80
02-06-18-19-24-25-28-29-30-38-41-43-49-52-57-60-61-65-66-77
03-08-12-15-23-26-30-32-40-41-43-44-53-55-57-64-65-69-74-80
01-13-15-22-32-38-39-41-42-54-55-56-59-64-66-68-75-78-79-80

04/14/2015
04/13/2015
04/12/2015
04/11/2015
04/10/2015
04/09/2015
04/08/2015
04/07/2015
04/06/2015
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04/04/2015
04/03/2015
04/02/2015
04/01/2015
03/31/2015
03/30/2015
03/29/2015
03/28/2015
03/27/2015
03/26/2015
03/25/2015
03/24/2015
03/23/2015
03/22/2015
03/21/2015
03/20/2015
03/19/2015
03/18/2015
03/17/2015
03/16/2015
03/15/2015
03/14/2015
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03/09/2015
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03/07/2015
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03/03/2015
03/02/2015
03/01/2015
02/28/2015

01-07-08-09-15-17-20-21-26-38-47-52-56-57-58-65-67-70-72-80
01-03-04-17-19-23-24-25-26-29-46-48-59-61-67-69-75-77-79-80
01-02-08-16-18-19-20-21-25-29-32-33-41-42-53-60-65-71-77-80
01-07-08-10-13-19-23-27-28-31-34-37-39-45-46-50-53-57-58-64
08-11-12-19-20-32-33-35-50-53-62-63-68-69-73-74-76-77-78-79
01-03-04-05-07-08-11-14-23-28-29-32-42-44-58-67-72-73-76-78
02-03-04-05-08-14-17-18-20-26-27-30-34-35-49-53-60-63-77-79
01-02-08-15-18-20-21-32-40-42-44-55-59-67-71-72-74-75-77-79
07-14-16-17-23-24-25-28-34-43-55-57-62-64-66-67-68-73-74-75
09-26-28-29-35-42-43-44-47-50-51-52-53-55-57-62-65-73-76-77
02-04-07-10-12-14-16-22-28-32-33-37-41-49-50-53-54-59-66-67
01-14-20-21-22-23-28-31-34-38-43-44-49-50-59-63-64-67-75-78
02-04-07-15-17-18-20-25-26-29-32-34-35-45-51-57-59-63-72-77
02-12-13-17-18-22-27-33-34-37-40-41-45-50-60-64-66-71-73-74
01-02-04-08-10-16-17-23-24-31-34-39-43-44-46-52-58-66-78-80
10-12-16-22-24-30-31-37-38-39-40-41-45-46-50-55-56-63-68-76
02-08-16-20-25-30-32-35-36-39-49-50-52-54-55-57-67-68-74-77
02-05-06-09-10-11-14-15-18-21-25-27-29-34-38-39-53-58-62-74
04-06-09-10-15-16-17-19-20-34-38-39-48-53-56-67-70-76-77-79
04-07-12-17-28-29-30-39-40-44-49-54-55-56-64-69-70-71-72-75
01-03-08-09-10-19-22-26-30-38-41-45-47-48-63-66-68-72-74-79
01-10-14-17-20-25-28-36-42-53-55-57-58-60-68-69-73-75-78-80
03-04-05-18-20-27-29-33-38-45-46-50-52-57-65-66-67-69-73-76
03-10-13-14-19-21-34-36-38-41-42-44-45-54-57-61-62-64-70-71
04-08-14-15-22-23-32-36-40-51-55-59-61-63-65-71-73-76-77-79
04-05-06-10-11-36-37-39-41-42-48-59-63-64-65-66-68-70-74-75
04-06-08-09-10-13-14-21-24-27-35-37-38-42-44-46-49-53-58-76
01-06-08-09-13-17-22-23-24-28-29-30-40-48-50-59-62-69-76-78
17-19-21-22-25-30-31-32-35-36-37-38-40-53-60-67-74-75-77-80
01-06-10-11-15-20-21-23-33-36-46-48-49-51-57-61-66-68-72-75
06-14-18-19-21-25-28-30-31-32-34-35-36-39-45-46-49-60-67-78
01-03-07-09-17-19-22-23-24-28-32-35-53-54-58-61-62-63-75-79
05-16-23-24-28-33-39-40-42-48-50-52-54-56-58-60-64-69-71-73
02-14-18-20-23-24-30-34-37-43-44-52-59-61-68-69-72-74-78-79
05-11-12-14-16-17-21-22-24-29-34-36-38-45-56-60-69-70-73-78
07-08-09-12-18-19-20-35-38-39-46-47-48-49-55-62-65-69-70-71
12-13-17-20-24-34-37-39-46-54-57-62-69-71-72-74-77-78-79-80
06-09-11-12-13-19-21-24-26-31-36-42-43-55-56-57-63-71-78-79
03-04-05-12-17-18-19-21-23-26-32-33-38-41-43-44-46-53-63-79
01-10-12-22-25-34-39-43-45-46-58-59-61-63-69-73-74-77-78-79
04-06-11-13-14-21-23-24-28-35-36-38-40-44-48-54-56-58-61-67
01-02-06-07-08-11-15-17-22-31-56-57-58-60-65-66-70-71-73-77
03-06-15-16-20-24-26-27-29-30-41-42-44-51-56-57-59-63-69-71
03-05-06-07-08-10-12-17-28-33-37-40-42-45-54-55-64-70-73-79
02-04-07-11-13-20-21-23-27-29-32-36-42-50-51-56-60-63-76-79
02-05-08-11-21-23-25-29-32-39-41-46-50-56-57-62-66-68-71-80

02/27/2015
02/26/2015
02/25/2015
02/24/2015
02/23/2015
02/22/2015
02/21/2015
02/20/2015
02/19/2015
02/18/2015
02/17/2015
02/16/2015
02/15/2015
02/14/2015
02/13/2015
02/12/2015
02/11/2015
02/10/2015
02/09/2015
02/08/2015
02/07/2015
02/06/2015
02/05/2015
02/04/2015
02/03/2015
02/02/2015
02/01/2015
01/31/2015
01/30/2015
01/29/2015
01/28/2015
01/27/2015
01/26/2015
01/25/2015
01/24/2015
01/23/2015
01/22/2015
01/21/2015
01/20/2015
01/19/2015
01/18/2015
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01/16/2015
01/15/2015
01/14/2015
01/13/2015

13-16-17-19-20-26-29-36-38-42-44-50-53-54-55-58-61-74-75-77
01-04-12-13-15-26-27-28-29-30-38-39-40-44-47-60-62-70-72-73
05-20-22-25-26-28-30-33-34-35-36-37-46-54-60-61-65-70-75-78
05-06-08-16-18-21-28-37-43-52-55-57-59-61-67-71-72-73-79-80
13-16-19-25-27-30-34-35-38-40-41-44-49-58-61-73-74-76-78-79
07-08-10-12-24-25-29-34-35-36-39-40-43-45-48-55-65-68-69-78
01-02-03-04-06-07-09-12-21-35-37-43-46-47-56-60-65-74-76-80
11-14-18-24-25-29-33-35-37-41-47-50-54-57-58-59-65-70-73-76
11-17-20-22-23-28-30-33-34-37-40-41-45-55-57-61-64-65-68-70
02-03-05-10-13-15-17-26-38-39-41-43-45-53-54-58-63-65-66-73
01-05-10-12-15-23-31-36-40-41-45-51-53-54-60-61-64-66-72-79
03-06-09-10-13-18-19-25-27-32-43-44-50-53-56-62-66-74-76-80
01-06-13-19-21-23-27-31-34-45-48-53-57-62-63-67-76-78-79-80
03-04-12-22-28-29-31-41-42-46-50-54-55-56-57-62-66-67-71-74
05-09-10-13-17-19-21-23-25-27-30-37-44-46-55-56-62-68-73-77
03-06-13-18-21-22-29-31-36-42-46-53-55-60-63-66-68-74-75-79
01-02-13-17-23-24-26-34-36-40-43-50-51-53-57-60-61-73-74-77
01-02-05-07-11-20-28-40-45-46-52-56-58-60-63-64-68-74-75-77
01-08-10-11-13-14-20-29-30-33-37-39-44-47-49-53-56-57-78-79
04-06-07-08-15-21-25-28-32-39-45-46-53-55-59-61-63-69-75-80
04-09-10-11-12-17-19-27-30-37-40-43-44-52-53-54-57-66-68-79
01-04-05-13-19-20-21-22-24-47-49-50-63-64-65-66-67-69-73-79
02-05-11-16-21-23-27-32-38-46-48-57-59-60-64-70-73-76-79-80
01-04-08-16-21-23-25-30-36-39-40-42-45-56-58-61-66-76-79-80
07-10-15-25-26-27-30-32-39-40-44-49-60-67-68-70-72-73-75-76
05-10-16-18-21-23-25-28-35-36-39-41-44-51-62-63-65-68-72-77
01-02-04-06-12-13-17-20-21-22-28-35-45-49-59-64-66-67-70-78
04-07-15-20-21-28-32-39-43-48-50-53-54-61-63-65-68-70-71-73
03-05-08-12-13-15-18-23-26-29-32-42-56-58-59-61-69-74-75-77
03-08-11-16-18-20-34-36-37-45-46-48-51-55-57-60-64-66-75-78
04-11-15-17-28-34-39-40-41-46-50-53-58-61-62-65-69-73-76-78
02-03-11-12-13-16-19-25-36-37-39-40-43-46-48-52-56-58-77-80
01-02-03-10-12-14-15-23-33-47-51-56-60-61-69-71-75-77-78-79
07-11-13-18-21-22-23-26-27-28-31-34-47-49-54-65-72-74-76-77
06-07-08-11-16-18-26-31-33-36-40-43-49-52-57-59-60-69-73-74
17-20-25-28-29-34-35-41-43-52-54-60-63-66-67-72-73-74-76-77
03-07-11-12-16-17-24-25-34-38-52-55-57-60-65-66-69-70-76-77
01-05-06-09-17-26-30-38-40-43-51-52-54-59-62-71-73-76-78-80
12-13-26-32-35-37-39-41-48-49-52-54-55-56-64-65-70-71-72-77
03-09-10-12-18-24-26-33-43-45-49-56-57-59-60-62-71-75-79-80
02-04-13-17-20-25-31-34-38-42-46-50-56-57-65-68-71-74-75-77
01-04-09-10-20-24-25-34-46-51-60-62-63-64-69-70-71-74-75-77
10-16-25-28-30-38-40-41-43-45-46-47-49-55-57-62-63-69-72-79
01-03-11-12-13-14-20-21-23-25-29-31-40-41-46-52-58-68-70-73
03-07-11-12-14-18-26-29-30-32-35-37-42-43-51-53-56-57-58-63
04-13-18-21-23-31-38-42-44-45-46-51-52-57-58-67-72-74-75-79

01/12/2015
01/11/2015
01/10/2015
01/09/2015
01/08/2015
01/07/2015
01/06/2015
01/05/2015
01/04/2015
01/03/2015
01/02/2015
01/01/2015
12/31/2014
12/30/2014
12/29/2014
12/28/2014
12/27/2014
12/26/2014
12/25/2014
12/24/2014
12/23/2014
12/22/2014
12/21/2014
12/20/2014
12/19/2014
12/18/2014
12/17/2014
12/16/2014
12/15/2014
12/14/2014
12/13/2014
12/12/2014
12/11/2014
12/10/2014
12/09/2014
12/08/2014
12/07/2014
12/06/2014
12/05/2014
12/04/2014
12/03/2014
12/02/2014
12/01/2014
11/30/2014

01-07-09-12-16-17-25-33-36-37-39-45-47-51-59-61-63-66-72-75
01-13-17-19-23-31-38-39-48-55-57-59-61-64-69-70-71-73-78-80
15-16-20-21-22-31-33-35-37-39-40-42-43-55-59-61-63-70-72-80
02-03-04-06-08-11-17-20-21-25-27-30-38-46-53-61-66-67-78-80
02-14-20-26-28-30-35-37-41-46-51-53-55-59-60-61-68-72-73-76
02-09-14-16-18-27-34-35-38-46-49-50-52-53-55-65-71-72-75-80
01-03-04-09-11-14-17-18-24-27-34-40-41-47-52-57-60-64-66-70
09-12-21-23-27-30-37-41-44-46-58-59-69-70-71-72-74-75-76-78
09-10-12-20-30-31-35-39-44-45-46-54-55-58-64-69-72-76-79-80
03-07-16-19-20-22-24-29-34-40-45-51-53-57-59-63-69-70-74-78
02-04-05-06-15-20-22-23-29-31-37-47-49-50-53-55-59-60-70-77
04-05-06-09-10-14-20-24-36-37-39-46-47-60-62-67-68-69-73-78
04-06-07-15-20-21-22-38-48-49-50-53-57-60-61-62-63-68-71-73
06-09-10-21-23-34-37-44-49-51-53-58-62-63-65-66-73-75-76-78
03-04-10-18-20-26-27-28-31-35-39-44-51-58-61-66-71-72-73-80
08-15-24-25-29-30-36-41-44-48-59-60-63-68-70-72-76-77-78-80
01-06-11-12-13-19-29-32-34-36-38-56-58-59-64-67-70-71-76-78
05-11-12-19-20-24-25-27-29-34-36-38-43-52-54-57-71-73-76-77
09-10-13-14-17-24-29-32-36-38-41-47-48-54-57-60-61-63-70-78
02-06-08-12-16-23-24-29-30-33-36-37-53-57-64-66-67-70-78-80
01-06-15-17-20-23-25-32-38-41-42-50-54-55-62-68-70-74-75-80
01-02-05-11-22-23-25-27-31-45-46-51-56-58-61-63-69-71-75-80
03-06-07-08-09-10-15-24-26-28-30-31-39-42-53-57-62-67-69-78
01-04-05-07-08-18-19-22-26-28-41-46-47-50-56-61-65-67-76-78
01-12-14-16-25-26-31-36-39-41-45-47-48-53-57-58-62-72-73-75
05-06-09-12-14-15-17-28-34-36-44-50-52-57-58-62-65-69-71-80
01-08-11-12-15-16-28-36-38-44-47-50-58-59-60-65-75-76-79-80
04-06-14-19-20-27-28-29-33-41-43-46-47-51-59-61-62-69-73-78
05-13-18-20-22-25-31-33-35-39-41-47-49-50-54-60-62-68-71-77
01-07-15-25-26-27-28-31-32-39-40-46-47-52-58-65-67-71-75-79
09-13-16-18-20-23-26-27-34-35-38-40-51-58-60-63-68-73-76-80
01-03-10-20-27-31-40-44-48-51-52-56-61-62-64-65-67-69-70-71
07-10-14-17-23-25-26-29-30-37-38-41-45-48-51-54-59-63-65-68
05-14-16-27-30-31-33-38-40-43-45-46-54-55-60-64-69-73-75-76
01-05-09-19-24-27-42-44-49-52-55-61-62-65-66-67-70-74-77-80
04-11-18-23-25-30-38-40-42-43-47-48-51-55-57-62-63-64-70-71
04-09-14-22-27-29-30-32-35-40-47-50-51-53-54-62-64-68-72-75
03-07-11-12-16-20-21-22-28-34-39-40-45-52-56-61-63-67-70-72
05-08-15-18-20-25-26-27-30-33-38-47-50-51-59-60-68-70-74-76
01-04-11-13-26-27-29-31-34-35-39-41-43-45-49-50-52-69-71-77
08-12-22-27-33-35-36-37-39-48-51-52-55-56-67-68-69-73-78-80
01-03-04-05-07-09-12-30-36-40-42-52-53-58-61-66-69-71-72-73
07-09-11-12-17-28-30-36-38-42-44-46-63-64-69-71-72-74-77-80
06-16-19-20-21-24-25-35-41-44-46-48-49-56-57-59-68-71-74-80

Unscrew the two end plugs from the valve. Recover the O-rings.

4
Remove the piston, spring, plungers and O-rings. Note their fitted order.
5
Clean all parts with methylated spirit and inspect them. If the valve bore is badly worn, rusty or scored, renew the
valve complete. Otherwise, obtain a repair kit containing new O-rings (photo).
6
Fit one end plug, using a new O-ring, and tighten it.
7
Assemble the piston, plunges and spring. Lubricate the piston and the new O-rings with clean hydraulic fluid. Fit
one of the O-rings to a plunger and insert the assembly into the valve bore, O-ring first.
8
Fit the other O-ring into the bore and press it home with a small tube or other suitable tool.
9
Fit the other end plug and O-ring.
10
If the valve was removed for overhaul, refit it.
11
Bleed the complete hydraulic system (Section 9), then check the success of the overhaul as follows.
8,5 mm c f
Fig. 9.13 Fitting the second plunger O-ring to the pressure differential warning valve. Tool dimensions as shown (Sec 20)

12

Have an assistant depress the brake pedal hard for one minute. Watch the valve: if fluid emerges from the switch
hole, renew the valve. If no fluid energes, refit the contact pin, spring and switch. Reconnect the switch.
21 Brake pedal - removal and refitting
if preferred, the pedal box can be removed complete (Chapter 5, Section 4) and the brake pedal removed on the bench. Otherwise,
proceed as follows.
1 Remove the steering column/pedal trim.
Disconnect the brake pedal from the servo by removing the clevis pin.
Remove the pedal pivot bolt and nut. The return spring will force the pedal downwards. Remove the pedal, spring
and pivot bolt.
The pedal sleeve and bushes may be renewed if required (photo). Grease the new bushes and sleeve before fitting
them.

2
3
4
5

Refit by reversing the removal operations.

also preceded by its own individual contents list.


References to the 'left' or 'right' of the vehicle are in the sense of a person in the driver's seat facing forwards.
Unless otherwise stated, nuts and bolts are removed by turning anti-clockwise, and tightened by turning clockwise.
Vehicle manufacturers continually make changes to specifications and recommendations, and these, when notified, are incorporated
into our manuals at the earliest opportunity.
The manual is divided into thirteen Chapters, each covering a logical sub-division of the vehicle. The Chapters are each divided into
Sections, numbered with single figures, eg 5; and the Sections into paragraphs (or sub-sections), with decimal numbers following on from
the Section they are in, eg 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 etc.
It is freely illustrated, especially in those parts where there is a detailed sequence of operations to be carried out. There are two forms of
illustration: figures and photographs. The figures are numbered in sequence with decimal numbers, according to their position in the
Chapter - eg Fig. 6.4 is the fourth drawing/illustration in Chapter 6. Photographs carry the same number (either individually or in related
groups) as the Section or sub-section to which they relate.
There is an alphabetical index at the back of the manual as well as a contents list at the front. Each Chapter is also preceded by its own
individual contents list.
References to the 'left' or 'right' of the vehicle are in the sense of a person in the driver's seat facing forwards.
Unless otherwise stated, nuts and bolts are removed by turning anti-clockwise, and tightened by turning clockwise.
Vehicle manufacturers continually make changes to specifications and recommendations, and these, when notified, are incorporated
into our manuals at the earliest opportunity.
We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle manufacturers make alterations and design
changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not inform us. No liability can be accepted by the
authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or omissions from, the information given.

Project vehicles

The vehicles used in the preparation of this manual, and which appear in many of the photographic sequences, were: a 760 Turbo Saloon,
a 760 GLE Saloon, and a 740 GL Estate.

The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the eWe take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle manufacturers

make alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not inform us. No liability
can be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or omissions from, the
information given.We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle manufacturers make
alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not inform us. No liability can
be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or omissions from, the information
given.

Project vehicles

The vehicles used in the preparation of this manual, and which appear in many of the photographic sequences, were: a 760 Turbo Saloon,
a 760 GLE Saloon, and a 740 GL Estate.We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle
manufacturers make alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not
inform us. No liability can be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or
omissions from, the information given.

Project vehiclesWe take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle manufacturers make

alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not inform us. No liability can
be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or omissions from, the information
given.

Project vehicles

The vehicles used in the preparation of this manual, and which appear in many of the photographic sequences, were: a 760 Turbo Saloon,
a 760 GLE Saloon, and a 740 GL Estate.We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle
manufacturers make alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not
inform us. No liability can be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or
omissions from, the information given.
The vehicles used in the preparation of this manual, and which appear in many of the photographic sequences, were: a 760 Turbo Saloon,
a 760 GLE Saloon, and a 740 GL Estate.
The manual is divided into thirteen Chapters, each covering a logical sub-division of the vehicle. The Chapters are each divided into
Sections, numbered with single figures, eg 5; and the Sections into paragraphs (or sub-sections), with decimal numbers following on from
the Section they are in, eg 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 etc.
It is freely illustrated, especially in those parts where there is a detailed sequence of operations to be carried out. There are two forms of
illustration: figures and photographs. The figures are numbered in sequence with decimal numbers, according to their position in the
Chapter - eg Fig. 6.4 is the fourth drawing/illustration in Chapter 6. Photographs carry the same number (either individually or in related
groups) as the Section or sub-section to which they relate.
There is an alphabetical index at the back of the manual as well as a contents list at the front. Each Chapter is also preceded by its own
individual contents list.
References to the 'left' or 'right' of the vehicle are in the sense of a person in the driver's seat facing forwards.
Unless otherwise stated, nuts and bolts are removed by turning anti-clockwise, and tightened by turning clockwise.
Vehicle manufacturers continually make changes to specifications and recommendations, and these, when notified, are incorporated into
our manuals at the earliest opportunity.We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle
manufacturers make alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not
inform us. No liability can be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or
omissions from, the information given.

Project vehicles

The vehicles used in the preparation of this manual, and which appear in many of the photographic sequences, were: a 760 Turbo Saloon,
a 760 GLE Saloon, and a 740 GL Estate.We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle
manufacturers make alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not
inform us. No liability can be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or
omissions from, the information given.We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle
manufacturers make alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not
inform us. No liability can be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or
omissions from, the information given.
Project vehiclesWe take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle manufacturers make
alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not inform us. No liability can
be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or omissions from, the information
given.

Project vehicles

The vehicles used in the preparation of this manual, and which appear in many of the photographic sequences, were: a 760 Turbo Saloon,
a 760 GLE Saloon, and a 740 GL Estate.We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle
manufacturers make alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not
inform us. No liability can be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or
omissions from, the information given.We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle
manufacturers make alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not
inform us. No liability can be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or
omissions from, the information given.
Project vehiclesWe take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle manufacturers make
alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not inform us. No liability can
be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or omissions from, the information
given.

Project vehicles

The vehicles used in the preparation of this manual, and which appear in many of the photographic sequences, were: a 760 Turbo Saloon,
a 760 GLE Saloon, and a 740 GL Estate.We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle
manufacturers make alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not
inform us. No liability can be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or
omissions from, the information given.
The vehicles used in the preparation of this manual, and which appear in many of the photographic sequences, were: a 760 Turbo Saloon,
a 760 GLE Saloon, and a 740 GL Estate.We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle
manufacturers make alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not
inform us. No liability can be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or

omissions from, the information given.


The vehicles used in the preparation of this manual, and which appear in many of the photographic sequences, were: a 760 Turbo Saloon,
a 760 GLE Saloon, and a 740 GL Estate.We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle
manufacturers make alterations and design changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not
inform us. No liability can be accepted by the authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or
omissions from, the information given.
We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle manufacturers make alterations and design
changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not inform us. No liability can be accepted by the
authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or omissions from, the information given.

Project vehicles

The vehicles used in the preparation of this manual, and which appear in many of the photographic sequences, were: a 760 Turbo Saloon,
a 760 GLE Saloon, and a 740 GL Estate.
The manual is divided into thirteen Chapters, each covering a logical sub-division of the vehicle. The Chapters are each divided into
Sections, numbered with single figures, eg 5; and the Sections into paragraphs (or sub-sections), with decimal numbers following on from
the Section they are in, eg 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 etc.
It is freely illustrated, especially in those parts where there is a detailed sequence of operations to be carried out. There are two forms of
illustration: figures and photographs. The figures are numbered in sequence with decimal numbers, according to their position in the
Chapter - eg Fig. 6.4 is the fourth drawing/illustration in Chapter 6. Photographs carry the same number (either individually or in related
groups) as the Section or sub-section to which they relate.
T
The manual is divided into thirteen Chapters, each covering a logical sub-division of the vehicle. The Chapters are each divided into
Sections, numbered with single figures, eg 5; and the Sections into paragraphs (or sub-sections), with decimal numbers following on from
the Section they are in, eg 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 etc.
It is freely illustrated, especially in those parts where there is a detailed sequence of operations to be carried out. There are two forms of
illustration: figures and photographs. The figures are numbered in sequence with decimal numbers, according to their position in the
Chapter - eg Fig. 6.4 is the fourth drawing/illustration in Chapter 6. Photographs carry the same number (either individually or in related
groups) as the Section or sub-section to which they relate.
There is an alphabetical index at the back of the manual as well as a contents list at the front. Each Chapter is also preceded by its own
individual contents list.
References to the 'left' or 'right' of the vehicle are in the sense of a person in the driver's seat facing forwards.
Unless otherwise stated, nuts and bolts are removed by turning anti-clockwise, and tightened by turning clockwise.
Vehicle manufacturers continually make changes to specifications and recommendations, and these, when notified, are incorporated
into our manuals at the earliest opportunity.
The manual is divided into thirteen Chapters, each covering a logical sub-division of the vehicle. The Chapters are each divided into
Sections, numbered with single figures, eg 5; and the Sections into paragraphs (or sub-sections), with decimal numbers following on from
the Section they are in, eg 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 etc.
It is freely illustrated, especially in those parts where there is a detailed sequence of operations to be carried out. There are two forms of
illustration: figures and photographs. The figures are numbered in sequence with decimal numbers, according to their position in the
Chapter - eg Fig. 6.4 is the fourth drawing/illustration in Chapter 6. Photographs carry the same number (either individually or in related
groups) as the Section or sub-section to which they relate.
There is an alphabetical index at the back of the manual as well as a contents list at the front. Each Chapter is also preceded by its own
individual contents list.
References to the 'left' or 'right' of the vehicle are in the sense of a person in the driver's seat facing forwards.
Unless otherwise stated, nuts and bolts are removed by turning anti-clockwise, and tightened by turning clockwise.
Vehicle manufacturers continually make changes to specifications and recommendations, and these, when notified, are incorporated
into our manuals at the earliest opportunity.
We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle manufacturers make alterations and design
changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not inform us. No liability can be accepted by the
authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or omissions from, the information given.

Project vehicles

The vehicles used in the preparation of this manual, and which appear in many of the photographic sequences, were: a 760 Turbo Saloon,
a 760 GLE Saloon, and a 740 GL Estate.
We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle manufacturers make alterations and design
changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not inform us. No liability can be accepted by the
authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or omissions from, the information given.

Project vehicles

The vehicles used in the preparation of this manual, and which appear in many of the photographic sequences, were: a 760 Turbo Saloon,
a 760 GLE Saloon, and a 740 GL Estate.
The manual is divided into thirteen Chapters, each covering a logical sub-division of the vehicle. The Chapters are each divided into
Sections, numbered with single figures, eg 5; and the Sections into paragraphs (or sub-sections), with decimal numbers following on from
the Section they are in, eg 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 etc.
It is freely illustrated, especially in those parts where there is a detailed sequence of operations to be carried out. There are two forms of
illustration: figures and photographs. The figures are numbered in sequence with decimal numbers, according to their position in the
Chapter - eg Fig. 6.4 is the fourth drawing/illustration in Chapter 6. Photographs carry the same number (either individually or in related
groups) as the Section or sub-section to which they relate.
There is an alphabetical index at the back of the manual as well as a contents list at the front. Each Chapter is also preceded by its own
individual contents list.
References to the 'left' or 'right' of the vehicle are in the sense of a person in the driver's seat facing forwards.
Unless otherwise stated, nuts and bolts are removed by turning anti-clockwise, and tightened by turning clockwise.
Vehicle manufacturers continually make changes to specifications and recommendations, and these, when notified, are incorporated
into our manuals at the earliest opportunity.
We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle manufacturers make alterations and design
changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not inform us. No liability can be accepted by the
authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or omissions from, the information given.

Project vehicles
The vehicles used in the preparation of this manual, and which appear in many of the photographic sequences, were: a 760 Turbo Saloon,
a 760 GLE Saloon, and a 740 GL Estate.
The manual is divided into thirteen Chapters, each covering a logical sub-division of the vehicle. The Chapters are each divided into
Sections, numbered with single figures, eg 5; and the Sections into paragraphs (or sub-sections), with decimal numbers following on from
the Section they are in, eg 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 etc.
It is freely illustrated, especially in those parts where there is a detailed sequence of operations to be carried out. There are two forms of
illustration: figures and photographs. The figures are numbered in sequence with decimal numbers, according to their position in the
Chapter - eg Fig. 6.4 is the fourth drawing/illustration in Chapter 6. Photographs carry the same number (either individually or in related
groups) as the Section or sub-section to which they relate.
T
The manual is divided into thirteen Chapters, each covering a logical sub-division of the vehicle. The Chapters are each divided into
Sections, numbered with single figures, eg 5; and the Sections into paragraphs (or sub-sections), with decimal numbers following on from
the Section they are in, eg 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 etc.
It is freely illustrated, especially in those parts where there is a detailed sequence of operations to be carried out. There are two forms of
illustration: figures and photographs. The figures are numbered in sequence with decimal numbers, according to their position in the
Chapter - eg Fig. 6.4 is the fourth drawing/illustration in Chapter 6. Photographs carry the same number (either individually or in related
groups) as the Section or sub-section to which they relate.
There is an alphabetical index at the back of the manual as well as a contents list at the front. Each Chapter is also preceded by its own
individual contents list.
References to the 'left' or 'right' of the vehicle are in the sense of a person in the driver's seat facing forwards.
Unless otherwise stated, nuts and bolts are removed by turning anti-clockwise, and tightened by turning clockwise.
Vehicle manufacturers continually make changes to specifications and recommendations, and these, when notified, are incorporated
into our manuals at the earliest opportunity.
The manual is divided into thirteen Chapters, each covering a logical sub-division of the vehicle. The Chapters are each divided into
Sections, numbered with single figures, eg 5; and the Sections into paragraphs (or sub-sections), with decimal numbers following on from
the Section they are in, eg 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 etc.
It is freely illustrated, especially in those parts where there is a detailed sequence of operations to be carried out. There are two forms of
illustration: figures and photographs. The figures are numbered in sequence with decimal numbers, according to their position in the
Chapter - eg Fig. 6.4 is the fourth drawing/illustration in Chapter 6. Photographs carry the same number (either individually or in related
groups) as the Section or sub-section to which they relate.
There is an alphabetical index at the back of the manual as well as a contents list at the front. Each Chapter is also preceded by its own
individual contents list.
References to the 'left' or 'right' of the vehicle are in the sense of a person in the driver's seat facing forwards.
Unless otherwise stated, nuts and bolts are removed by turning anti-clockwise, and tightened by turning clockwise.
Vehicle manufacturers continually make changes to specifications and recommendations, and these, when notified, are incorporated
into our manuals at the earliest opportunity.
We take great pride in the accuracy of information given in this manual, but vehicle manufacturers make alterations and design
changes during the production run of a particular vehicle of which they do not inform us. No liability can be accepted by the
authors or publishers for loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in, or omissions from, the information given.

Project vehicles

The vehicles used in the preparation of this manual, and which appear in many of the photographic sequences, were: a 760 Turbo Saloon,
a 760 GLE Saloon, and a 740 GL Estate.

ngine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and

mark on the dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the
lower mark to the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.

(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' battenes)

Turbo Diesel models

A Engine oil level dipstick and filler cap, (Use Multigrade engine oil, SAE 10W/40 or 15W/50 to API SG/CD 1.5 litres
approximate difference between MIN and MAX marks) B Coolant expansion tank
(Use 50/50 mixture of water and ethylene glycol-based antifreeze) C Brake fluid reservoir
(Use universal brake fluid) D Power steering fluid reservoir
(Use automatic transmission fluid) E Screen washer fluid reservoir F Battery
(Use distilled water - not ap
(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' battenes)

Turbo Diesel models

A Engine oil level dipstick and filler cap, (Use Multigrade engine oil, SAE 10W/40 or 15W/50 to API SG/CD 1.5 litres
approximate difference between MIN and MAX marks) B Coolant expansion tank
(Use 50/50 mixture of water and ethylene glycol-based antifreeze) C Brake fluid reservoir
(Use universal brake fluid) D Power steering fluid reservoir
(Use automatic transmission fluid) E Screen washer fluid reservoir F Battery
(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' batteries) 1 Engine oil level check

The engine oil level is checked with a dipstick that extends through the dipstick tube and into the
sump at the bottom of the engine. The dipstick is located at the rear of the engine on 1.8 litre petrol engine models, and
at the front of the engine on all other models. The dipstick top is brightly-coloured for easy identification.
2
The oil level should be checked with the vehicle standing on level ground, before it is driven, or at
least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off. If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of
the oil will remain in the upper engine components and oil galleries, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.
3
Withdraw the dipstick from the tube, and wipe all the oil from the end with a clean rag or paper towel.
Insert the clean dipstick back into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it once more. Note the oil level on the end of
the dipstick. Add oil as necessary until the level is between the upper ("MAX") mark and lower ("MIN") mark on the
dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the lower mark to
the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.

MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.
(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' battenes)

Turbo Diesel models

A Engine oil level dipstick and filler cap, (Use Multigrade engine oil, SAE 10W/40 or 15W/50 to API SG/CD 1.5 litres
approximate difference between MIN and MAX marks) B Coolant expansion tank
(Use 50/50 mixture of water and ethylene glycol-based antifreeze) C Brake fluid reservoir
(Use universal brake fluid) D Power steering fluid reservoir
(Use automatic transmission fluid) E Screen washer fluid reservoir F Battery
(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' batteries) 1 Engine oil level check

The engine oil level is checked with a dipstick that extends through the dipstick tube and into the
sump at the bottom of the engine. The dipstick is located at the rear of the engine on 1.8 litre petrol engine models, and
at the front of the engine on all other models. The dipstick top is brightly-coloured for easy identification.
2
The oil level should be checked with the vehicle standing on level ground, before it is driven, or at
least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off. If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of
the oil will remain in the upper engine components and oil galleries, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.
3
Withdraw the dipstick from the tube, and wipe all the oil from the end with a clean rag or paper towel.
Insert the clean dipstick back into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it once more. Note the oil level on the end of
the dipstick. Add oil as necessary until the level is between the upper ("MAX") mark and lower ("MIN") mark on the
dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the lower mark to
the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.

plicable to 'Maintenance Free' batteries)1 Engine oil level check

The engine oil level is checked with a dipstick that extends through the dipstick tube and into the
sump at the bottom of the engine. The dipstick is located at the rear of the engine on 1.8 litre petrol engine models, and
at the front of the engine on all other models. The dipstick top is brightly-coloured for easy identification.
2
The oil level should be checked with the vehicle standing on level ground, before it is driven, or at
least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off. If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of
the oil will remain in the upper engine components and oil galleries, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.
3
Withdraw the dipstick from the tube, and wipe all the oil from the end with a clean rag or paper towel.
Insert the clean dipstick back into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it once more. Note the oil level on the end of
the dipstick. Add oil as necessary until the level is between the upper ("MAX") mark and lower ("MIN") mark on the
dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the lower mark to
the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

As engine temperature increases, the coolant expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools,
the coolant is automatically drawn back into the system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies
with the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and

mark on the dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the
lower mark to the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.

MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.

(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' battenes)

Turbo Diesel models

A Engine oil level dipstick and filler cap, (Use Multigrade engine oil, SAE 10W/40 or 15W/50 to API SG/CD 1.5 litres
approximate difference between MIN and MAX marks) B Coolant expansion tank
(Use 50/50 mixture of water and ethylene glycol-based antifreeze) C Brake fluid reservoir
(Use universal brake fluid) D Power steering fluid reservoir
(Use automatic transmission fluid) E Screen washer fluid reservoir F Battery
(Use distilled water - not ap
(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' battenes)

Turbo Diesel models

A Engine oil level dipstick and filler cap, (Use Multigrade engine oil, SAE 10W/40 or 15W/50 to API SG/CD 1.5 litres
approximate difference between MIN and MAX marks) B Coolant expansion tank
(Use 50/50 mixture of water and ethylene glycol-based antifreeze) C Brake fluid reservoir
(Use universal brake fluid) D Power steering fluid reservoir
(Use automatic transmission fluid) E Screen washer fluid reservoir F Battery
(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' batteries) 1 Engine oil level check

The engine oil level is checked with a dipstick that extends through the dipstick tube and into the
sump at the bottom of the engine. The dipstick is located at the rear of the engine on 1.8 litre petrol engine models, and
at the front of the engine on all other models. The dipstick top is brightly-coloured for easy identification.

The oil level should be checked with the vehicle standing on level ground, before it is driven, or at
least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off. If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of
the oil will remain in the upper engine components and oil galleries, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.
3
Withdraw the dipstick from the tube, and wipe all the oil from the end with a clean rag or paper towel.
Insert the clean dipstick back into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it once more. Note the oil level on the end of
the dipstick. Add oil as necessary until the level is between the upper ("MAX") mark and lower ("MIN") mark on the
dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the lower mark to
the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.
(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' battenes)

Turbo Diesel models

A Engine oil level dipstick and filler cap, (Use Multigrade engine oil, SAE 10W/40 or 15W/50 to API SG/CD 1.5 litres
approximate difference between MIN and MAX marks) B Coolant expansion tank
(Use 50/50 mixture of water and ethylene glycol-based antifreeze) C Brake fluid reservoir
(Use universal brake fluid) D Power steering fluid reservoir
(Use automatic transmission fluid) E Screen washer fluid reservoir F Battery
(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' batteries) 1 Engine oil level check

The engine oil level is checked with a dipstick that extends through the dipstick tube and into the
sump at the bottom of the engine. The dipstick is located at the rear of the engine on 1.8 litre petrol engine models, and
at the front of the engine on all other models. The dipstick top is brightly-coloured for easy identification.
2
The oil level should be checked with the vehicle standing on level ground, before it is driven, or at
least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off. If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of
the oil will remain in the upper engine components and oil galleries, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.
3
Withdraw the dipstick from the tube, and wipe all the oil from the end with a clean rag or paper towel.
Insert the clean dipstick back into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it once more. Note the oil level on the end of
the dipstick. Add oil as necessary until the level is between the upper ("MAX") mark and lower ("MIN") mark on the
dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the lower mark to
the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX
1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine

1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings


5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.

plicable to 'Maintenance Free' batteries)1 Engine oil level check

The engine oil level is checked with a dipstick that extends through the dipstick tube and into the
sump at the bottom of the engine. The dipstick is located at the rear of the engine on 1.8 litre petrol engine models, and
at the front of the engine on all other models. The dipstick top is brightly-coloured for easy identification.
2
The oil level should be checked with the vehicle standing on level ground, before it is driven, or at
least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off. If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of
the oil will remain in the upper engine components and oil galleries, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.
3
Withdraw the dipstick from the tube, and wipe all the oil from the end with a clean rag or paper towel.
Insert the clean dipstick back into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it once more. Note the oil level on the end of
the dipstick. Add oil as necessary until the level is between the upper ("MAX") mark and lower ("MIN") mark on the
dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the lower mark to
the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.

As engine temperature increases, the coolant expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools,
the coolant is automatically drawn back into the system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies
with the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and

mark on the dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the
lower mark to the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.

(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' battenes)

Turbo Diesel models

A Engine oil level dipstick and filler cap, (Use Multigrade engine oil, SAE 10W/40 or 15W/50 to API SG/CD 1.5 litres
approximate difference between MIN and MAX marks) B Coolant expansion tank
(Use 50/50 mixture of water and ethylene glycol-based antifreeze) C Brake fluid reservoir
(Use universal brake fluid) D Power steering fluid reservoir
(Use automatic transmission fluid) E Screen washer fluid reservoir F Battery
(Use distilled water - not ap
(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' battenes)

Turbo Diesel models

A Engine oil level dipstick and filler cap, (Use Multigrade engine oil, SAE 10W/40 or 15W/50 to API SG/CD 1.5 litres
approximate difference between MIN and MAX marks) B Coolant expansion tank
(Use 50/50 mixture of water and ethylene glycol-based antifreeze) C Brake fluid reservoir
(Use universal brake fluid) D Power steering fluid reservoir
(Use automatic transmission fluid) E Screen washer fluid reservoir F Battery
(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' batteries) 1 Engine oil level check

The engine oil level is checked with a dipstick that extends through the dipstick tube and into the
sump at the bottom of the engine. The dipstick is located at the rear of the engine on 1.8 litre petrol engine models, and
at the front of the engine on all other models. The dipstick top is brightly-coloured for easy identification.
2
The oil level should be checked with the vehicle standing on level ground, before it is driven, or at
least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off. If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of
the oil will remain in the upper engine components and oil galleries, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.
3
Withdraw the dipstick from the tube, and wipe all the oil from the end with a clean rag or paper towel.
Insert the clean dipstick back into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it once more. Note the oil level on the end of
the dipstick. Add oil as necessary until the level is between the upper ("MAX") mark and lower ("MIN") mark on the
dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the lower mark to
the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

plicable to 'Maintenance Free' batteries)1 Engine oil level check

The engine oil level is checked with a dipstick that extends through the dipstick tube and into the
sump at the bottom of the engine. The dipstick is located at the rear of the engine on 1.8 litre petrol engine models, and
at the front of the engine on all other models. The dipstick top is brightly-coloured for easy identification.
2
The oil level should be checked with the vehicle standing on level ground, before it is driven, or at
least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off. If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of
the oil will remain in the upper engine components and oil galleries, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.
3
Withdraw the dipstick from the tube, and wipe all the oil from the end with a clean rag or paper towel.
Insert the clean dipstick back into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it once more. Note the oil level on the end of
the dipstick. Add oil as necessary until the level is between the upper ("MAX") mark and lower ("MIN") mark on the
dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the lower mark to
the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant

expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.

As engine temperature increases, the coolant expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools,
the coolant is automatically drawn back into the system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies
with the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and

mark on the dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the
lower mark to the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX" marks
on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.
plicable to 'Maintenance Free' batteries)1 Engine oil level check

The engine oil level is checked with a dipstick that extends through the dipstick tube and into the
sump at the bottom of the engine. The dipstick is located at the rear of the engine on 1.8 litre petrol engine models, and
at the front of the engine on all other models. The dipstick top is brightly-coloured for easy identification.
2
The oil level should be checked with the vehicle standing on level ground, before it is driven, or at
least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off. If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of
the oil will remain in the upper engine components and oil galleries, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.
3
Withdraw the dipstick from the tube, and wipe all the oil from the end with a clean rag or paper towel.
Insert the clean dipstick back into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it once more. Note the oil level on the end of
the dipstick. Add oil as necessary until the level is between the upper ("MAX") mark and lower ("MIN") mark on the
dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the lower mark to
the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the

lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.

As engine temperature increases, the coolant expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools,
the coolant is automatically drawn back into the system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies
with the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and

mark on the dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the
lower mark to the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
plicable to 'Maintenance Free' batteries)1 Engine oil level check

The engine oil level is checked with a dipstick that extends through the dipstick tube and into the
sump at the bottom of the engine. The dipstick is located at the rear of the engine on 1.8 litre petrol engine models, and
at the front of the engine on all other models. The dipstick top is brightly-coloured for easy identification.
2
The oil level should be checked with the vehicle standing on level ground, before it is driven, or at
least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off. If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of
the oil will remain in the upper engine components and oil galleries, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.
3
Withdraw the dipstick from the tube, and wipe all the oil from the end with a clean rag or paper towel.
Insert the clean dipstick back into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it once more. Note the oil level on the end of
the dipstick. Add oil as necessary until the level is between the upper ("MAX") mark and lower ("MIN") mark on the
dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the lower mark to
the upper mark.

Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.

As engine temperature increases, the coolant expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools,
the coolant is automatically drawn back into the system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies
with the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and

mark on the dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the
lower mark to the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant

expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.

(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' battenes)

Turbo Diesel models

A Engine oil level dipstick and filler cap, (Use Multigrade engine oil, SAE 10W/40 or 15W/50 to API SG/CD 1.5 litres
approximate difference between MIN and MAX marks) B Coolant expansion tank

Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.

(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' battenes)

Turbo Diesel models

A Engine oil level dipstick and filler cap, (Use Multigrade engine oil, SAE 10W/40 or 15W/50 to API SG/CD 1.5 litres
approximate difference between MIN and MAX marks) B Coolant expansion tank

(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' battenes)

Turbo Diesel models

A Engine oil level dipstick and filler cap, (Use Multigrade engine oil, SAE 10W/40 or 15W/50 to API SG/CD 1.5 litres
approximate difference between MIN and MAX marks) B Coolant expansion tank

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.
(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' battenes)

Turbo Diesel models

A Engine oil level dipstick and filler cap, (Use Multigrade engine oil, SAE 10W/40 or 15W/50 to API SG/CD 1.5 litres
approximate difference between MIN and MAX marks) B Coolant expansion tank
(Use 50/50 mixture of water and ethylene glycol-based antifreeze) C Brake fluid reservoir
(Use universal brake fluid) D Power steering fluid reservoir
(Use automatic transmission fluid) E Screen washer fluid reservoir F Battery
new O-rings (photo).

6
Fit one end plug, using a new O-ring, and tighten it.
7
Assemble the piston, plunges and spring. Lubricate the piston and the new O-rings with clean hydraulic fluid. Fit
one of the O-rings to a plunger and insert the assembly into the valve bore, O-ring first.
8
Fit the other O-ring into the bore and press it home with a small tube or other suitable tool.
9
Fit the other end plug and O-ring.
10
If the valve was removed for overhaul, refit it.
11
Bleed the complete hydraulic system (Section 9), then check the success of the overhaul as follows.
8,5 mm c f
new O-rings (photo).

6
Fit one end plug, using a new O-ring, and tighten it.
7
Assemble the piston, plunges and spring. Lubricate the piston and the new O-rings with clean hydraulic fluid. Fit
one of the O-rings to a plunger and insert the assembly into the valve bore, O-ring first.
8
Fit the other O-ring into the bore and press it home with a small tube or other suitable tool.
9
Fit the other end plug and O-ring.
10
If the valve was removed for overhaul, refit it.
11
Bleed the complete hydraulic system (Section 9), then check the success of the overhaul as follows.
8,5 mm c f
Fig. 9.13 Fitting the second plunger O-ring to the pressure differential warning valve. Tool dimensions as shown (Sec 20)

12

Have an assistant depress the brake pedal hard for one minute. Watch the valve: if fluid emerges from the switch
hole, renew the valve. If no fluid energes, refit the contact pin, spring and switch. Reconnect the switch.
21 Brake pedal - removal and refittingnew O-rings (photo).
Fit one end plug, using a new O-ring, and tighten it.
Assemble the piston, plunges and spring. Lubricate the piston and the new O-rings with clean hydraulic fluid. Fit
one of the O-rings to a plunger and insert the assembly into the valve bore, O-ring first.
Fit the other O-ring into the bore and press it home with a small tube or other suitable tool.
Fit the other end plug and O-ring.
If the valve was removed for overhaul, refit it.
Bleed the complete hydraulic system (Section 9), then check the success of the overhaul as follows.

6
7
8
9
10
11

8,5 mm c f
Fig. 9.13 Fitting the second plunger O-ring to the pressure differential warning valve. Tool dimensions as shown (Sec 20)

12

Have an assistant depress the brake pedal hard for one minute. Watch the valve: if fluid emerges from the switch
hole, renew the valve. If no fluid energes, refit the contact pin, spring and switch. Reconnect the switch.
21 Brake pedal - removal and refittingnew O-rings (photo).
Fit one end plug, using a new O-ring, and tighten it.
Assemble the piston, plunges and spring. Lubricate the piston and the new O-rings with clean hydraulic fluid. Fit
one of the O-rings to a plunger and insert the assembly into the valve bore, O-ring first.
Fit the other O-ring into the bore and press it home with a small tube or other suitable tool.
Fit the other end plug and O-ring.
If the valve was removed for overhaul, refit it.
Bleed the complete hydraulic system (Section 9), then check the success of the overhaul as follows.

6
7
8
9
10
11

8,5 mm c f
Fig. 9.13 Fitting the second plunger O-ring to the pressure differential warning valve. Tool dimensions as shown (Sec 20)

12

Have an assistant depress the brake pedal hard for one minute. Watch the valve: if fluid emerges from the switch
hole, renew the valve. If no fluid energes, refit the contact pin, spring and switch. Reconnect the switch.
21 Brake pedal - removal and refitting
if preferred, the pedal box can be removed complete (Chapter 5, Section 4) and the brake pedal removed on the bench. Otherwise,
proceed as follows.
1 Remove the steering column/pedal trim.
Disconnect the brake pedal from the servo by removing the clevis pin.
Remove the pedal pivot bolt and nut. The return spring will force the pedal downwards. Remove the pedal, spring
and pivot bolt.
The pedal sleeve and bushes may be renewed if required (photo). Grease the new bushes and sleeve before fitting
them.

2
3
4
5

Refit by reversing the removal operations.

if preferred, the pedal box can be removed complete (Chapter 5, Section 4) and the brake pedal removed on the bench. Otherwise,
proceed as follows.
1 Remove the steering column/pedal trim.
Disconnect the brake pedal from the servo by removing the clevis pin.
Remove the pedal pivot bolt and nut. The return spring will force the pedal downwards. Remove the pedal, spring
and pivot bolt.
The pedal sleeve and bushes may be renewed if required (photo). Grease the new bushes and sleeve before fitting
them.

2
3
4

5
Refit by reversing the removal operations.
new O-rings (photo).
6
Fit one end plug, using a new O-ring, and tighten it.
7
Assemble the piston, plunges and spring. Lubricate the piston and the new O-rings with clean hydraulic fluid. Fit
one of the O-rings to a plunger and insert the assembly into the valve bore, O-ring first.
8
Fit the other O-ring into the bore and press it home with a small tube or other suitable tool.
9
Fit the other end plug and O-ring.
10
If the valve was removed for overhaul, refit it.
11
Bleed the complete hydraulic system (Section 9), then check the success of the overhaul as follows.
8,5 mm c f
Fig. 9.13 Fitting the second plunger O-ring to the pressure differential warning valve. Tool dimensions as shown (Sec 20)

12

Have an assistant depress the brake pedal hard for one minute. Watch the valve: if fluid emerges from the switch
hole, renew the valve. If no fluid energes, refit the contact pin, spring and switch. Reconnect the switch.
21 Brake pedal - removal and refitting
if preferred, the pedal box can be removed complete (Chapter 5, Section 4) and the brake pedal removed on the bench. Otherwise,
proceed as follows.
1 Remove the steering column/pedal trim.
Disconnect the brake pedal from the servo by removing the clevis pin.
Remove the pedal pivot bolt and nut. The return spring will force the pedal downwards. Remove the pedal, spring
and pivot bolt.
The pedal sleeve and bushes may be renewed if required (photo). Grease the new bushes and sleeve before fitting
them.

2
3
4
5

Refit by reversing the removal operations.

if preferred, the pedal box can be removed complete (Chapter 5, Section 4) and the brake pedal removed on the bench. Otherwise,

proceed as follows.
1 Remove the steering column/pedal trim.
Disconnect the brake pedal from the servo by removing the clevis pin.
Remove the pedal pivot bolt and nut. The return spring will force the pedal downwards. Remove the pedal, spring
and pivot bolt.
The pedal sleeve and bushes may be renewed if required (photo). Grease the new bushes and sleeve before fitting
them.

2
3
4
5

Refit by reversing the removal operations.

Fig. 9.13 Fitting the second plunger O-ring to the pressure differential warning valve. Tool dimensions as shown (Sec 20)

12

Have an assistant depress the brake pedal hard for one minute. Watch the valve: if fluid emerges from the switch
hole, renew the valve. If no fluid energes, refit the contact pin, spring and switch. Reconnect the switch.
21 Brake pedal - removal and refitting
if preferred, the pedal box can be removed complete (Chapter 5, Section 4) and the brake pedal removed on the bench. Otherwise,
proceed as follows.
1 Remove the steering column/pedal trim.
Disconnect the brake pedal from the servo by removing the clevis pin.
Remove the pedal pivot bolt and nut. The return spring will force the pedal downwards. Remove the pedal, spring
and pivot bolt.
The pedal sleeve and bushes may be renewed if required (photo). Grease the new bushes and sleeve before fitting
them.

2
3
4
5

Refit by reversing the removal operations.

(Use distilled water - not applicable to 'Maintenance Free' batteries) 1 Engine oil level check

The engine oil level is checked with a dipstick that extends through the dipstick tube and into the
sump at the bottom of the engine. The dipstick is located at the rear of the engine on 1.8 litre petrol engine models, and
at the front of the engine on all other models. The dipstick top is brightly-coloured for easy identification.
2
The oil level should be checked with the vehicle standing on level ground, before it is driven, or at
least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off. If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of
the oil will remain in the upper engine components and oil galleries, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.
3
Withdraw the dipstick from the tube, and wipe all the oil from the end with a clean rag or paper towel.
Insert the clean dipstick back into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it once more. Note the oil level on the end of
the dipstick. Add oil as necessary until the level is between the upper ("MAX") mark and lower ("MIN") mark on the
dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the lower mark to
the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.

plicable to 'Maintenance Free' batteries)1 Engine oil level check

The engine oil level is checked with a dipstick that extends through the dipstick tube and into the
sump at the bottom of the engine. The dipstick is located at the rear of the engine on 1.8 litre petrol engine models, and
at the front of the engine on all other models. The dipstick top is brightly-coloured for easy identification.
2
The oil level should be checked with the vehicle standing on level ground, before it is driven, or at
least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off. If the oil is checked immediately after driving the vehicle, some of
the oil will remain in the upper engine components and oil galleries, resulting in an inaccurate reading on the dipstick.
3
Withdraw the dipstick from the tube, and wipe all the oil from the end with a clean rag or paper towel.
Insert the clean dipstick back into the tube as far as it will go, then withdraw it once more. Note the oil level on the end of
the dipstick. Add oil as necessary until the level is between the upper ("MAX") mark and lower ("MIN") mark on the
dipstick (see illustrations). Note that approximately 1.5 litres of oil will be required to raise the level from the lower mark to
the upper mark.
4
Always maintain the level between the two dipstick marks. If the level is allowed to fall below the
lower mark, oil starvation may result, which could lead to severe engine damage. If the engine is overfilled to any great
extent by adding too much oil, this could result in oil leaks or oil seal failures.
MIN

MAX

1.3a Withdrawing the engine oil level dipstick - Diesel engine


1,3b Engine oil level dipstick markings
5
Oil is added to the engine via the filler cap on the cylinder head cover on petrol models, and via the
filler/breather cap on Diesel models. Unscrew the cap and top-up the level; an oil can spout or funnel may help to reduce
spillage (see illustration). Add the oil slowly, checking the level on the dipstick frequently. Always use the correct grade
and type of oil.

2 Coolant level check

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.
The manual is divided into thirteen Chapters, each covering a logical sub-division of the vehicle. The Chapters are each divided into
Sections, numbered with single figures, eg 5; and the Sections into paragraphs (or sub-sections), with decimal numbers following on from
the Section they are in, eg 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 etc.
It is freely illustrated, especially in those parts where there is a detailed sequence of operations to be carried out. There are two forms of
illustration: figures and photographs. The figures are numbered in sequence with decimal numbers, according to their position in the
Chapter - eg Fig. 6.4 is the fourth drawing/illustration in Chapter 6. Photographs carry the same number (either individually or in related
groups) as the Section or sub-section to which they relate.
There is an alphabetical index at the back of the manual as well as a contents list at the front. Each Chapter is also preceded by its own
individual contents list.
References to the 'left' or 'right' of the vehicle are in the sense of a person in the driver's seat facing forwards.
Unless otherwise stated, nuts and bolts are removed by turning anti-clockwise, and tightened by turning clockwise.

The manual is divided into thirteen Chapters, each covering a logical sub-division of the vehicle. The Chapters are each divided into
Sections, numbered with single figures, eg 5; and the Sections into paragraphs (or sub-sections), with decimal numbers following on from
the Section they are in, eg 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 etc.
It is freely illustrated, especially in those parts where there is a detailed sequence of operations to be carried out. There are two forms of
illustration: figures and photographs. The figures are numbered in sequence with decimal numbers, according to their position in the
Chapter - eg Fig. 6.4 is the fourth drawing/illustration in Chapter 6. Photographs carry the same number (either individually or in related
groups) as the Section or sub-section to which they relate.
There is an alphabetical index at the back of the manual as well as a contents list at the front. Each Chapter is also preceded by its own
individual contents list.
References to the 'left' or 'right' of the vehicle are in the sense of a person in the driver's seat facing forwards.
Unless otherwise stated, nuts and bolts are removed by turning anti-clockwise, and tightened by turning clockwise.

Warning: DO NOT attempt to remove the expansion tank pressure cap when the engine is hot, as there is a very
great risk of scalding.

All vehicles covered by this manual have a pressurised cooling system. An expansion tank is
incorporated in the cooling system; it is built into the side of the radiator. As engine temperature increases, the coolant
expands, and the level in the expansion tank rises. As the engine cools, the coolant is automatically drawn back into the
system, to maintain the correct level.
2
The coolant level in the expansion tank should be checked regularly. The level in the tank varies with
the temperature of the engine. When the engine is cold, the coolant level should be between the "MIN" and "MAX"
marks on the side of the tank. When the engine is hot, the level may rise slightly above the "MAX" mark.
The manual is divided into thirteen Chapters, each covering a logical sub-division of the vehicle. The Chapters are each divided into
Sections, numbered with single figures, eg 5; and the Sections into paragraphs (or sub-sections), with decimal numbers following on from
the Section they are in, eg 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 etc.
It is freely illustrated, especially in those parts where there is a detailed sequence of operations to be carried out. There are two forms of
illustration: figures and photographs. The figures are numbered in sequence with decimal numbers, according to their position in the
Chapter - eg Fig. 6.4 is the fourth drawing/illustration in Chapter 6. Photographs carry the same number (either individually or in related
groups) as the Section or sub-section to which they relate.
There is an alphabetical index at the back of the manual as well as a contents list at the front. Each Chapter is also preceded by its own
individual contents list.
References to the 'left' or 'right' of the vehicle are in the sense of a person in the driver's seat facing forwards.
Unless otherwise stated, nuts and bolts are removed by turning anti-clockwise, and tightened by turning clockwise.

Note: If the transmission is being removed for repair, check first that the repairer does not need to test it in the vehicle. 1 Select P (AW71)
or N (ZF).
Disconnect the battery negative lead.
Disconnect the kickdown cable at the throttle end.
Raise and support the vehicle. Drain the transmission fluid by removing the dipstick/filler tube nut. Caution: The
fluid may be very hot.
Disconnect the selector linkage and (when applicable) the overdrive wiring connector from the side of the
transmission.
Remove the starter motor (Chapter 12). On B28 engines, also remove the other starter motor aperture blanking
plate.
Remove the dipstick/filler tube.
Disconnect the fluid cooler unions at the transmission. Be prepared for spillage. Cap the open unions to keep dirt
out.
Disconnect the exhaust downpipe and unbolt the exhaust support bracket from the transmission crossmember
(photo). Support the exhaust system if necessary.
Unbolt the propeller shaft flange.
When fitted,-remove the cover plate from the bottom of the torque converter housing. Also remove the cooling grilles
(photo).
Jam the driveplate and remove the bolts which hold the torque converter to the driveplate (photo). Turn the
crankshaft to bring the bolts into view. It is possible to work through the starter motor aperture on some models.
Support the transmission, preferably with a properly designed cradle. Unbolt and remove the transmission
crossmember.
Lower the transmission until it takes up a stable position. On the B230 engine, make sure that the distributor is not
crushed against the bulkhead.
Remove the converter housing-to-engine nuts and bolts.
With the aid of an assistant, draw the transmission off the engine, at the same time levering the torque converter
away from the driveplate. Keep the transmission tilted rearwards and lower it from the vehicle. It is heavy.
Refit by reversing the removal operations, noting the following points:
Put a smear of grease on the torque converter spigot
z0"

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
(a)

Actuator rod
Fig, 6.39 Transmission mountings and other attachments. AW 71 transmission with B 28 engine shown (Sec 37)
Tighten the torque con verter- to - drivepla te bolts progressively to the specified torque

(b)

(c)
(d)

Do not fully tighten the dipstick tube nut until the tube bracket has been secured
Adjust the selector mechanism (Section 30) and the kickdown cable (Section 31)

37.9 Exhaust bracket and transmission crossmember


37.12 Removing a torque converter-to-driveplate bolt
Refill the transmission with fluid. If a new transmission has been fitted, flush the oil cooler(s) - see Section 29,
paragraph 3 onwards, and Section 27, paragraph 4
37.11 Removing a torque converter housing grille
38 Fault diagnosis - automatic transmission

(e)

In the event of a fault, check the fluid level, the kickdown cable adjustment and the selector mechanism adjustment. Faults which persist
when these three items are correct should be referred to a Volvo dealer or transmission specialist.

Propeller shaft

Chapter 7

For modifications, and information applicable to later models, see Supplement at end of manual
Contents
Centre bearing - renewal ....................................................................
Fault diagnosis - propeller shaft ........................................................
General description ............................................................................
Maintenance and inspection...............................................................

6
7
1
2

Propeller shaft - removal and refitting.........


Rubber coupling - removal and refitting .
Universal joints - overhaul...........................

Specifications

General

Shaft type...............................'.'..................................................................
Number of universal joints.........................................................................

Tubular, two-section, with centre support bearing


Two or three (plus rubber coupling on some models)

Torque wrench settings

Nm
80

Ibf ft
60

50

37

Rubber coupling nuts and bolts ................................................................


Plain flange coupling nuts and bolts;
M10.......................................................................................................
M8
35
26
1 General description

A two-section tubular propeller shaft is fitted. Two or three universal joints are used, and on some models a rubber coupling is fitted betwen
the gearbox output flange and the propeller shaft flange. A centre bearing supports the shaft at the junction of the two sections.
The universal joints are secured with circlips instead of by staking, which makes them relatively easy to overhaul.

2 Maintenance and inspection

1
Every 12 000 miles or annually, or if unusual noises or vibrations are noticed, inspect the propeller shaft as follows.
2
Raise and securely support the vehicle, or drive it over a pit.
3
Check the flange bolts and the centre bearing bracket bolts for tightness.
4
Visually check the condition of the rubber coupling, if fitted. Renew it if it is damaged (Section 3).
5
Check for play in the universal joints and centre bearing by attempting to lift, shake and twist the sections of the
shaft relative to each other and to the flanges. Repair or renew as necessary (Section 5 or 6).
6
Check that the centre bearing rubber boot is intact. To renew it, the two halves of the shaft must be separated
(Section 6).
7
No routine lubrication is required. Occasional oiling of the universal joint circlips is recommended to stop them
rusting solid.
8
None of the above checks will detect a seized universal joint, which can cause heavy vibration - the shaft must be
removed, or the flanges separated, so that the freedom of movement of the joint may be tested.
9
An out-of-balance or out-of-true shaft can also cause vibration, but these conditions are unlikely to arise
spontaneously. Consult a Volvo dealer or a propeller shaft specialist.

3 Rubber coupling - removal and refitting

1
Raise and securely support the vehicle.
2
Make alignment marks between the shaft and the gearbox output flange.
3
Remove the six nuts and bolts which hold the flanges to the coupling (photo). (It may not be possible actually to
remove the forward-facing bolts, which will stay on the flange).
4
Pull the shaft rearwards and lower the front section. Remove the rubber coupling, the centre sleeve and the locating
plate (photo).
5
Refit by reversing the removal operations, observing the alignment marks. Apply a little anti-seize compound to the

locating plate pin.


Fig. 7.1 Propeller shaft rubber coupling (Sec 3)
A Centre sleeve B Locating piate

3
Remove all the flange nuts and bolts except one at each end (photo). Leave these last ones loose.
4
Have an assistant support the shaft. Remove the bolts which secure the centre bearing carrier (photo).
5
With the aid of the assistant, remove the remaining flange bolts. Remove the shaft and bearing from under the
vehicle. Recover the rubber coupling (when fitted).
6
In the absence of an assistant, the shaft may be removed in two sections (rear section first). The two sections
simply pull apart. Release the rubber boot from the rear of the centre bearing carrier as this is done (photo).

Refit by reversing the removal operations, observing the flange alignment marks. Do not tighten the bearing carrier
bolts until the flange bolts have been tightened; the carrier fixings are slotted to allow the bearing to take up an unstrained position.
4 Propeller shaft - removal and refitting

1
2

Raise the vehicle on ramps or drive it over a pit.


Make alignment marks between the shaft flanges and the gearbox and axle flanges, and between the two sections

of the shaft.
5 Universal joints - overhaul
1 The joints may need to be overhauled because of excess play; a joint which is stiff will cause vibration and must also be overhauled.
3.3 Rubber coupling nuts and bolts
3.4 Rubber coupling locating plate
4.3 Propeller shaft rear flange - note alignment marks (arrowed)
jk -V ^"V- * ^ *

4.4 Propeller shaft centre bearing bolts


4.6 Withdrawing the rear section from the centre bearing
5.2 Universal joint repair kit
5.5 Raising a bearing cup

2
3
4
5

Obtain an overhaul kit (spider, bearing cups and circlips) for each joint (photo).
Clean the joint and apply penetrating oil or releasing fluid to the circlips.
Remove the circlips. If they are stuck, tap them with a punch.
Rest the yoke of the joint on the open jaws of a vice. Tap the flange with a plastic or copper hammer, or place a
piece of tube over the bearing cup and strike that, until the cup protrudes a little way (photo). Do not hit too hard, or clamp the shaft too
firmly in the vice - if it is distorted it will be scrap.
Grasp the bearing cup with self-locking pliers and withdraw it (photo). Recover any loose rollers.
Repeat this^process until the spider can be removed from the yoke and all the bearing cups have been removed.
Clean the cup seats in the shaft and flange.
Carefully remove the cups from the new spider. Check that each cup contains its complement of rollers and that the
seals are securely attached. The rollers should already be packed with grease.
Offer the spider to the yoke. Fit a cup to the spider, making sure that the rollers are not displaced (photo).

6
7
8
9
10

5.6 Removing a bearing cup


Tap the cup lightly to seat it, then press it in using the vice and a tube or socket (photo). The cup should be
recessed by 3 to 4 mm (0.12 to 0.16 in).

11

12
13
14
15

Fit the circlip to secure the cup (photo).


Similarly fit and secure the opposite cup, then assemble the rest of the joint in the same way.
Check the joint for freedom of movement. If it is stiff, tap it lightly with a plastic or copper hammer.
If vibration persists after overhauling the joints, it may be that the shaft needs to be balanced. This must be done by

a specialist.

6 Centre bearing - renewal


Note: Several different patterns of centre bearing and rubber boot have been fitted (Figs. 7.2 and 7.3). If buying new components in
advance, be careful to obtain the correct ones.
Remove the propeller shaft (Section 4) and separate the two sections.
Support the front of the bearing and cage on V-blocks or with a piece of split tubing. Press or drive the shaft out of
the bearing (photo). Recover the protective rings from both sides of the bearing.
If the bearing cage is undamaged, the old bearing can be driven out and a new one pressed in. Otherwise, renew
the bearing and cage complete.
Fit a new front protective ring to the shaft and tap it home with a wooden or plastic mallet.
Fit the new bearing and cage. Seat them with a piece of tube pressing on the bearing inner race.
Fit the rear protective ring, keeping it square as it is tapped home.
Check that the bearing spins freely, then reassemble the two sections of the shaft, observing the previously made
alignment marks. Use a new rubber boot and/or retaining rings if necessary.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Refit the shaft to the vehicle.

IQ
ti
25mm>

Fig. 7.2 Four different types of centre bearing (Sec 6)

Fig. 7.3 Five different types of rubber boot (Sec 6)


7 Fault diagnosis - propeller shaft
Reason(s)
Flange bolts loose Splined coupling worn Rubber coupling worn
Universal joint worn or seized
Centre bearing worn
Symptom
Noise when moving off

Noise or vibration when running


Shaft distorted or out of balance

Chapter 8 Rear axle

For modifications, and information app/icabfe to later models, see Supplement at end of manual
Contents

Fault diagnosis - rear axle.................................................................. 7


Genera! description............................................................................. 1
Halfshaft, bearing and seals - removal and refitting.......................... 5
Maintenance and inspection............................................................... 2
Oil level - checking.................................................................................. 3
Pinion oil seal - renewal ......................................................................... 4
Rear axle - removal and refitting
6
Specifications

General

Axle type .................................................


Ratio (depending on model and year)..

Lubrication
Lubricant type/specification:
Except limited slip differental ...........
Limited slip differential.......................
Lubricant capacity:
Type 1030 ..........................................
Type 1031 ..........................................

Pinion bearing preload

Turning torque at pinion (wheels free):


New bearing.......................................
Used bearing......................................

Torque wrench settings

Pinion flange nut:


Solid spacer .......................................
Collapsible spacer (see text) ............
Speedometer sensor locknut .................
Halfshaft retaining plate bolts.................
Trunking arm bracket bolts......................
Trailing arm bracket nuts.........................
Trailing arm to axle..................................
Panhard rod ............................................
Shock absorber lower mountings...........
Torque rods.............................................
Hypoid final drive gears; limited slip differential on some models 3.31, 3.54, 3.73 or 3.91:1

Hypoid gear oil, viscosity SAE 90EP, to API GL 5 or 6 (Duckhams Hypoid 90S)
Special Volvo oil (No 1 161 276-9), or gear oil as above with Volvo additive (No 1 161 129-0) (Duckhams Hypoid 90DL) ,
1.3 litres (2.3 pints) 1.6 litres (2.8 pints)

2.5 to 3.5 Nm (1.8 to 2.6 Ibf ft) 1.8 to 3.4 Nm (1.3 to 2.5 Ibf ft)
Nm

Ibf ft

200 to 250

148 to 185

180 to 280
25 to 40
40
45
85
45
85
85
140

133 to 207
18 to 30
30
33
63
33
63
63
103

1 General description
The rear axle is conventional in design. A rigid casing encloses the final drive unit and two halfshafts. The casing is located by two
torque rods bolted to a central subframe, by the two trailing arms and the Panhard rod.
The final drive unit is mounted centrally in the casing. It consists of the differential unit, the crownwheel and pinion. Drive from the
propeller shaft is transmitted to the crownwheel by the pinion. The differential unit is bolted to the crownwheel and transmits the drive to the
halfshafts. The differential gears and pinions allow the halfshafts to turn at different speeds when necessary, for example when cornering.
On some models the differential is of the 'limited slip' type. Here the difference in speed between the two halfshafts is limited by means
of friction clutches. This improves traction on slippery surfaces.
Work on the rear axle should be limited to the operations described in this Chapter. If overhaul of the final drive unit is necessary, consult a
Volvo dealer or other specialist.
2 Maintenance and inspection

1
Rectify any leakage.
2

Every 12 000 miles or annually, or if noise or leakage is evident, check the oil level as described in Section 3.
Routine oil changing is not specified by the makers, although a drain plug is provided.

3 Oil level - checking

1
2
3
a dipstick.
4

Park the vehicle on level ground. Raise the vehicle if wished to improve access to the rear axle, but keep it level.
Wipe clean around the filler/level plug and unscrew it (photo).
Oil should be up to the bottom of the plug hole. Check if necessary by inserting an angled piece of wire to serve as

Top up if necessary, using fresh gear oil of the specified type, via the plug hole (photo). Do not overfill: allow any
excess to drip out of the hole.
3.2 Removing the oil filler/level plug
3.4 Topping-up the axle oil
4.4 Pinion flange nut partly unscrewed
Refit and tighten the plug.

4 Pinion oil seal - renewal


Caution: If the axle has a collapsible spacer in front of the pinion bearing (denoted by the letter 'S' preceding the serial number), care
must be taken not to overtighten the pinion flange nut. If the nut is overtightened, it may be necessary to take the axle to a Volvo deafer for
a new spacer to be fitted.
Raise and support the rear of the vehicle on ramps, or drive it over a pit.
Unbolt the propeller shaft flange from the pinion flange. Make alignment marks between the flanges.
Paint or scribe alignment marks between the pinion flange and the flange nut.
Restrain the pinion flange with a bar and a couple of bolts. Unscrew the flange nut, counting the number of turns
needed to remove it (photo).
Pull off the pinion flange (photo). If it is tight, strike it from behind with a copper mallet. Be prepared for oil spillage.
Lever out the old oil seal. Clean the seal seat and tap in the new seal, lips inwards.
Inspect the seal rubbing surface of the pinion flange. Clean it, or renew the flange, as necessary.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Fig. 8.1 Cutaway view of final drive {Sec 1)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
8

Pinion shaft
Pinion bearing
Crownwheel
Lockplate
Shims
Differential carrier bearings
Differential carrier
Halfshaft
Oil the seal lips, then refit the flange.

Refit the flange nut. If the original flange and nut are being used, tighten the nut through the number of turns noted
and align the marks made before dismantling. With new components, proceed as follows:
fa) Axle with solid spacer - tighten the nut to the specified torque (b) Axle with collapsible spacer - tighten the nut to the lowest
specified torque, then use a spring balance to determine the pinion bearing preload (wheels free, handbrake off), if the preload is
lower than specified, carry on tightening the nut until it is correct. Do not exceed the maximum specified preload or tightening
torque
Refit the propeller shaft and lower the vehicle.
Check the axle oil level and top up if necessary.

10
11

5 Halfshaft, bearing and seals - removal and refitting

1
Remove the handbrake shoes (Chapter 9, Section 26).
2
Remove the four bolts which secure the halfshaft retaining plate (photo). Recover the handbrake shoe clips.
3
Refit the brake disc the wrong way round (drum facing outwards) and secure it with the wheel nuts, flat faces
inwards. Pull on the brake disc to withdraw the halfshaft. Be prepared for oil spillage.
4
With the halfshaft removed, the inner (axle oil) seal may be removed by prising it out of the axle tube (photo). Clean
the seal seat and tap the new seal into position using a mallet and a piece of tube.
5
Renewal of the outer (grease) seal and bearing should be left to a Volvo dealer or other specialist, as press tools
are required (photo).
6
Before refitting, make sure that the bearing and seal lips are packed with grease.
7
Clean the axle tube and retaining plate mating faces and apply sealant to them.
8
Fit the halfshaft into the axle tube, being careful not to damage the inner seal. Secure it with the retaining plate and
the four bolts, tightened to the specified torque. Remember to fit the handbrake shoe clips.

4.5 The oil seal exposed by removal of the 5.2 Undoing a halfshaft retaining plate bolt 5.4 The inner oil seal in the axle tube flange
Remove the brake disc (if not already done) and refit the handbrake shoes.

Fig. 8.2 Sectional view of halfshaft, bearing and seals (Sec 5)


Bearing retainer
Grease space
5.5 The outer oil seal is below the bearing
Halfshaft
Lockplate
Seals
Check the rear axle oil level and top up if necessary.

4
5

1
2
3
10

6 Rear axle - removal and refitting


1 Slacken the rear wheel nuts. Raise and support the vehicle with the rear wheels free. Caution: if raising the front of the vehicle as well,
place the supports under the front control arm brackets, not under the

jacking points. If the front jacking points are used, the vehicle may become nose-heavy.
Remove the rear wheels.
Remove the rear brake calipers (without disconnecting them), the brake discs and the handbrake shoes. Refer to
Chapter 9 for full details.
Disconnect the handbrake cables from the brake backplates and from the brackets on the axle.
Unbolt the axle torque rods from the subframe, and the lower torque rod from the axle.
Support the axle with a cradle and a jack. Take the weight of the axle on the jack.
If the exhaust system runs below the axle, remove it.
Remove the Panhard rod.
Disconnect the speedometer sender/ETC multi-plug(s) (as applicable). The speedometer sender multi-plug may be
secured by a locking wire and seal, which must be broken.
Unbolt the propeller shaft/axle flanged joint.
Unbolt the upper torque rod from the axle.
Unbolt the rear shock absorber lower mountings.
Remove the trailing arm front mounting bracket nuts and bolts.
Lower the axle, at the same time freeing the trailing arm front mountings, and remove it from under the
vehicle.
The anti-roll bar (if fitted) and the trailing arms may now be removed if wished. The trailing arms are
handed: do not mix them up.
Refit by reversing the removal operations, noting the following points:
When refitting the trailing arms to the axle, tighten the nuts progressively and in diagonal sequence to the specified
torque
Do not finally tighten the torque rods until the weight of the vehicle is back on the wheels (or jack the axle up to
simulate this condition)

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
(a)
(b)

Fig. 8.3 Rear axle attachments (Sec 6)

(c)

Check the axle oil level on completion


7 Fault diagnosis - rear axle

Symptom Reason(s)
Oil level low or incorrect grade Bearings worn or damaged Gear teeth worn or damaged
Differential worn or damged
Right-hand halfshaft bearing worn (and vice versa)
Noise on drive or overrun

Noise when turning (either way) Noise when turning left only Knock when taking up drive
Propeller shaft flange bolts loose Wheel nuts loose Pinion flange loose Halfshaft splines worn Final drive worn or
damaged

Chapter 9 Braking system

For modifications, and information appficab/e to later models, see Supplement at end of manual
Contents
ABS - fault tracing...............................................................................
ABS components - removal and refitting ...........................................
Anti-lock braking system (ABS) - description.....................................
Brake discs - inspection.....................................................................
Brake fluid level - checking................................................................
Brake master cylinder - overhaul ......................................................
Brake master cylinder - removal and refitting ...................................
Brake pedal - removal and refitting ...................................................
Brake servo - checking operation ......................................................
Brake servo - overhaul ......................................................................
Brake servo - removal and refitting ...................................................
Fault diagnosis - braking system ......................................................
Front brake caliper - overhaul ...........................................................
Front brake caliper - removal and refitting ........................................
Front brake disc - removal and refitting..............................................
Front brake pads - inspection and renewal .......................................
General description ............................................................................
Handbrake - adjustment......................................................................
Handbrake cables - removal and refitting..........................................
Handbrake shoes - removal, inspection and refitting.........................
Handbrake warning switch - removal and refitting ............................
Hydraulic pipes and hoses - inspection and renewal.........................
Hydraulic system - bleeding................................................................
Maintenance and inspection...............................................................
Pressure differential warning valve - overhaul ..................................
Pressure differential warning valve - removal and refitting ...............
Rear brake caliper - overhaul ............................................................
Rear brake caliper - removal and refitting..........................................
Rear brake disc - removal and refitting..............................................
Rear brake pads - inspection and renewal ........................................
Stop-light switch - removal and refitting .............................................
Vacuum pump - overhaul ...................................................................

32
31
30
14
3
18
17
21
6
23
22
33
11
10
15
4
1
7
27
26
29
8
9
2
20
19
13
12
16
5
28
25

Vacuum pump - removal and refitting


24
Specifications
Discs all round. Hydraulic operation with servo assistance. Anti-lock braking (ABS) on some models Mechanical to drums on rear wheels
Double triangular Front-rear
Hydraulic fluid to DOT 4 (Duckhams Universal Brake and Clutch Fluid)

3.0 mm (0.12 in) 2.0 mm (0.08 in)

280 mm (11.02 in)


262 or 287 mm (10.32 or 11.30 in)
14.0 mm (0.55 in) 11.0 mm (0.43 in)
22.0 mm (0.87 in) 20.0 mm (0.79 in) 0.08 mm (0.003 in) maximum
281 mm (11.06 in)

General

System type:
Footbrake ................................
Handbrake...............................
Hydraulic system split:
Without ABS.............................
With ABS .................................
Hydraulic fluid type/specification

Brake pads

Lining minimum thickness:


Front pads ...............................
Rear pads ...............................

Front brake discs

Diameter:
Solid.........................................
Ventilated..................................
Thickness - solid:
New..........................................
Wear limit ................................
Thickness - ventilated:
New..........................................
Wear limit.................................
Run-out .........................................

Rear brake discs

Diameter........................................
Thickness:
New..........................................
Wear limit.................................
Run-out .........................................
9.6 mm (0.38 in) 8.4 mm (0.33 in) 0.10 mm (0.004 in) maximum Handbrake
Lever travel:
After adjustment...........................
In service ....................................
Drum diameter..................................
Drum run-out ....................................
Drum out-of-round.............................

Torque wrench settings

Front caliper bracket screws.............


Rear caliper mounting bolts*.............
Upper guide pin to caliper bracket .
Caliper guide pin bolts.......................
Front dust shield ...............................
Rear dust shield................................
Master cylinder nuts..........................
Rigid pipe unions...............................
Flexible hose unions.........................
3 to 5 clicks
11 clicks maximum
160.45 mm (6.317 in) maximum
0.15 mm (0.006 in) maximum
0.20 mm (0.008 in) maximum
Nm
100
58
25
34

Ibf ft
74
43
18
25

24
40
30
14
17
'Use new bolts every time
1 General description

18
30
22
10
13

The brake pedal operates disc brakes on all four wheels by means of a dual circuit hydraulic system with servo assistance. The
handbrake operates separate drum brakes on the rear wheels only by means of cables. An anti-lock braking system (ABS) is fitted to some
models, and is described in detail in Section 30.
The hydraulic system is split into two circuits, so that in the event of failure of one circuit, the other will still provide adequate braking
power (although pedal travel and effort may increase). Except on models with ABS, the split is 'triangular', ie each circuit serves one rear
caliper and half of both front ones.
The brake servo is of the direct-acting type, being interposed between the brake pedal and the master cylinder. The servo magnifies the
effort applied by the driver. It is vacuum-operated, the vacuum being derived from the inlet manifold or (on some models) a mechanical
vacuum pump.
Instrument panel warning lights alert the driver to hydraulic circuit failure (by means of a pressure differential valve) and on some models
Primary circuit
r Secondary circuit

9.1 The triangular split brake hydraulic system (Sec 1)


1 Master cylinder 2 Pressure differentia! warning valve
Fig. 9.2 Handbrake components (Sec 1)

1
Lever
2
Pivot
3
Adjuster
4
Left-hand (long) cable
5
Cable clamp
6
Axle mounting
7
Right-hand (short) cable
8
Guides
9
Shoe
1
Remove a front wheel. The brake pad lining thickness can now be seen through the inspection hole in the caliper.
However, for a thorough inspection it is preferable to remove the pads as follows.
2
Remove the caliper lower guide pin bolt, if necessary counterhold- ing the guide pin with an open-ended spanner
(photo). On Girling calipers, also slacken the upper guide pin bolt.
3
Pivot the caliper upwards, free the bellows and slide it off the guide pin (photo). Support the caliper so that the
hose(s) are not strained. Do not press the brake pedal whilst the caliper is removed.
4
Recover the pads from the caliper bracket, noting their positions if they are to be re-used (photo), Recover the antisqueal shims (if fitted) from the backs of the pads.
5
Measure the thickness of the pad friction linings. If any one pad lining has worn down to the specified minimum, all
four front pads must be renewed. Do not interchange pads in an attempt to even out wear. (Uneven pad wear may be due to the caliper
sticking on the guide pins).
Clean the caliper and bracket with a damp rag or an old paintbrush. Caution: Do not disperse brake dust into the
air, and avoid inhaling it, as it may contain asbestos. Inspect the caliper piston and dust boots for signs of fluid leakage. Also inspect the
rubber bellows which cover the guide pins. Repair orrenew as necessary (Section 11).
Remove any scale or rust from the outer rim of the brake disc with a wire brush or file, Inspect the disc visually; if
brake judder has been a problem, carry out a more thorough inspection (Section 14).
If new pads are to be fitted, press the caliper pistons back into their bores with a pair of pliers, being careful not to
damage the dust boots. As the pistons are pressed back, the fluid level in the master cylinder reservoir wil rise. Remove some fluid if
necessary, using a syringe or an old poultry baster. Do not syphon the fluid by mouth: it is poisonous.
Apply anti-seize compound or disc brake lubricant to the backs of the pads and to the caliper guide pins. Do not
allow lubricant to contact the disc or pad friction surfaces. Also lubricate both sides of the anti-squeal shims (when fitted) and fit them to the
pads.
Slide the caliper onto the upper guide pin and engage the bellows. Position the pads with the friction surfaces
towards the disc and swing the caliper down over the pads. Make sure that the anti-rattle spring in the caliper is sitting correctly on the
pads.
Apply thread locking compound to the guide pin bolt, insert it and tighten it to the specified torque (photo). On
Girling calipers, also tighten the upper guide pin bolt.
Press the brake pedal several times to bring the pads up to the disc.
Repeat the operations on the other front brake.
Refit the roadwheels, lower the vehicle and tighten the wheel nuts.
Check the brake fluid level and top up if necessary.

6
7
8
9

10
11
12
13
14
15

3.2 Topping-up the brake fluid


4.2 Removing a front caliper lower guide pin bolt
4.3 Pivot the caliper upwards

16

If new pads have been fitted, avoid hard braking as far as possible for the first few hundred miles to allow the linings

to bed in.
4.4 One brake pad partly removed
Fig. 9.4 Apply anti-seize compound to the caliper guide pins (arrowed) (Sec 4)

9
Anti-squeal shims may be fitted if wished, even if none were fitted before.
10
If new pads are to be fitted, press the caliper pistons back into their bores. Remove a little fluid from the master
cylinder reservoir if necessary to prevent overflow.
11
Smear the backs of the pads and both sides of the anti-squeal shims (if used) with anti-seize compound or disc
brake lubricant. Keep this off the friction surfaces of the pads.
12
Fit the pads and shims into the jaws of the caliper with the friction surfaces towards the disc (photo).
13
Insert one of the pad retaining pins and tap it home. Fit a new anti-rattle spring and the other pad retaining pin,
making sure that the pins pass over the tongues of the spring (photo).
14
Repeat the operations on the other rear brake.
15
Refit the roadwheels, lower the vehicle and tighten the wheel nuts.
16
Pump the brake pedal several times to being the new pads up to the discs.
17
18

4.11 Use thread locking compound on the guide pin bolt


Check the brake fluid level and top up if necessary.
If new pads have been fitted, avoid harsh braking as far as possible for the first few hundred miles to allow the

linings to bed in.

6 Brake servo - checking operation


5 Rear brake pads - inspection and renewal

1
Slacken the rear wheel nuts, raise and support the rear of the
vehicle and remove the rear wheel.
2
The pad lining thickness can now be seen through the jaws of the caliper. For a more thorough inspection, or to
renew the pads, proceed as follows.
3
Drive the two retaining pins out of the caliper using a hammer and punch (photo). Recover the anti-rattle spring.
Obtain a new spring for reassembly.
4
Press each pad away from the disc, using pliers. Do not lever between the pads and the disc.
5
Pull the pads out of the caliper, along with the anti-squeal shims (if fitted). Identify their position if they are to be reused. Do not press the brake pedal with the pads removed.
6
Measure the thickness of the pad friction linings. If any one pad lining has worn down to the specified minimum, all
four rear pads must be renewed. Do not interchange pads in an attempt to even out wear.
7
Clean the caliper with a damp rag or an old paintbrush. Caution: Do not disperse brake dust into the air, and avoid

inhaling it, as it may contain asbestos. Inspect the caliper pistons and dust boots for signs of fluid leakage. Repair or renew as necessary
(Section 13).
Inspect the visible surface of the brake disc. If deep scoring, cracks or grooves are evident, or if brake judder or
snatch has been a problem, carry out a more thorough inspection (Section 14). Remove the caliper if necessary for access to the inboard
face of the disc.
Normally servo malfunction will be evident to the driver by the increased effort needed at the pedal. A quick check
may be made as follows.
With the engine stopped, apply the footbrake several times to destroy any residual vacuum.
Hold the brake pedal depressed and start the engine. If the servo is working, the pedal will be felt to move
downwards slightly. If not, there is a fault in the servo, the non-return valve or hose, or (when fitted) the vacuum pump.

8
1
2
3

7 Handbrake - adjustment

1
The handbrake should be fully applied within the specified number of clicks of the lever ratchet. Adjustment will be
necessary periodically to compensate for lining wear and cable stretch.
2
Remove the rear ashtray and the cigarette lighter/seat belt warning light panel for access to the cable adjuster
(photo).
3
Release the locking sleeve from the front of the adjuster, either by driving the sleeve forwards or by pulling the
adjuster back. Turn the adjuster nut until handbrake operation occurs within the specified number of clicks. Check that the brake is not
binding when the lever is released.
Re-engage the locking sleeve and refit the panel and rear ashtray.

8 Hydraulic pipes and hoses - inspection and renewal


1 Inspect the rigid pipes for security in their mountings. The pipes must be free from rust or impact damage.
5.3 Driving out a pad retaining pin
5.13 Fitting a pad retaining pin over the spring tongue
5.12 Refitting a rear pad and anti-squeal shim
7.2 Handbrake cable adjuster (arrowed) with surrounding trim removed

Inspect the flexible hoses for cracks, splits and bulges. Bend the hoses between finger and thumb to show up small
cracks. Renew any hoses whose condition is at all dubious. It is worth considering the renewal of the hoses on a precautionary basis at the
time of fluid renewal.
Details of pipe and hose renewal will vary according to the location of the item in question, but the basic steps are
the same.
Minimise hydraulic fiuid loss by removing the master cylinder reservoir cap, placing a piece of plastic film over the
reservoir and tightening the cap over it.

3
4

5
Clean around the unions which are to be disconnected. Undo the unions - with a flexible hose, release it at the rigid
pipe first, then from the caliper. Free the pipe or hose from any mounting clips and remove (photos).
6
Before refitting, blow through the new pipe or hose with dry compressed air. Any bending needed for a rigid pipe
should take place before the unions are connected. If genuine Volvo parts are used, the pipes should fit without bending.
7
When satisfied that the pipe or hose is correctly routed and will not foul adjacent components, refit and tighten the
unions.
8
Bleed the hydraulic system as described in Section 9.
9 Hydraulic system - bleeding
1 Whenever the hydraulic system has been overhauled, a part renewed or the level in the reservoir has become too low, air will have
entered the system. This will cause some or all of the pedal travel to be used up in compressing air rather than pushing fluid against brake
pistons. If only a little air is present, the pedal will have a 'spongy' feel, but if an appreciable amount has entered, the pedal will not offer
any appreciable resistance to the foot and the brakes will hardly work at all.:
To overcome this, brake fluid must be pumped through the hydraulic system until all the air has been passed out in
the form of bubbles in the fluid.
If only one hydraulic circuit has been disconnected, only that circuit need be bled. If both circuits have been
disconnected, or at time of fluid renewal, the whole system must be bled.
With ABS
LH front RH front LH rear RH rear
Bleed the system in the following order:
Without ABS
RH rear LH rear RH front LH front
There are two bleed screws on each front caliper, and one on each rear caliper (photo).

2
3
4
5

Bleeding with an assistant

6
7
8

Gather together two clear plastic tubes to fit over the bleed screws, a glass jar and a supply of fresh brake fluid.
Top up the master cylinder reservoir. Keep it topped up throughout the operation.
Attach the tube(s) to the bleed screw(s) of the first caliper to be bled (paragraph 4). Pour a little brake fluid into the
jar and place the open ends of the tube(s) in the jar, dipping into the fluid.

Slacken the bleed screw(s). Have the assistant depress and release
8.5A Releasing a hose-to-pipe union .
J.5B ... and removing the securing clip
mmM
9.5 Bleed screw (arrowed) on a rear caliper
the brake pedal five times, stopping on the fifth downstroke. Tighten the bleed screw{s) and have the assistant release the pedal.
Top up the master cylinder reservoir.
Repeat paragraphs 9 and 10 until clean fluid, free from air bubbles, emerges from the bleed screw(s).
Repeat the process on the remaining calipers in the order given.
On completion, check that the brake pedal feels hard. Top up the master cylinder reservoir and refit the cap.
Discard the fluid bled from the system as it is not fit for re-use. Dispose of it in a sealed container.

10
11
12
13
14

Bleeding using a one-way valve kit

15
There are a number of one-man brake bleeding kits curently available from motor accessory shops. These devices
simplify the bleeding process and reduce the risk of expelled air or fluid being drawn back again into the system.
16
To use this type of kit, connect the outlet tube to the bleed screw and then open the screw half a turn. If possible,

position the tube so that it can be viewed from inside the car. Depress the brake pedal as far as possible and slowly release it. The oneway valve in the bleed kit will prevent expelled air or fluid from returning to the system at the end of each pedal return stroke (photo).
Repeat this operation until clean hydraulic fluid, free from air bubbles, can be seen coming through the bleed tube. Tighten the bleed screw
and remove the tube.
Repeat the operations on the remaining bleed screws in the correct sequence. Make sure that throughout the
process the fluid reservoir level never falls so low that air can be drawn into the master cylinder, otherwise the work up to this point will
have been wasted.

17

Bleeding using a pressure bleeding kit

18
19

These, too, are available from motor accessory shops and are usually operated by air pressure from the spare tyre.
By connecting a pressurised container to the master cylinder fluid reservoir, bleeding is then car r ie d out by simply
opening each bleed screw in turn and allowing the fluid to run out, rather like turning on a tap, until air bubbles are no longer visible in the
fluid being expelled.
11.3 Removing the caliper anti-rattle spring
Using this system, the large reserve of hydraulic fluid provides a safeguard against air being drawn into the master
cylinder during the bfeeding process.

20

10 Front brake caliper - removal and refitting

Conventional system

Proceed as for brake pad removal (Section 4), but additionally disconnect the caliper hoses from the hydraulic pipes
at the bracket on the inner wing. Identify the hoses so that they can be refitted to the same pipes; be prepared for hydraulic fluid spillage.
Keep dirt out of the
open unions.
If it is wished to remove the caliper bracket, undo the two Allen screws which secure it to the steering knuckle.
Obtain new screws for reassembly.
When refitting the caliper bracket, apply thread locking compound to the Allen screws and tighten them to the
specified torque.
Refit the caliper as described in Section 4 and reconnect the hydraulic hoses.

2
3
4
5

Bleed the hydraulic system on completion (Section 9). ABS

Proceed as above, but note that as there is only one hydraulic hose per caliper, the hose-to-pipe union can be left
undisturbed. Slacken the hose union at the caliper, remove the caliper from the guide pins and unscrew it from the hose. Check the 'set' of
the hose when refitting.
11 Front brake caliper - overhaul

1
2
3

With the brake caliper removed (Section 10), clean it externally with methylated spirit and a soft brush.
Remove the hydraulic hose(s) and the bleed screws. Empty any remaining hydraulic fluid out of the caliper.
Remove the anti-rattle spring (photo).
9.16 One-way valve bleeder connected to a front bleed screw
Fig. 9.6 Two Allen screws (arrowed) which secure the front caliper bracket (Sec 10)

Remove one of the piston dust boots and pull the piston out of its bore (photos). If it is reluctant to move, refit the
bleed screws and

apply low air pressure (eg from a foot pump) to the fluid inlet. Caution: The piston may be ejected with some force.

5
Hook out the piston seal from the bore using a blunt instrument.
6
Repeat the above operations on the other piston. Identify the pistons if they are to be re-used.
7
Clean the pistons and bores with a lint-free rag and some clean brake fluid or methylated spirit. Slight imperfections
may be polished out with steel wool. Pitting, scoring or wear ridging of bores or pistons mean that the whole caliper must be renewed.
8
Renew all rubber components (seals, dust boots and bellows) as a matter of course. Blow through the fluid inlet and
bleed screw holes with compressed air.
9
Check that the guide pins slide easily in their housings. Clean or renew them as necessary, and lubricate them with
a copper-based anti-seize compound.
10
Lubricate a new piston seal with clean brake fluid. Insert the seal into the groove in the bore, using the fingers only
to seat it (photo).
11
Fit a new dust boot to the piston at the end furthest from the piston groove. Extend the dust boot ready for fitting.
12
Lubricate the piston and bore with clean brake fluid, or with assembly lubricant if this is supplied with the repair kit.
13
Offer the piston and dust boot to the caliper. Engage the dust boot with the groove in the piston housing, then push
the piston through the dust boot into the caliper bore. Engage the dust boot with the groove on the piston.
14
Repeat the above operations on the other piston and bore.
15
Refit the bleed screws, hydraulic hoses and other disturbed components.
16
Refit the caliper to the vehicle.
12 Rear brake caliper - removal and refitting

1
2
3

Remove the rear brake pads (Section 5).


Clean around the hydraulic union on the caliper. Slacken the union half a turn.

Remove the two bolts which secure the caliper. Of the four bolts on the caliper, these are the two nearest the hub.
Do not remove the other two bolts, which hold the caliper halves togther. Obtain new bolts for refitting.
Fig. 9.8 Rear brake caliper removal (Sec 12)
Fig. 9.7 Caliper dust boot and piston. Fit the boot to the
end furthest from the groove (arrowed) (Sec 11)
A Rear pads
C Caliper securing bolts

fv-^gg

B Hydraulic union

4
Remove the caliper from the disc and unscrew it from the hydraulic hose (photo). Be prepared for fluid spillage.
Plug or cap open unions.
5
Commence refitting by screwing the caliper onto the flexible hose. Do not tighten the union fully yet.
6
Fit the caliper over the disc and secure it to the axle bracket with two new bolts. Tighten the bolts to the specified
torque.
7
Tighten the flexible hose union at the caliper. Check that the routing and 'set' of the hose are such that it does not
contact adjacent components. Correct if necessary by releasing the hose union at the brake pipe bracket, repositioning the hose and
tightening the union.

8
9

Fig. 9.9 Using a template (Volvo tool 2919) to determine the correct position of the rear caliper piston stop (Sec 13)
Refit the brake pads (Section 5).
Bleed the appropriate hydraulic circuit (Section 9).

13 Rear brake caliper - overhaul


This is essentially the same procedure as that described for the front caliper (Section 11). In addition, note the
following points.
Do not attempt to separate the caliper halves.
Pay attention to the position of the step on the piston (photo). It should be at a 20 angle to the lower surface of the
caliper (see Fig. 9.9),

1
2
3

14 Brake discs - inspection

1
Whenever new pads are fitted, or if brake judder or snatch is noticed, inspect the brake discs as follows.
2
Inspect the friction surfaces for cracks or deep scoring (light grooving is normal and may be ignored). A cracked disc
must be renewed; a scored disc can be reclaimed by machining provided that the thickness is not reduced below the specified minimum.
3
Check the disc run-out by positioning a fixed pointer near the outer edge, in contact with the friction surface. Rotate

the disc and measure the maximum displacement of the pointer with feeler blades. A dial test indicator, if available, will give a more
accurate result. Maximum run-out is given in the Specifications. Remember that front wheel bearing wear or maladjustment can also cause
disc run-out.
Disc thickness variation in excess of 0.015 mm (0.0006 in) can also cause judder. Check this using a micrometer.
Whenever the rear discs are removed, check the condition of the handbrake drums. Refinishing, run-out and out-ofround limits are given in the Specifications. The drums are unlikely to wear unless the handbrake is habitually used to stop the vehicle.
15 Front brake disc - removal and refitting

4
5

1
Remove the brake caliper and bracket (Section 10), but do not disconnect the hydraulic hoses. Tie the caliper up so
that the hoses are not strained.
2
Prise or tap off the hub nut grease cap. Obtain a new cap if the old one is damaged during removal.
3
Remove the split pin from the hub unit. Unscrew and remove the nut.
4
Pull the brake disc outwards to displace the bearing outboard race. Recover the race, then pull the disc off the stub
axle.
5
If the bearing inboard race has stayed on the stub axle, pull or lever it off.
6
Clean the stub axle and the oil seal mating face.
7
If a new disc is to be fitted, transfer the bearing tracks to it if they are in good condition, or fit new ones. Renew the
oil seal in any case (Chapter 10, Section 15).
8
Clean rustproofing compound off a new disc with methylated spirit and a rag.
9
Grease the stub axle and the oil seal lips. Place the disc and bearing assembly onto the stub axle and push it home.
Fit the bearing outboard race.
10
Fit the castellated nut, Adjust the bearings (Chapter 10, Section 4) and secure the nut with a new split pin.
11
Half fill the grease cap with grease, then fit it to the disc and tap it home.
12
Refit the brake caliper and bracket (Section 10).

16 Rear brake disc - removal and refitting

1
way.
2
3
4

Remove the rear brake caliper without disconnecting the hydraulic hose (Section 12). Tie the caliper up out of the
If a wheel locating spigot is fitted, unscrew it from the disc (photo).
Make sure that the handbrake is released, then pull off the disc. Tap it with a soft-faced mallet if necessary to free it.
Refit by reversing the removal procedure. If a new disc is being fitted, remove the traces of rustproofing compound

from it.

17 Brake master cylinder - removal and refitting

1
Syphon as much fluid as possible from the master cylinder reservoir, using a hydrometer or old poultry baster. Do
not syphon the fluid by mouth, it is poisonous.
2
Unbolt the heat shield (when fitted) from around the master cylinder.
3
Disconnect the clutch master cylinder feed pipe from the side of the reservoir (when applicable). Be prepard for fluid
spillage. Plug the open end of the pipe (photo).

16.2 Removing a wheel locating spigot

4
Disconnect the hydraulic unions from the master cylinder. Be prepared for fluid spillage. Cap the open unions to
keep dirt out (photo).
5
Remove the nuts which secure the master cylinder to the servo. Pull the master cylinder off the servo studs and
remove it (photo). Be careful not to spill hydraulic fluid on the paintwork.
6
Refit by reversing the removal operations. Bleed the complete brake hydraulic system, and if necessary the clutch
hydraulic system, on completion.

18 Brake master cylinder - overhaul

1
2

Empty the fluid out of the master cylinder by pumping the pistons with a screwdriver. Clean the cylinder externally.
Pull the reservoir off the master cylinder and recover the seals (photo).

Non-ABS models

3
Depress the pistons and extract the circlip from the mouth of the cylinder (photo).
4
Shake the pistons, spring seat and spring out of the cylinder.
5
Inspect the master cylinder bore. If it is badly corroded or scratched, renew the cylinder complete. Light scoring or
surface rust may be removed with steel wool and methylated spirit.
6
Obtain a repair kit, which will contain new pistons with seals already fitted.
7
Clean all parts not being renewed with methylated spirit. Blow through fluid passages with an air line or foot pump.
Fig. 9.10 Removing a rear brake disc (Sec 16)

Lubricate the cylinder bore with clean hydraulic fluid. Apply more fluid to the pistons and seals, or smear them with
assembly lubricant if this is supplied in the kit.
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17.3 Disconnecting the clutch feed pipe
17.4 A master cylinder hydraulic union
17.5 Removing the master cylinder
18.2 Removing the reservoir from the master cylinder
18.3 Remove the circlip to release the pistons
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18.9A Fitting the spring seat...
18.9B ... and the spring
18.9C Fitting the pistons into the master cylinder
18.10 Clearing the reservoir cap breather hole

9
Assemble the spring, spring seat and pistons. Make sure that all components are perfectly clean, then insert the
spring and pistons into the master cylinder. Depress the pistons and insert the circlip (photos).
10
Refit the reservoir and seals; renew the seals if necessary. Make sure that the reservoir cap breather hole is clear
(photo).

ABS models

11

The procedure is similar to that just described, but the pistons are retained by a roll pin as well as by a circlip.

19 Pressure differential warning valve - removal and refitting

1
2

Seal the master cylinder reservoir by blocking the cap vent, or by tightening the cap over a piece of thin plastic film.
Clean the valve and its unions. It is located on the left-hand inner wing; access is not good (photo).

3
Disconnect the eight hydraulic unions for the valve, making notes for refitting if there is any possibility of confusion.
Be prepared for fluid spillage; cap open unions.
4
Disconnect the electrical lead from the valve.
5
Remove the single securing bolt and remove the valve. Do not drip fluid on the bodywork.
6
Refit by reversing the removal operations. Bleed the complete hydraulic system on completion and check that the
brake failure warning light operates correctly.

20 Pressure differential warning valve - overhaul


it is possible to carry out this procedure on the vehicle, but great care must be taken to keep dirt out of the hydraulic system.
Thoroughly clean the outside of the valve.

Fig. 9.11 Brake master cylinder components - ABS type. Roll pin fits into piston groove (arrowed) (Sec 18)

Unscrew the switch from the top of the valve. Recover the spring and contact pin (photos). 220
19.2 The pressure differential warning valve
Fig. 9.12 Removing the roll pin and circlip from the ABS type master cylinder (Sec 18)

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20.2A Unscrew the switch ...