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Flow Velocities

Line Printed Heading Comments


11 Window Parallel
Velocity
Like Window velocity Used in parallel flow amplitude (line 26) calculations, this

velocity takes into account leakage streams present in exchanger.


12 Bundle Crossflow
Velocity

Based on B-stream flow fraction and integral average flow area in tube row
perpendicular to general direction of crossflow. In most cases, Center
velocity is the same as Shellside velocity on Final Results. However, values
at inlet and outlet are based on layout seen as flow entering the exchanger.
For example, for 30-degree layout and parallel baffle cut, flow looks like
60-degree bundle and velocity is calculated appropriately. Xist uses this
value to calculate Average crossflow velocity ratio in Fluidelastic Instability
Check area and Crossflow amplitude in Tube Vibration Check area of
output.
Xist uses this value to calculate vortex-shedding frequency ratio (line 24),
turbulent-buffeting frequency ratio (line 25), crossflow amplitude (line 27), and
turbulent buffeting amplitude (line 28).
13 Bundle/Shell Velocity Flow velocity of C-stream at each location in exchanger based on physical

properties. Printed for information only, it is not used in any calculations.


This stream can cause flow-induced vibration in tubes near the shell if velocity is
high. Printed for information only.

Fluidelastic Instability Check


Line Printed Heading Comments
15 Log Decrement Reprint of input or calculated value used to calculate critical velocity for fluidelastic
instability, line 16
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Line Printed Heading Comments


Default HTRI method includes damping from tube supports and from fluid
viscosity. For two-phase fluids, an additional viscous damping term is included.
The minimum log decrement for gasses is 0.025, for liquids 0.038 o 0.10.
If you select the TEMA log decrement option, Vibration panel, Xist calculates
values per TEMA Standards, 8th edition.
16 Critical Velocity Critical crossflow velocity for predicting onset of fluidelastic instability using as
indicated on line 3 and log decrement on line 15
17 Baffle Tip Cross
Velocity Ratio
Based on B-stream flow fraction, local density, and minimum flow area at baffle tip
Calculated value is divided by critical velocity (line 16) to obtain baffle tip cross
velocity ratio. For conservative designs, this ratio should be less than 0.80. If this
ratio is greater than 1.0, fluidelastic instability vibration is probable.
18 Average Crossflow
Velocity Ratio
Main crossflow stream, calculated at integral average flow area using Stream
Analysis Method
This value is B-stream velocity used for crossflow heat transfer and pressure
drop calculations, same as bundle crossflow velocity for 30 and 90 but different
for 45 and 60 bundles. Xist uses it to calculate vortex-shedding and turbulentbuffeting
frequency ratios for acoustic vibration check in line 20 and line 22.
Calculated value is divided by critical velocity (line 16) to obtain average
crossflow velocity ratio. If this ratio is greater than 1.0, fluidelastic instability
vibration is probable.

Acoustic Vibration Check


Line Printed Heading Comments
20 Vortex-Shedding Ratio
(Gas or vapor only)
Ratio of vortex shedding frequency, calculated using average crossflow velocity
(line 18) and Fitz-Hugh Strouhal number, to lowest fundamental mode acoustic
frequency (line 9)
If ratio falls between 0.8 and 1.2 and Chen number threshold is exceeded,
acoustic vibration can occur.
If ratio exceeds 1.2, evaluate higher modes of acoustic vibration.

21 Chen Number
(Gas or vapor only)
Measure of energy content of fluid, used in conjunction with frequency ratios (lines
20 and 22) to determine if acoustic vibration problems are likely
If Chen number is less than 1300, acoustic vibration problem is unlikely.
If frequencies match and Chen number is between 1300 and 4000, acoustic
vibration problems are possible.
If frequencies match and Chen number is larger than 4000, an acoustic
vibration problem is probable.
22 Turbulent-Buffeting
Ratio (Gas or vapor
only)
Ratio of dominant turbulent-buffeting frequency calculated using average crossflow
velocity (line 18) to lowest fundamental mode acoustic frequency (line 10)
If ratio is between 0.8 and 1.2 and Chen number threshold is exceeded,
acoustic vibration can occur.
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Diagram of Vortex Shedding

Tube Vibration Check


Line Printed Heading Comments
24 Vortex-Shedding Ratio Ratio of vortex-shedding frequency using bundle crossflow velocity (line 12) and
Chen-Strouhal number to lowest frequency, indicated by plus sign (+) (line 8)
If ratio is greater than 0.5, tube vibration is possible with sufficient crossflow
amplitude (line 27).
25 Turbulent-Buffeting
Ratio
Ratio of dominant turbulent-buffeting frequency using bundle crossflow velocity
(line 12) to lowest frequency, indicated by plus sign (+) (line 8)
If ratio is greater than 0.5, tube vibration is possible with sufficient turbulent
buffeting amplitude (line 28).
26 Parallel Flow Parallel flow amplitude based on Chen-Weber method
Amplitude If greater than half the gap between adjacent tubes (line 28), collision damage is
probable.
27 Crossflow Amplitude Amplitude using span length (line 6), bundle crossflow velocity (line 12), and local
density
If greater than half the gap between adjacent tubes, collision damage is
probable. Baffle damage and fatigue can result from lower amplitudes after long
periods of operation.
28 Turbulent Buffeting
Amplitude
Amplitude using bundle crossflow velocity (line 13) and local density using the
equations from TEMA Standards, 8th Edition, Section V-11.3
TEMA recommends that this value be less than 0.02 times the tube diameter.
29 Tube Gap spacing between adjacent tubes, equal to tube pitch minus one tube diameter
Overfin diameter is used for finned tubes.
30 Crossflow RHO-V-SQ Product of local density and bundle crossflow velocity squared,
Crossflow velocity (line 12) is used.

Bundle Entrance/Exit
Line Printed Heading Comments
33 Fluidelastic Instability
Ratio
Ratio of calculated crossflow velocity at first tuberow (line 36) to critical velocity for
fluidelastic instability. For perpendicular cut baffles, the critical velocity appears on
line 16. For parallel cut baffles, the entry region is rotated in comparison to the
crossflow direction in the bundle, so that the critical velocity on line 16 is first
corrected for the difference in the layout angle before the ratio is calculated.
2
sfVcros

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If ratio is greater than 1.0, fluidelastic instability vibration is probable at bundle


entrance.
34 Vortex Shedding Ratio Ratio of vortex shedding frequency , calculated using crossflow velocity at first tube
row (line 36) and Chen-Strouhal no., to lowest natural frequency, indicated by a
plus sign (+) (line 8)
35 Crossflow Amplitude Amplitude calculated using span length (line 6), crossflow velocity at the first tube
row (line 36), and local density

If greater than half the gap between adjacent tubes, collision damage is
probable. Baffle damage and fatigue can result from lower amplitudes after long
periods of operation.
36 Crossflow Velocity Calculated using TEMA definition of bundle entrance area. Values are based on
layout seen by flow entering exchanger. For example, for 30-degree layout and
parallel baffle cut, the flow actually looks like a 60-degree bundle at entrance;
velocity is calculated appropriately. Based on local density and available crossflow
area calculated according to TEMA RCB-4.622 and RCB-4.623
37 Turbulent Buffeting
Amplitude
Amplitude calculated using crossflow velocity at the first tube row (line 36) and
local density using the equations from TEMA Standards, 8th ed., Section V-11.3
TEMA recommends that this value be less than 0.02 times the tube diameter.

Shell Entrance/Exit Parameters


Line Printed Heading Comments
39 Impingement Plate Indicates presence of impingement plate
40 Flow Area Entrance area considers presence or absence of an impingement plate. Exit area
is the escape area. The program uses this value to calculate velocities (line 41).
41 Velocity Entrance and exit velocities, based on flow areas (line 40) and local density. Xist
calculates this velocity using TEMA definition of shell entrance flow area. Values
are based on layout seen by flow entering exchanger. For example, with 30-degree
layout and parallel baffle cut, flow actually looks like a 60-degree bundle, and
velocity is calculated appropriately.
High velocities at entrance can cause erosion of tubes under nozzle if no
impingement plate is present.
42 RHO-V-SQ V at entrance and exit, based on velocities (line 41) and local density
43
47
Tube Description and
Layout Data
These lines summarize shell type, tube type (plain or finned), baffle type, baffle
layout, tube material, tube size, tube field layout angle, pitch ratio, and supports per
baffle space.

Exchanger Geometry Information


Printed headings without comments are self-explanatory.
Line Printed Heading Comments
43A Shell Type
43B Baffle Type
44A Tube Type
44B Baffle Layout
45A Pitch Ratio
45B Tube Diameter
46A Layout Angle
46B Tube Material
47 Supports/Baffle space
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Rating Data Sheet


Based on the TEMA Specification Sheet, the Rating Data Sheet offers an alternate format with several
additional items designed to allow you to quickly review the case. In some instances, it may be the
only
report you need for a preliminary evaluation of the case.
The following items (not present on the TEMA specification sheet) appear on the Rating Data Sheet:
Inlet and outlet fluid density
Critical pressure
Average film heat transfer coefficients
Calculated overall heat transfer coefficient
Percent overdesign in exchanger
Shell entrance rhoV2
Thermal resistances
Midpoint velocities
Stream Analysis flow fractions
The following information is available on the TEMA Specification Sheet, but not on the Rating Data
Sheet:
Flow quantities of steam, water, and noncondensables

Specific gravity (replaced by the density)


Molecular weights, vapor and noncondensable
Latent heat
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