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30 1 , pp.

25-35

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, , , ,
, !, 1900
8 5 , David Hilbert (18621943) ,
[1], ,
, ,
, ;
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, , ,
, , Riemann Goldbach
Hilbert , Hilbert
, ;
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Hilbert
! ,
Hilbert 1900 , , Henri
Poincare (18541912) Felix Klein (18491925) , ,
, ,
25

26 30 1 95 3

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[3]

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[4]
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, , , , Hilbert
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27

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Hilbert
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28 30 1 95 3

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: (1) ,
; (2) , , ;
(3) , ,
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,
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,
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, ,
, Hilbert
,
, , M. al-Khowarizmi (783-850)
x2 + px + q = 0 x = p/2
p
(p/2)2 q () 1545 G. Cardano (15011576) N. Fontana

(14991557) L. Ferrari (15221556)


,
, ,
1770 , J. L. Lagrange (17361813)
, 1824 N. H. Abel (18021829) ,
, E. Galois
(18111832) : Galois ,
, Galois Abel Galois
, : , (field) (group)

, ,
, ,
,
(ring) ,
, ,

29

1872 Klein Erlangen program,


,
, ,
: ,
, , : (1)
, (2) , ,
(3) , 5
, ,

, Abel, Galois
:
(module)
( 1.1):
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,
1.1.

.
, ,
: (Pythagoras, 500 )
, (Euclid) (Elements)[6] . Euclid ,
300 13 , 5 , 5 , 119
465 , , ,
,
, ,

30 30 1 95 3

,
, ,
, ,
, ,
R. Descartes (15961650) P. de Fermat (16011665)
, , (x, y)
, ,
, Descartes
,

............................................... ............................................. .............................................


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,
, , , , : , ,

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,
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,
, Descartes Fermat
, , ,
, Apollonius ( 262 190)
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31

? , ,
,
, :(1)
, ; (2)
, ; (3)
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,
, ,
, , ,
, :(1)
; (2) ; (3) ;(4)
; (5) , ,
,
, , , ,
() , :
,
, ,
, , C. F. Gauss (17771855) J. Bolyai
(18021860) N. U. Lobatchevsky (17921856) ,
:
,
, ,
, , ,
,
1854 (B. Riemann (18261866)) Euler, Gauss
, ,
, , ,
, ; , ,

, ,
, (A. Einstein (18791955))

32 30 1 95 3

, , ,
, Laplace-Beltrami ,
; , HeisenbergSchrodinger Planck
; ,
(position) (moment) ,
, , Lie bracket
(Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle),
: (sub-elliptic differential operators) ,
(subRiemannian geometry),
, [7]
, ,
, !
, ,
, , ,
, , ,
, ,


, , 6
sin x, cos x, . . . ,
, ,
, , , ,
, ,

, ,

x2 + 1 = 0 , 1 = i

, L. Euler (17071783) Euler ei = cos + i sin

, ,
Euler , ,
, Euler,
, ,
Euler ,

33

Euler , ,
,
( 1.2) :

..
.................................................................................................................................................................
...
..
...
...
...
...
...
..

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............................................................

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.

, Euler
.................................................................................................................................................

Riemann

,
1.2.
, Hilbert ,
, , : (1)
, ,
, , ,
;(2) , : ,
, , ,
: ,

.
, ?
,
, ,

34 30 1 95 3

, , ,
,
, , , ,
, ,
, , , ? ,
, ,
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
, ? ?
, ,
,
, ,
, Euler ei = cos + i sin ,
, Euler , ,
, , , Euler
,
: , , ,
, , : ,
:

, ,
, , ,
, , , ,
, , ,
, ; ,

: , !
, ,
, , , , ,
, Gauss, Bolyai, Lobatchevsky
, ,

35

, ,
, ; , LagrangeAbel Galois
, , Fermat
1637, 350 ,
, 1994 Andrew Wiles 125
, Wiles ; ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, , ,

1. D. Hilbert, Cottinger Nachrichten, 1900, 253297; The Bulletin of American Mathematical Society. 8, 1902, 437445, 478479.
2. , , , , , 2002
3. , , , , 1981
4. , , , , 2004
5. D. M. Burton, The History of Mathematics: An Introduction, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill,
New York, 2003.
6. Euclid, The thirteen books of the Elements, Trans from text of Heiberg with introduction and commentary by T. L. Heath, 3rd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
1908.
7. O. Calin, D. C. Chang and P. Griener, Geometric mechanics on the Heisenberg group
and its applications, to be published by American Mathematical Society & International
Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2006.
; Georgetown University

30 2 , pp. 12-27

.
,
, ,
, ,
, : (Archimedes, 287212)
,
, , (Newton)
( Leibniz) , ,
, , y = xn (n)
();
,
, , Newton-Leibniz
(): f (t) [a, b] , x [a, b]
,
(x) =

f (t)dt

(a < x < b)

(x) [a, b] ,
(x) = f (x)

(a < x < b)

d(x) = f (x)dx
12

13

, f (x) (x), (x) f (x)dx, f (x)


f (x) dx, :
Z x
(x) =
f (t)dt
a

d(x) = f (x)dx
(): (x) [a, b],
d(x)
dx
f (x),
Z x
f (t)dt = (x) (a)

(a x b).

, (x) f (x)dx, f (x) (x), (x)


(x) () , f (x)dx,

(x) (a) =

f (t)dt

, :
, , , ,
, ,
, , , ;
, ,
,
,
:
, f (x)[a, b], x0 [a, b] ,

f (x0 + x) f (x0 )
x0
x
lim

x 0 , f (x) x = x0 ,
df
(x0 )
dx

f (x0 )

14 30 2 95 6

f (x0 )dx f x = x0 ,
x = x0
[a, b] n 1 x1 , . . . , xn1 , a = x0 , b = xn , a = x0 < x1 <

x2 < < xn1 < xn = b, xj = xj xj1 , j [xj1 , xj ] ,


Sn =

n
X

f (j )xj ,

j=1

= max{j }, n , 0, limn,0 Sn ,
, f (x) [a, b] Riemann ,
Z b
f (x)dx
a

Sn (Riemann sum)
, : y = xm , m
, [0, 1] , y = xm ,
, y = xm , m = 2
, [0, 1] n , j = xj1 ,
 n 1 2 i
1 h 1 2  2 2
Sn =
+
++
n n
n
n
i
1h 2
= 3 1 + 22 + + (n 1)2
n
1 (n 1)n(n 2)
= 3
n
6
1 
1
1
1
1
2

=
6
n
n
3
: 12 + 22 + + (n 1)2 , m = 3 , y = x3

: 13 + 23 + + (n 1)3 ,

m , , y = xm [0, 1]
1m + 2m + + (n 1)m , ,
[0, 1] : y = xm , m ,
[a, b] , 0 < a < b OC = a, OD = b, C, D M1 , . . . , Mn1 ,
OM1 = aq, OM2 = aq 2 , . . . , OMn = aq n , Mn = D,
 b 1/n
C = M0 ,
q=
a

15

[a, b] , Nk y = xm x = OMk , Nk Mk
(aq k )m , Pk Nk1 x Nk Mk

2.1
Mk1 Nk1 Pk Mk
(aq k aq k1 )(aq k1 )m = (q 1)(aq k1)m+1
y = xm [a, b]
Sn = (q 1)(aq 11 )m+1 + (q 1)(aq 21 )m+1 + (q 1)(aq n1 )m+1

= (q 1)am+1 1 + q m+1 + q 2(m+1) + + q (m+1)(n1)
= (q 1)am+1

q (m+1)n 1
q m+1 1

q n = ab ,
 m+1
m+1

Sn = a

b
a

q m+1 1
q1

, , [a, b] ,
, n , q 1,

q m+1 1
m+1
q1

Sn

bm+1 am+1
m+1

Z
a

xm dx =

bm+1 am+1
m+1

16 30 2 95 6

m, 0 < a < b
, , , y =
xm , m , , , , y = xm
, , , , ,
, ,
? Newton Leibniz
, , , f (x) ,
, (x), (x) = f (x), , (x) f (x)
y = xm , (x), (x) = xm ,
, ,
, ,

.
,
, ,
, ,
, , :
, ,
,
, , ?
,
, ,
, ()
(George Green, 17931841) (): D xy
L , P (x, y) Q(x, y) D ,
I
ZZ 
Q P 
dxdy

P dx + Qdy =
x
y
L
D

L ( 2.2)

17

2.2.
(George Gabril Stokes, 18191903) ():
L, P (x, y, z), Q(x, y, z) R(x, y, z) ,
Z
ZZ 
 P R 
 Q P 
R Q 
dydz +
dzdx +
dxdy

P dx + Qdy + Rdz =
y
z
z
x
x y
L

2.3

2.3

2.4

(Carl Friendrich Gauss, 17771855) (


(Michel Ostrogradsky, 18011862) ): V
P (x, y, z), Q(x, y, z) R(x, y, z) V ,
ZZZ 
Z
Q R 
P
dv
+
+
P dydz + Qdzdx + Rdxdy =
x
y
z
ext
V

ext , dv V ( 2.4)

18 30 2 95 6

()

? ,
, ?
? , (exterior differential forms)
, , ,
(Georges William de Rham) [1] ,
, , 1958 Fields Medal
R. Thom (1923) , :
[2]
, , ,
, , :
L A B, , A B, B
A , A B B A , ,
, :
Z b
Z a
f (x)dx =
f (x)dx.
a

, , ,
, , ,
, , ABCD
( 2.5) , , ,
Mobius bend , ,
, , ,
Poincare ,

2.5. Mobius bend

19

: f (x, y) D ,
ZZ
X
f (x, y)dA = lim
f (j , j )Aj ,
D

Dxy, Aj ,
(j , j ) , Aj Aj , lim Aj
,
( 2.6)

2.6
D , Aj ,

x = x(u, v)
y = y(u, v)

(1)



(x, y)
dudv
dA = dxdy =
(u, v)

ZZ
D

f (x, y)dxdy =

ZZ
D



(x, y)

dudv
f (u(x, y), v(x, y))
(u, v)

, Jacobi (Jacobian) , D
D (1) , D ,
, Jacobi ,
ZZ
ZZ
(x, y)
dudv
f (x, y)dxdy =
f (u(x, y), v(x, y))
(u, v)
D

20 30 2 95 6

D ,

x

(x, y)

dxdy =
dudv = u
y
(u, v)

u


x

v dudv
y

v

(i) y = x,

(ii) x y ,


x


dxdx = u
x

u

y


dydx = u
x

u


x

v dudv = 0
x

v


y

v dudv = dxdy
x

v

dydx 6= dxdy, , dx dy , ,
(exterior product),
, dx dy , :

dx dx = 0 ()

dx dy = dy dx ()

dx dx = 0 dx dy = dy dx : ,

,
, P , Q, R, A, B, C, H, x, y, z , P dx + Qdy + Rdz
(, );
Adx dy + Bdy dz + Cdz dxdy
; Hdx dy dz ; P , Q, R, A, B, C, H,
, f 0

, ,

A, B, C, D, E, F , G, P , Q R x, y, z ,
= Adx + Bdy + Cdz
= Edx + F dy + Gdz
= P dy dz + Qdz dx + Rdx dy

21

=(Adx + Bdy + Cdz) (Edx + F dy + Gdz)


=AEdx dx + BEdy dx + CEdz dx
+ AF dx dy + BF dy dy + CF dz dy
+ AGdx dz + BGdy dz + CGdz dz.
,
dx dx = dy dy = dz dz = 0
dy dx = dx dy
dz dy = dy dz
dx dz = dz dx

= (BG CF )dy dz + (CE AG)dz dx + (AF BE)dx dy

= (AP + BQ + CR)dx dy dz.


, : , , ,
,
(i) ( + ) = + , ( + ) = + ;

(ii) ( ) = ( ) . , ,

(iii) p , q ,

= (1)pq .
dx dx = 0; dx dy = dy dx ,
: ~u, ~v () , ~u ~u = ~0, ~u ~v = ~v ~u,
, :
, f (x),
df =

f
f
f
dx +
dy +
dz
x
y
z

22 30 2 95 6

= P dx + Qdy + Rdz,
d = dP dx + dQ dy + dR dz
P , Q, R , ,
P
dx +
x
Q
dQ =
dx +
x
R
dx +
dR =
x
dP =

P
P
dy +
dz
y
z
Q
Q
dy +
dz
y
z
R
R
dy +
dz
y
z

,
 R Q 
 P
 Q P 
R 
d =
dy dz +
dz dx +
dx dy

y
z
z
x
x
y
= Ady dz + Bdz dx + Cdx dy,
d = dA dy dz + dB dz dx + dC dx dy
dA, dB, dC , ,
 A B C 
dx dy dz
+
+
d =
x
y
z
= Hdx dy dz , d = dH dx dy dz,

, d = 0 dH dx dy dz ,
, , ! ,

Poincare : , , dd =

0
:
Poincare : p , d = 0, p 1

, = d

,
Green :
ZZ 
Q P 
P dx + Qdy =
dxdy

x
y
L

23

1 = P dx + Qdy, 1 ,
 Q P 
d1 =
dx dy

x
y
, Green
I
ZZ
1 =
d1
Stokes :
Z
ZZ 
 P R 
 Q P 
R Q 
dydz +
dzdx +
dxdy

P dx + Qdy + Rdz =
y
z
z
x
x y
L

L , P dx + Qdy + Rdz = 2
,
 R Q 
 P
 Q P 
R 
d2 =
dy dz +
dz dx +
dx dy

y
z
z
x
x
y
Stokes

2 =

ZZ

d2

, Gauss :
ZZZ 
Z
P
Q R 
P dydz + Qdzdx + Rdxdy =
dxdydz
+
+
x
y
z
ext
V

V , P dydz + Qdzdx + Rdxdy = 3


,
d3 =
Gauas

 P

ZZ

Q R 
dx dy dz
+
y
z

3 =

ZZZ

d3

: , Green Stokes Gauss


, () (Stokes) ( Stokes )
Z
Z
=
d.

(2)

, , d, d, ,
R
d , , : Green

24 30 2 95 6

Stokes Gauss, ,
,
, , 0 , f (x),
[a, b], , a b, d

df
(x),
dx

Stokes

:
Z
a

b
df

(x)dx = f (x) = f (b) f (a),
dx
a

, Stokes

, (2) , , , Newton-Leibniz
; , , Green ;
, , Stokes ; ,
, Gauss , :

Newton-Leibniz

Green

Stokes

Gauss

(2) ,
, : d
,
,
(2) , ?
, Poincare , (2)
, : , 3 ,
Stokes (2) ; , () , (2)
, Stokes (2) ,
, , ; ,
3, , ; ,
, ,
, , ,

25

Stokes (2) , Stokes (2)


, ,
Hilbert ,
, ,
: , , Green Stokes
Gauss , , ,
Stokes (2), ,
, (2) , ,
, , (2)
, , ,
, ,
, , (2)
,
,
,
, , , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
(gradient) (curl) (divergence)

0 = f (x, y, z),
d1 = df =

f
f
f
dx +
dy +
dz
x
y
z

f (x, y, z)


f f f
grad(f ) = (f ) =
,
,
x y z

1 = P dx + Qdy + Rdz,
 R Q 
 P
 Q P 
R 
d1 =
dy dz +
dz dx +
dx dy

y
z
z
x
x
y




dy dz dz dx dx dy


= x

x
x


P
Q
R

26 30 2 95 6

~u =< P, Q, R >
 R Q 




~i + P R ~j + Q P ~k
curl(~u) = (~u) =

y
z
z
x
x
y



~
~j ~k
i

= x
x
x


P Q R
~i ~j ~k x y z ,

2 = Ady dz + Bdz dx + Cdx dy,


 A B C 
d2 =
dx dy dz
+
+
x
y
z
~v =< A, B, C >
div(~v ) = ~v =

A B C
+
+
x
y
z

,
? , , ,
, ,
, , ,
:

0

, Pioncare dd = 0, ,
, = f , dd f = 0

curl grad(f ) = ~0
1 , 1 = P dx+Qdy+Rdz, ~u =< P, Q, R >, dd1 = 0

div curl(~u) = 0

27

, Poincare : ~v ~v
, ~v = (f ) curl(~v ) = ~0, Poincare : d = 0

= d, , (
) , ~v ~v , ~v = curl(~v )
div (~v ) = 0, Poincare : d = 0 = d,
,

1. George William de Rham, Differential Manifold. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981.


2. , , 2000(1), 44-45
; Georgetown University

30 3 , pp. 31-41

.
, ,
,
, () ,
Stokes , ,
, , , ,

, , ?
: ,
, ,
, ,

, ,
, , ,
, , , (
, ), (,
) ,
(arithemetic), , (composition),
(inverse) , , ,
,
31

32 30 3 95 9

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

, (, ):

u(x) + v(x) = u (x) + v (x);

u(x) v(x) = u (x) v (x);

u(x)v(x) = u(x)v(x) + u(x)v (x);



(x)
u(x)
;
= u (x)v(x)u(x)v
v(x)
v2 (x)

(5) y = f (u), u = g(x),


dy
= f (g(x))g (x);
dx
(6) x = g(y) y = f (x), f (x) 6= 0,
g (y) =

f (x)

(1)(4) , (5) , (6)

, (1)(6) (1) (3) (5) (


, ):
R

R
R
(1 )
f (x) + g(x) dx = f (x) dx + g(x) dx;
R
R
(3 ) f (x)g(x) dx = f (x)g(x) f (x)g (x) dx;
R
(5 ) f (g(x))g (x) dx = f (g(x)) + C, C
(2) (4) (6) (2 ) (4 ) (6 ) , (2)
(1) , u(x) v(x) u(x) + (v(x)) ; (4) (3)
,

 u(x) 
v(x)

v(x) = u(x)

; (6) (5) , g(f (x)) = x ,


, (1) (3) (5)
, , (1 ) (3 ) (5 ),
, (1 ) ,

Z
P (x) Q(x) ,

P (x)
Q(x)

P (x)
dx,
Q(x)

, , ; (3 )
; (5 ) () (1) (3)

33

(5), , :
, ; ,
, ,
,
, , , ,
, ,
, , : (
) :
(a) (C) = 0, C;
(b) (x ) = x1 , ;
(c) (sin x) = cos x;
(d) (cos x) = sin x;
(e) (tan x) = sec2 x;

(f) (cot x) = csc2 x;

(g) (sec x) = sec x tan x;


(h) (csc x) = csc x cot x;
(i) (loge x) = x1 ;

(j) (ex ) = ex ;
(k) (ax ) = ax loge a;
1
;
1x2
1
(arccos x) = 1x
2 ;;
1
(arctan x) = 1+x
2;
1
(arccot x) = 1+x
2.

(l) (arcsin x) =
(m)
(n)
(o)

, (a)(o) , (b), (c), (i), (j)


():
R
n+1
(b ) xn dx = xn+1 + C, n 6= 1, C ;
R
(c ) cos xdx = sin x + C;
R
(i ) x1 dx = loge |x| + C;
R
(j ) ex dx = ex + C;

34 30 3 95 9

, , (b), (c), (i) , (j),


(b), (c), (i) , (j) (1)(6) (b ),
(c ), (i ), (j ) (b), (c), (i), (j) ,
, , ,
, , , ,
, (1), (3), (5), (b), (c), (i), (j)
, ,
, ,
, ,
, , ,

, , (Mean Value Theorem)


: F (x) [a, b] , [a, b] ,
F (b) F (a) = F ()(b a).
: f (x) [a, b] , [a, b] ,
b

Z
a

f (x)dx = f ()(b a).

[a, b] ,
y = F (x) (a, F (a)) (b, F (b)) ( 3.1);
[a, b] , y = f (x) [a, b]
b a f () ( 3.2) , ,

, (), (),
( ) () ,
Z x
f (t) dt = F (x)
a

, , , ,

35

3.1

3.2

, ,
,
, (Broox Taylor, 1685-1731) : f (x)
x = a n + 1 , f (x) x = a
f (x) = f (a) + f (a)(x a) +

f (a)
f (n) (a)
(x a)2 + +
(x a)n + Rn (x)
2!
n!

Rn (x) Taylor
, , Rn (x)

Rn (x) =

f (n+1) ()(x a)n+1


(n + 1)!

ax, Rn (x):
Z
1 x
(x t)n f (n+1) (t) dt
Rn (x) =
n! a
: , ,
Taylor , Taylor,
, , G.F.A.LHospital (1661-1704)
(), , ,
,
, ,

36 30 3 95 9

.
,
,
, ,
, :
(1) , x ,
(2) , sin x, cos x, . . ., arcsin x, arccos x, . . .;
(3) , ex , log x, . . .;
, ,
Euler ez = cos z + i sin z.
, :
sin z =

eiz eiz
,
2i

cos z =

eiz + eiz
.
2

: z = e ln z , z,
,
, , ,
, :

, Taylor , (J. Fourier, 1768-1830) ,


Taylor Fourier Fourier
? : ,
:
, ,
, ()
, (
) , ,
,

, , ,
,
Z
(s) =
ts1 et dt
(s > 0)
0

37

B
B(p, q) =

Z
0

tp1 (1 t)q1 dt

(p > 0,

q > 0)

, , ,
, , ,

, :
, ,
,
, , , :
f (x) x = a
f (x) = f (a) + f (a)(x a) +

f (a)
(x a)2 +
2!

Taylor , , y = f (a) + f (a)(x a), f (x)

x = a, f (x) x = a ,
x = a , f (x),
Taylor , f (x), Fourier


a0 X
+
an cos nx + bn sin nx
f (x) =
2
n=1

1
an =

1
bn =

f (x) cos nx dx,

f (x) sin nx dx,

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . Fourier , f (x) (
)
Fourier f (x), Fourier Taylor
Taylor, Fourier Fourier ,
,
,
, , Euler eix =
cos x + i sin x, Fourier
f (x) =

X
k=

ck eikx

38 30 3 95 9

1
ck =
2

f (x)eikx dx,

k = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

, , Taylor Fourier
, ,
, , , : x = [x1 . . . xn ]T n Euclid
D ,

f1 (x)
.
.
f (x) =
.
fn (x)
D, a = [a1 , . . . , an ]T D, f (x) x = a
Taylor



f1
(a)
f1 (a)
f1 (x)
x1
. . .
.. = .. + ..

fn
fn (a)
fn (x)
(a)
x1

fn
(a)
x1

..
.

fn
(a)
xn

f (x) = f (a) + Jf (a)(x a) +


Jf f Jacobi a , f (a) + Jf (a)(x a),

x = a , Jf (a)
, , , ,

:
()
( ); ,
,
,

.
,
, , ,
,

39

, ,
R +
P
n=0 an f (x)dx, ;
n=0 un (x)
R
0 f (u, x)du, ; Fourier


a0 X
+
an cos nx + bn sin nx
2
n=0

Fourier
1
2

f ()ei() d

Fourier ,
, ;
Fourier , ,
, ,
, ,

1: , Cauchy (Cauchy Criterion):

X
k=0

ak = a0 + a1 + + an +

: > 0, N(), n > m > N ,




Sn Sm <
,


am+1 + am+2 + + an <
, Sn = a0 + a1 + + an , n = 1, 2, . . . n
, Cauchy :
Z +
f (x)dx
a

: > 0, X > a, x, x > X ,



Z x


f (x)dx <

x

40 30 3 95 9

, : , (),
,
2. , Cauchy :

n=1

un (x) [a, b]

: > 0, x N ,
n > N ,


un+1(x) + un+2(x) + + un+m (x) <
m > 0
, Cauchy :

R
0

f (u, x)du

[a, b]: > 0, A0 ,


A, A > A0 ,
Z



f (u, x)du <

[a, b] x
, : , (),
, ,

3. Fourier , , f (x) [0, 2] H. L. Lebesgue


(1875-1941) (), Parsevel
Z

X

1
1 2 2
f (x)dx = a20 +
a2n + b2n
0
2
n=1
, an bn f (x) Fourier


a0 X
+
an cos nx + bn sin nx
2
n=0

Fourier
Fourier , Parsevel (Plancherel) : f (x)
(, ) Lebesgue ,
Z
1 +

f() =
f (x)eix dx

f Fourier ( Fourier Fourier ) ,
Z +
Z +


2 d =
f()
f 2 (x)dx

41

Parsevel Plancherel , , (),


R
() , f 2 (x)dx ( f ) f
Fourier Fourier
, , ,
, :
() Riemann ()
() () , : f (x)
df = f (x)dx ,
f = f (x + x) f (x)
, , ,
,
, ,
V. Volterra (1860-1940) E.I. Freholm (1866-1927) Hilbert
() () ,

, ,
, , , ()
()
Taylor Taylor
, ,
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
,

; Georgetown University

30 4 , pp. 20-31

.
Richard Courant (1888-1972) 1949 Carl B. Boyer
[1] : , , ; :
; ,
M. Kline
: ,
,
[2] M. Kline ,
,
,
, , [1],
[3], [4] , [6] , ,
Newton-Leibniz
, , ,
, , ,
?
Euclid, Archimedes , ( 163 )
( 429-500) , ,
, ,
, , , ,
[2],
, , ;
20

21

, ,
,
, ,

Leonando da Vince (1452-1519)


, ,

;
, , P.de Fermat R.
Descares , ,
, ,
, ,
(Galileo Galilei, 1564-1642) ,
, (Johannes Kepler, 1571-1630) ,
:
(1) , ;
(2) ;
(3) ,
, ? , Galileo
,
, ,
, ,
:
(a) , ,
;
(b) , ;
(c) ,
;
(d)
,

22 30 4 95 12

, Fermat, Descartes, B. Pascal (1623-1662), J.Wallis (16161703), Isaac Barrow (1630-1677), B. Cavalieri (1598-1647), Galileo
, ,
, ,
, : Kepler
1615 ,

, Fermat Descartes ,
Descartes 1637
, ,
1637 Fermat ,
Ra n
x dx, n Fermat Cavalieri 1635
0
, Cavalieri ,
, Barrow , 1669
,
Barrow Newton
, (Lucas) ,
Newton , 1669 Lucas
Newton, , , ,
Barrow
, Newton , Leibniz,

Barrow , : Newton Leibniz


, Newton
Leibniz , ,
, , : (
) (Newton Leibniz )
, ()

.
, Newton Leibniz ,
Newton 1642 , ,

23

, , ,
: ,
! Newton 1661 ,
Barrow 1665 8 , , , Newton
, ,
,
Newton 1664 ,
Galileo, Kepler, Wallis, Descartes ,
1665 5 (
) 1666 5 () 1666
10 , (Tract on Fluxions) ,
, (
)
4.1 , ab = x, q = f (x)

4.1

acf abc y de k ab ad k be = p = 1 abe


, eb abed = x
dy
dt

= q,

dx
dt

dx
dt

= p = 1, cb abc = y

= p,
dy . dx
q
= = q = f (x).
dt dt
p

, y x q, ,
, y = xn 0 x
y=

xn+1
n+1

xn+1
,
n+1

xn

Newton ,
: ,
, ,
, , ,
, ,
, ,

,
,

24 30 4 95 12

, , Newton
, , :
(A) (De analysi per acquationes numero terminorum infinitas), 1669;
(B) (Methodus Fluxionum et sevierum infinitarum), 1671;
(C) (Tractatus de quadratura curvarum), 1691.
, ,

(A) (B) (A) ,


m

y = f (x) , y = ax n

z=

m+n
na
x n
m+n

: x h, x + h x, z + hy z,
z + hy =

m+n
na
(x + h) n .
m+n

, h , h , y = axm/n , y =
axm/n x

m+n
na
x n .
m+n
(C) , Newton (A) (B) , : ,

, . . . , ,
, : y = xn , x
x + h, xn
(x + h)n = xn + nhxn1 +

n(n 1) 2 n2
hx
+
2

(x + h) x
=
(x + h)n xn
nxn1 +
h ,

nxn1

1
n(n1)
hxn2
2

x xn ,

, ,

Newton 1687 (Philosophiae naturalis principia


mathematica) , ,

25

, , Kepler
, ,
Einstein , ,
, , Newton
, , , ,
, , Newton
, , ,
,
Leibniz 1646 , 1667
, Galileo, Kepler, Pascal, Descartes
Barrow , 1672 1676 , ,
, Newton
, Leibniz Pascal , 1673
: P , P
Q, P Q, ds, x dx y
dy, , ds, dx dy Leibniz ,
, , :
,
,
Leibniz ? 1666 , ,
0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36 . . . 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 2, 2, 2, 2, 2,
, , ,
, , y
, x , x y
, , , y = x ,
, 1676 , dx = x1 dx
Z
x+1
x dx =
+1
( > 0) 1677 , , ,
dz
y, Leibniz , z, dx
= y,
R
R
ydx = dz ydx = dz = z ()

26 30 4 95 12

, : y , z ,

dz
dx

= y

1684 , Leibniz
(Nova methodus pro maximis et minimis, itemque tangetibus,quae nec irrationals
quantiquantitetes moratur , et singulaze pro illi calculi genus),
1686 ,
(De geometria recondite et analysi indivisibilium atque infinitorum) Leibniz
R
dx, , ,
Leibniz
n

d (uv) =

n
X

Cjn (dj u)(dnj v)

j=0

Leibniz ,
, ,
, , , Newton Leibniz
, , ,
,
, ,
, , Newton Leibniz
1699 N. F. de Duillier Newton
, Leibniz Newton
, Leibniz Newton Leibniz
, Leibniz ,
Newton Leibniz; Leibniz Newton
,
Newton , Leibniz ,

.
, ,
, ,

27

,
; , ;

, ,
, , ,
,
B. Taylor, C. Maclaurin (1698-1746), A. de Moivre (1667-1754),
J. Stirling (1692-1770) ,
Maclaurin , Leibniz
, : Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705)
John Bernoulli (1667-1748) , L. Euler, A. C. Clairaut (1713-1765), J. B. L. R.
DAlembert ( 1717-1783), J. L. Lagange, G. Monge (1746-1818), P. S. M. de Laplace
(1749-1827) A. M. Legendre (1752-1883) Euler
, , [5] [6]
Newton Leibniz ,
, , ,
Newton Leibniz ,
,
, 1872 ,
, ,
, , : 1695 B. Nieuwentyt Newton , Leibniz
G. Berkeley (1685-1753) 1734 , ,
(The analyst, a discourse addressed to an infidel mathematician),
Newton E. Haley Berkeley
:, Newton ,
, Newton xn , x
h, xn
nxn1 +

n(n 1) n2
n(n 1)(n 2) n3 2
x h+
x h + ,
2
3!

h , xn nxn1 Berkeley h ,
: ? , ,

28 30 4 95 12

, ? Leibniz ,
, Berkeley
, ,
D Alembert, Euler Lagrange
,
,
,
, 19 B. Bolzano (17811848), 1817 , ,
,
A. L. Cauchy (1789-1851) , :
(Cours d analyse de lEcole polytechnique 1821),
(Resume des lecons sur le calcul infinitesimal, 1823) (Lecons sur
le calcul differential 1929) , ,
,
, ,
, :
, ,
,
Riemann Riemann , Riemann , Cauchy
, Riemann
, Cauchy ,
,
,
Cauchy
Cauchy
,
,
, Cauchy , , ,
, Cauchy

29

Bolzano ,
, 1861 K. Weierstrass (1815-1897)
, :
f (x) =

bn cos(an x)

n=0

a, b (0, 1), ab > 1 +


,
19 , ,
, ,
1857 Weierstrass , : ,

N ,

, Cauchy
,
, 1872 , R. Dedekind (1831-1916)
G. Cantor (1845-1918) H. C. R. Meray (1835-1911) H. E. Heine (1821-1881)
, Weierstrass
G. Peano (1858-1932) ,
1834 Riemann Riemann ,

,
, ,
, ,
Stokes :

d.

, , ,
: ;
; ,
, ,
, Poincare , ,
1899 , Elie Cartan (1869-1951)

30 30 4 95 12

[7], 1922 , Stokes (, 30 2 ,


95 6 , pp.23-24) 1899 Poincare Poincare [8]
F. C. Frobenius (1849-1917) E. J. B. Goursat (1858-1936) ,
,

, Newton Leibniz
, , ,
a,


|a|, 2|a|, . . . , n|a|, . . .
, m > 0, m , n,
n|a| > m, Archimedes R
, Cauchy , , n ,
, Archimedes R Newton Leibniz
, , ,
, 00 ,
, , , N ,
, , ,
: ,
, ,

! Newton Leibniz ,

1960, A. Robinson (1918-1974)


, ,
R R R , , R
, ,
, Newton, Leibniz

:
, ,

[9]
,
, (1562-1633) (

31

Metteo Ricci) , ,

(1811-1882) 1859 , A.
Wylie (1815-1887) E. Loomis (1811-1899) 1851 Elements
of analytic geometry and of differential and integral calculus ,
,
, ,
, , , :

,
,
n
X

2n+r1
(Ckn )2 C2n
= (Cnn+r )2

k=0

1. C. B. Boyer, The Concepts of the Calculus, A Critical and Historiacal Discussion of


the Derivative and the Integrals, Hafner Pub. Com. 1949. : , :

2. , , , 2000(1), 44-45
3. , (), , , 2002
4. M. Kline, Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times, Vol. II, Oxford University Press , 1972 : , 2, , , 1980
5. , , , , 1995
6. , , , , 1981
7. E. Cartan, Sur certains express differentielles et le problem de Pfaff, Ann. Sci. Ecole
Norm. (3) T. 16, 239-322.
8. H. Poincare, Les Methods Nourelles de la Mecanique Caleste, 1899.
9. A. Robinson, Non-Standard Analysis, North-Holland Pub. Com. 1974. :
, : , 1980

; Georgetown University

bf 31 1 , pp. 17-29

 }
  }5(
",U

.  }D

,21872 , b O}&XA, 6


O }A  }W`uJ Cauchy, Weierstrass, Riemann 
H[bb%!($V) %%v7, Ob`
$YH , }F }$V }`
, OY. ]OvR, Q}$h, 1JV) }`
}V
 }!A75(, Ic_bh,  }yp y
Nb}X2 V}X)7y, h}X.i OJ
}D }T3b  }Au5%? wST? JBb
cJ-_j:
_u }D k } <M|V, 7
} 7s<, .D }!1
_ub,n }kb,Vn }  }J(
|V,Hs_j, .k } , .?T }h, 7@T
Vn
j, }$ V, zpj }2} }u 
Stokes t
Z

d =

ut }, /U }*tH * },7hi, 6u


$, } , ,H_jT}I 2l_j
17

18 bf 31 1 96  3 ~

 }5(, Ubc_7', Ov|<,


3bJ-
(1)  }!z: Jb f (x) [a, b] , f 0 (x) [a, b] ,- (Riemann) ,

b
a

f 0 (x)dx = f (b) f (a)

A  b f (x) [a, b] , f 0 (x) [a, b] ,- , u'#b W:

Ud f (x) = x b, a = 0, b = 1, f (x) a = 0 <2u., 7b f (x) =

2 x

[0, 1] ,, <2-.u- , ],Ht

W.?_ 7/U f (x) [a, b] , 6.?\ f 0 (x) [a, b] ,  ,HWD f (x) b, zp} }14 b; }
, .}D }1 U,Hty<2-A 
(2) Lebesgue {p-b: _,bu- J/J_
bi 6uz: - b, !,u/b, D5.
_7bu7, w2%
: TT./b, U)Abw: /bDb!
6sBb: . }1,  }k
(3)  }--, 'b'#K W:(a) Jfn (x), n = 1, 2, . . .,
[a, b],/, /_Yk f (x), f (x) [a, b] ,/, /
Z b
Z b
lim
fn (x)dx =
f (x)dx
n

_YK., Wzp,H!.A  (b) J D $ [a, b]


[c, d] , f (x, y) D ,/,
Z Z
Z b Z
f (x, y)dxdy =
dx
D

f (x, y)dy =
c

dy
c

f (x, y)dx
a

(4) - bu.e, .u_ (S. Banach, 1892-1945) 


7 } xH: J2 [a, b] ,- b
s_b f (x) D g(x)  (J2)
Z b
d(f, g) =
|f (x) g(x)|dx
a

J |fn | u [a, b] ,_- b, /


lim d(fn , fm ) = 0

m,n

.?\- bf (x), U)limn d(fn , f ) = 0

 } 19

J,_, 7V }D4, =UAb5?Dyp y


}D }1D, Vs<, 4 Cantor, Lebesgue  A%T
K 7cP, U }h, w-}u Lebesgue }
cPDbC}&, AHb25, /Abb
xk (bbxk: Hbxk bxk) 6uz, AbbHC
<b  cqCv, .b<bxkVHCp }&0
b$l |}& R}j2TO Cantor 
4d [1] [k 1874 ; 7 Lebesgue 1902 , lF=d [2]
H7Fh }
J-Bb}- Lebesgue } 7 }, lb2SV_
, u Lebesgue  q E  [a, b] _, 2\
_C_.L d1 , d2 , . . . F, <} 1 , 2 , . . .,
P
2 j j - E  me (E)  b a E [a, b] 22
E q mi (E)  J me (E) = mi (E), E , p m(E) 

J f (x) u2 E ,b, JL<b , {x E : f (x) > } ,

f (x) u E ,b

J f (x) u E ,b, / x E, f (x) , [, ]

y1 , y2 , . . . , yn1 , U)

= y0 < y1 < y2 < < yn1 < yn =


er = {X E

yr1 f (x) yr1 }, r = 1, 2, . . . , n,


S=

n
X

yr m(er ),

s=

r=1

n
X

yr1 m(er )

r=1

J S |- J, s |, I, I = J, f (x) E , Lebesgue ,
/p
I =J =

f (x)dx,
E

f (x) E , Lebesgue }
*_2J| Lebesgue }D- },. w.5T6r
Lebesgue AzVzpu|/7; Fz: cBi7A', b,
v, lO M}, (l ,M, y, uB };
.OM}, 7uO*2|l(Vl,b, u- };k

20 bf 31 1 96  3 ~

P , U }?_y2T 7 }j,


Dw, 67y, P }R_y
*,H22J|: uV2, /uR; b.
/, u/bk; Lebesgue }u- }R, - b Lebesgue ,
O5.|Wu Dirichlet b (x), 2 [0, 1], x [0, 1] 

bv, (x) = 1; x [0, 1], bv, (x) = 0, u_TT./b, .u

- b, Oqcu Lebesgue b /
Z 1
f (x)dx = 0.
0

FJ Lebesgue }R7- } 7_R, ,HT }


D4, wuz_, )7ZCj
(A) Lebesgue }<2-, Jb f (x) u [a, b] ,"/, (c 1)
Z x
f 0 (x)dx = f (x) f (a),
x [a, b]
a

A  TW, f (x) =

x u [0, 1] ,"/b, ] Lebesgue }

<2-,  }!A , J)<U }!A K,


: J f (x) [a, b] TT , / f 0 (x) [a, b] , Lebesgue ,  }!
A 
(B) - }<2-, 5bu/b; 7 Lebesgue }<2-, 5
bJkb, u_'k
(C) <-Z-, b'#, Lebesgue }<2-, J[  W
}<2- 3(a) [ : un (x), n = 1, 2, . . ., u E ,b, / E
,TTY u(x), u(x) 6u E ,b .O, E ,
_ Lebesgue b g(x), U)_ n 1, E , |un (x)| g(x) 
TTA ,

lim

un (x)dx =
E

lim un (x)dx =

E n

u(x)dx
E

uO Lebesgue Y (Lebesgue Dominated Convergence Theorem),


YKb[ 7 , z (3)(b) J[ O Fubini
: J f Rn ,u Lebesgue , (x, y) Rn , x Rp , y Rq , p + q = n,

p 0, q 0,

1. kFx Rp , f (x, y)uRq , Lebesgue b;

 } 21

2. }
3.

Rq

f (x, y)dyuRp, Lebesgue b;


Z

f (x, y)dxdy =
Rn

dx
Rp

f (x, y)dy =
Rq

dy
Rq

f (x, y)dx
Rp

Fubini KK[ 7
(D) Bb6z- bu.e, .u Banach , O Lebesgue p
b Lp , (p 1), (c 2) ue, Banach , wuL2 u

Hilbert , x7yy4, s7- }_

zD bD/b[, 1944 , J. E. Littlewood


(1885-1977) { b2z [3] z2H7_, _[:
_ () u_:, _ () bu/; _ () b
Yu_4Y b2b!u<h1@, 7
b7<1, k7b8-bFb JJ_
J'_4, AbF@vk}Q5,
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>'<2, uj5, 5b F''|R7b2_|b1:
D_5:, bD/b; bYD_Y5
D: .ccN|7jh25, 7/N|7 hDj
,., Os72, 7D*/<2,V
u., }f[ }&2, .i|J Littlewood _
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W1: (1) J E , / me (E) , E J/J: L# >
0, _5: V , U) me (V E) < , AB = (A\B)(B \A),

A \ B = {x : x A, x
/ B} Iz: E D5:5JL<
W2: (2) J f (x) u2k [a, b] ,b, f (x) 

, L# > 0, Jv_Gb g(x) _/b h(x), U) |f (x)g(x)| <

|f (x) h(x)| < _k 5A  Iz: bD/b


Gb5_L<(, JL<

W 3: ( 3) (Egoroff ) J {fn (x)} x E ,

b, TTYk f (x), L# > 0,  E _ A, m(A) < U)

{fn (x)} E \ A ,_Yk f (x) Iz: E ,TTYb,

E ,_L<(, u_Y

22 bf 31 1 96  3 ~

,  Littlewood _, BbJ|'W ,5, Littlewood _k}zp}&D }5D[ *J,H2,


J|}&, u b2, u y^ xyj5
, 1/ kj Jz} }<7H5, *7
<H i
1: J f (x) u [a, b] ,Mb, /L< > 0,  > 0, U [a, b] 2L
P
<_ss.> {(ak , bk )}1kn , b nk=1 (bk ak ) < , 
n
X


f (bk ) f (ak ) <
k=1

f (x) [a, b] ,"/b


2: q f (x) u E ,b, p
Z
 1p
kf kp =
|f (x)|p dx ,
E

1p

Ukf kp < rbpT Lp (E), p Lebesgue b J 1 p

, Lp (E) Banach 

. b, }
b, 7 }(, T }A, tb,uF
9 bwo5, j x2 + 1 = 0jwFHbjj, Ow
j, ju*0n, 77 0, b, }, b,
C}&, AH| b}X5, JzuH$Pb}X5 J

B Gauss {zu: 1 Fx4uJ

}&mub, }, q@s_M }u*b,

}QWRV, M %% }ub, }F


, .?QRV }b, O(}%%yA<
,  }u_} A, } } N|}D }u 
}!, <BJQRbV M)Tu,  }!
7b,A5? C,, A7$ Green t: J
= 1 dz + 2 d
z

 } 23

 C }$,
1 = 1 (z, z),

2 = 2 (z, z)

7 =
z, zb, d }, d = + ,
,

d =

Z Z

,
z

,
z

p i

u2 Stokes t,$ |, J)O Cauchy


}tD Cauchy } Cauchy }tz: J L uMm Jordan
(, f (z) (,(q/, /wqj&, qL z, -


Z
1
f ()
f (z) =
d
2i L z
A  Cauchy }z: cq,,
Z
f (z)dz = 0
L

Cauchy }uF 1825 p, O7 1874 n[ [4] , Cauchy V


p.u}$, Fcq7f 0 (z)L,/ Cauchy }tuF 1831 p
[5], Fcq f (z) L ,j&, (V Goursat 7<K [6], .p: Cauchy
}D Cauchy }tug
1825  1831  Cauchy s_ , O}&T ,
6O}&2_3bq5, Zu Cauchy  *s_|, J
)b!!, BVB|}&D }5,. Oj,
*,H2, Bb6J| Cauchy D }[
Cauchy  }&7v`, sPb6*.i
 _b,h7G,Fb-
w2Pu Weierstrass F, j4, F*4b| _4b7k,
Y, Y2, y4b, kuY, (_Y|
VY, uj&, W-, .?j&, F
27_rj&b uF }&|5
 }b2 Taylor bJ.'Rb2 O
b, }2,  Laurent b, u }b2F Laurent 
bVk 1843  P. A. Laurent (1813-1854)  : =


D = 0 r < |z a| < R +

24 bf 31 1 96  3 ~

qL<Mj&b f (z) D q_Y Laurent b

k= ck (z

a)k [

 9, Weierstrass k 1841 %7x 4b, Laurent b, O


1894 nF!k [7], * Laurent b| 7cP, cb =b
J M}0

7Pb Riemann, F*ShV5}&, bT*_


_ 7Mb, Fp7_rhS1, - P
u }2F 1851 , -=dub,bd. [8]
Ob L. V. Ahlfors (1907-2004) Fz, d.c7b3b
}Z, 7/7b$, h7HbS, 1-A}S,
S7 d2, .cp7-, p7-O- (Riemann
Mapping Theorem): J D  C ,, wiBs, D
,srb, D P = {z C : |z| < 1}, a D, b ,

0 a 2, f (a) = b, arg(f 0 )(a) = f (z) u _z: bg

|rg b2'!, v-u Dirichlet Vp


O_(V\|7, JBb_k_p k 1870 ,
C. G. Neumann D Schwarz v7
-ubSb|, cPi17b -
,u&$, yu'Hbb|
1825  1831  Cauchy , 1841  Weierstrass b, 1851 
-S-, P ':O, ZA7b,
 }, A}&3b} P2, Cauchy };u }2,
u}U (j(VD }) ; 7 Weierstrass b
V5u }2b, 6uU; Bk-S-,
urh, D }B[
j, Cauchy }2}!, JR&, -RA&
$, 7 Weierstrass b2T| Laurent b-S|
-, .?R&
1906 , F. M. Hartogs p7- [9]: J Cn (n 2) , K2'

K, / \ K , J f \ K ,r, f Jr  , ;z C 2

=RA Cn (n 2) 27_7(7, 7,2rA

x 4bA<297 5, T Weierstrass b2T|

Laurent b, l }2u, &26u, ,n


, }&2 Weierstrass 6A7}7

 } 25

1907 , Poincare p7 [10]: Cn (n 2) 2P7 B = {z Cn :

|z1 |2 + |z2 |2 + + |zn |2 < 1} D6 P = {z Cn : |z1 | < 1, |z2 | < 1, , |zn | < 1}
5.r, B P , z = (z1 , . . . , zn ) 6uz, 7&r

Cn (n 2), 5bg.?|rg , TbSb!

-, 6uA, (V6Jz, -ub2_


, 7Sb6u}i1
,FH, <q$A7b, }, 6u}&, ub2, A
 2| b}X5
b, }b,, A7q}&, uJby
, AyO, <,V  }?
Frobenius p7-b: b,F&!Hb (Associative division algebra ) _, : b b jb (Quaternion) Hb; !
4b, b,_Hb, Caylay-Dickson Hb, Octonion Hb, !
b,&b 6jbHb Octonion Hb,  }, Ouk
jbHbu.>, Octonion Hbu.>.!, ,  }?
;7, JBDnw
j }j }, bbJbj
 }Dj };k }$, *,V, s6,
b, Cj}&, Db, Cj}&,, "
.uj}&WR, 7ubquDj}&,.T
Hartogs D Poincare us_pW bss
52.?d, E6z, W [11]

. $, }
,2}7b, }b, 6Jz,
r, }r, *SiVz, _bur
}$,,  }$, }, }$uHb2|b!
15 Hbu, ObzUBu}$,
}bI', 6, ss52m.?6..bdK9,
?}I .z_<
Bu}$? u_x}!Zr bju: Bu
r? Bu}!Z?

26 bf 31 1 96  3 ~

_ n &r M u_ F. Hausdorff (1868-1942) b, L<

x_k n &r Rn _Bub, _,V, u


_pb X Bp7b, I, u X ,27,
7FbK _bu Hausdorff b, x, y X, /
x 6= y,  x G,  y H, 7 G H =  I, Hausdorff

b2L<s_.uJ}

J X, Y us_b, f u X Y /, / f (X) = Y , f 1 6u
// f , f  (homeomorphism), X D Y u J
u, M 2_ U Rn 2_ Rn 2, rj [

Rn 2 j _, p xj = rj , , xj b, j = 1, 2, . . . , n,
(U, ) (CpT (U, x1 , . . . , xn )) 

_r M ,_ C k , 1 k n, }!Z, u_

{(U , ) : A} = F , -_K:
(i) A U = M;

k
(ii) F, A, 1
C ;

(iii) (ii) V, F u|, (U, ) u, /F A, 1



1 k C k , (U, ) F 

Au_N Jf = (f1 , . . . , fn ) u Rn 2_ D ,, f C k

<2u, f _} fj , j = 1, 2, . . . , n, D ,u k , / f (k) D ,
/
*,H<22J|: Iz, _
ruDr_
F A, 7}!Zuzu
}:V [12], [13] (c 5.1) 7u
}$<, On}$u k =
8$, 6um$

5.1 2 }[ U U , }

B$-j }, 7-i

5.1

k
}-i } 1
u C , k 1 F , A

A , u}$

bu: Hb2n%%u}$ : r Rn , r Cn ,
&, &, n &7u}$; T-u&

 } 27

}$ n n r AO(4 GL(n, R) 6u}$ 7H


b2b (Lie) , WR& (Heisenberg group) [14]jb H $

(Quaternion H-type group) [15] us_x C !Z}$ }$W.


(, O*,z<, J|wb47
}$,  }, b,2}D } bV2<
I, Ou*}$22, J;, }$,2}D }u
, r2W J.2D }WVzpj

J M u_ n &}$, (U, )u, b x1 , . . . , xn , G M

u_, f : G R u G ,_Mb, J p G U , f 1
u2

(G U ) , Bb f p , f 1
(p) ,; Bb f
k
G U ,, f 1
(G U ) ,; Bb f G U ,u C , k 1,
k
f 1
(G U ) ,u C  , }$,2_bb, u

1 , r,|VbbV2

Nd, }$,b|, J2@} } }$


 } , J}$W, JU U , / 1
Jacobi

Wu, #8 U D U J, #bJ 2_$u

, L<s_ , A, / U U , 1
Jacobi Wu

 $. Bbnu$ , }$,


_,2}$V2 } 7c, cq$u 'K (Compact)
 F'KuN_ K _K2, K u'K J M

u_ n &'K$ k M u'K, Heine-Borel , M _

_QJ U1 , . . . , Um  k_QJp, J-D5@ 1


}j F1 , . . . , Fm ,
(1) Fj (p) 0, p M, j = 1, 2, . . . , m;

(2) Fj (p) = 0, p
/ Uj , j = 1, 2, . . . , m;
Pm
(3) j=1 Fj (p) 1, p M

J u M ,_ n }$, Uj  (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ), Uj ,,
= aj (x1 , . . . , xn )dx1 dx2 dxn
h, I, ,H (3),
Z
Z
=
M

1=

m
X
j=1

Fj =

m Z
X
j=1

Fj ,
M

28 bf 31 1 96  3 ~

,H (2),
Z
]@v

2
Z

Fj =
M

Pm R

j (Uj )

j=1

Uj

Pm

Fj , 7

k=1

Uj

Fj =
Uk

Fj ,
Uj

Fj 2

Fj (x1 , . . . , xn )aj (x1 , . . . , xn )dx1 dxn .

u n &r2}$ } 27'K$ M ,}$


}

,H2.u} kb#|<2, , .}


_ }$, }2||bEu Stokes , u
2 Stokes R v`, Stokes <, J M u n &}$, D

uw2_, _m (n 1) }$,
Z
Z
d =

A  Bb5FJz_<u, 3bv D, D D b,<


b, <b.xzp7 _}$, Stokes , zp7}$,,
}D } u5
*|}$<W2J|, }$u_}1, r
.u|W, FJ }*r}$u,<,
zp }*t7H, 7}& u b2
 u y^ xyj5, .OJ}&y
j, 7/7'.}Xi1, U)b7h }$
, }}I<, ')'zX, [16], [17] , [18], [19] ,
[20]  }5(, T }A6; k<q
.kj }, 7u}A , , b.?T
}_V&  }5(, _b,
u&r, }&,, uk}&q,
}6G&V7

5d.
1. G. Cantor: Uber eine eigenschaft das Inbegriffes aller, reelen alge braischen Zahlen,
Crelles Journal fur Mathematik, 77(1874), 258-262.

 } 29

2. H. Lebesgue, Integrale, longueur, aire, Annal di Mathematica Pura ed Appl,(3) 7(1902),


231-359.
3. J. E. Littlewood, Lectures on the Theory of Functions, Oxford univ. press, 1944.
4. A. L. Cauchy, Bull des Sci. Math, 7 (1874), 265-304, 8 (1875), 43-55, 148-159.
5. A. L. Cauchy, Sur la mecanique celeste et sur un nouveau calcul apple calcul des limits,
Turin, 1931.
6. E. Goursat, Sur la definition general des function ananlytiques d*apres Cauchy, Tran.
Amer. Math. Soc., 4(1900), 14-16.
7. K. Weierstrass, Darstellung einer analytischen Function einer complxen Veranderlichen,
Mathematische werke, Johnson, reprint, I, 51-66.
8. G. F. B. Riemann, Grundlagen fur eine Allgemeine Theorie der Funktionen enier Veranderlichen complex Grosse, 1851.
9. F. Hartogs, Zur theorie der analytischen Funktionen mehrerer unabhangiger Veranderlichen, insbesondere uber die Darstellung derseler durch Reihen weche nach Potentzen
einer Veranderlichen fortscheiten, Math. Ann., 62(1902), 1-88.
10. H. Poincare, Les fontions analytiqeas de deux variables et la representation conforme,
Rend Circ. Mat. Polermo, 23(1907), 185-220.
11. G. M. Henkin and J. Leiterer, Theory of Functions on Complex Manifolds, Monographs
in Math., 79, Birkhauser, Boston, 1984.
12. O. Calin and D. C. Chang, Geometric Mechanics on Riemannian Manifolds, Birkhauser,
Boston, 2005.
13. S. S. Chern, Complex Manifolds Without Potential Theory, 2nd Edition, SpringerVerlag, New York, 1979.
14. O. Calin, D. C. Chang and P. Griener, Geometric Mechanics on the Heisenberg Group
and Its Applications, to be published by American Mathematical Society & International Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2006.
15. D. C. Chang and I. Markina, Geometric analysis and Green function on anisotropic
quaternion Carnot groups, Journal of Geometric Analysis, 2006.
16. G. M. Henkin and J. Leiterer, Andreotti-Grauert Theory by Integral Formulas, Progress
in Math., 74, Birkhauser, Boston, 1988.
17. F. W. Warner, Foundations of Differentiale Manifolds and Lie Groups, GTM. SpringerVerlag, 1983.
18. E. M. Stein and R. Shakarchi, Fourier AnalysisAn Introduction, Princeton Lectures in
Analysis 1, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2003.
19. E. M. Stein and R. Shakarchi, Complex Analysis, Princeton Lectures in Analysis 2,
Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2003.
20. E. M. Stein and R. Shakarchi, Real Analysis-Measure Theory, Integration, Hilbert
Spaces, Princeton Lectures in Analysis 3, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New
Jersey, 2005.

dT6L`k2x; ",UL`k1 Georgetown University b