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GESTURES
A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication made with a part of the
body, used instead of or in combination with verbal communication. The
language of gesture allows individuals to express a variety of feelings and
thoughts, from contempt and hostility to approval and affection. Most people
use gestures and body language in addition to words when they speak. The
use of gesture as language by some ethnic groups is more common than in
others, and the amount of such gesturing that is considered culturally
acceptable varies from one location to the next.

Gestures do not have invariable or universal meanings. Even simple gestures


like pointing at someone can give offense if it is not done correctly. In the
USA and western European countries it is very common for people to point
with an extended finger but in Asia this is considered very rude and it is safer
to use the whole hand.

Gestures play a major role in many aspects of human life. Gesturing is


probably a universal. Gestures are a crucial part of everyday conversation
such as chatting, describing a route, negotiating prices on a market; they are
ubiquitous. Gestures have been documented in the arts such as in Greek
vase paintings, Indian Miniatures or European paintings.

 Hand gestures, i.e., gestures performed by one or two hands, is the


most numerous category of gestures due to the ability of the human
hand to acquire a huge number of clearly discernible configurations,
the fact of importance for the sign languages.

 Body gestures: This is moving the body in a certain way when orally
communicating.

 Head/face gestures:

Facial expressions: Facial expressions are a rich language in their own


right. Some facial expressions are byproducts of emotions, while
others, such as winking or eye-rolling are akin to gestures.

• Eye-rolling: Rotating the eyes upward generally signals condescension,


contempt, boredom, or exasperation. It can be interpreted as the
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equivalent of saying, "I don't like this" or "I think this is really stupid" or
"I simply can't believe this."

• Nodding: A nod is a gesture of confirmation in many cultures and


negation in some

• Head bobble: Head bobble, i.e., repeated alternating tilting of the head
to the left and to the right in arcs along the coronal plane, means
disapproval in some cultures.

• Head shaking: Repeated turning of the head side to side in arcs along
the transverse plane has a meaning opposite to the nod: negation in
many cultures and confirmation in some.

• Bent head: A gesture of shame, subduing, or agreement/confirmation.


An interpretation depends on the way it being performed and overall
body context. Or, can be used as a greeting

• Pointing by chin: A direction may be pointed by chin, e.g., when the


arms are doing something else: the head is turned in the
corresponding direction and the chin is slightly jerked up and in the
pointed direction. This is also used as a greeting in some regions in the
U.S., usually among young men.

• Greeting by nod: A single nod of the head, (one single cycle in image-
pitch) characterizes a greeting gesture.

• Thumb the Nose: Brushing the thumb against the nose is a 'tough guy'
gesture usually meant to provoke another

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POSTURE
Posture means the intentionally or habitually assumed position. It helps in
conveying a message. Each movement or position of the body has
expressive or defensive function. Thus, the posture is an important element
in non-verbal communication. It revels a great deal about an individual.
Posture concerns the overall bearing of the body. It includes the angle of
inclination and the position of arms and legs. A raised head indicates
openness, while a tilted head indicates curiosity. However, none of these
postures have any specific meaning of their own. They acquire meanings in
association with other symbols and in context of communication.

Some types of human postures


While not moving, a human can be in one of the following main positions,
distinguished by the type of support.

 Standing: Although quiet standing appears to be static, modern


instrumentation shows it to be a process of rocking from the ankle in
the sagittal plane. The sway of quiet standing is often likened to the
motion of an inverted pendulum. [3] There are many mechanisms in
the body that are suggested to control this movement, e.g. a spring
action in muscles, higher control from the nervous system or core
muscles.

 Sitting: Sitting requires a more or less horizontal structure, like a chair


or the ground. Special ways of sitting are with the legs horizontal, and
in an inclined seat. While on a chair the shins are usually vertical, on
the ground the shins may be crossed in the lotus position or be placed
horizontally under the thigh in a seiza

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 Lying : When in lying position, the body may assume a great variety of
shapes and positions. The following are the basic recognized positions.

• Supine: lying on the back with the face up.

• Prone: lying (or laying) on the chest with the face down ("lying
down", "laying down", or "going prone"). See also "Prostration".

• Lying on either side, with the body straight or bent/curled forward or


backward. The fetal position is lying or sitting curled, with limbs
close to the torso and the head close to the knees.

 Kneeling: Kneeling is standing not on the feet, but on one or both


knees or shins approximately parallel to the ground, possibly raised to
an angle depending on the position of the feet. The torso is usually
upright but can be considered kneeling at other angles not touching
the ground.

PUBLIC SPEAKING

Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a


structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the
listeners. The art and science of public speaking, especially in a North
American competitive environment, is also known as forensics. The word
'forensic' is an adjective meaning "of public debate or argument."

In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic


elements, often expressed as "who is saying what to whom using what
medium with what effects?" The purpose of public speaking can range from
simply transmitting information, to motivating people to act, to simply telling
a story. Good orators should be able to change the emotions of their
listeners, not just inform them. Public speaking can also be considered a
discourse community. Interpersonal communication and public speaking
have several components that embrace such things as motivational
speaking, leadership/personal development, business, customer service,
large group communication, and mass communication. Public speaking can
be a powerful tool to use for purposes such as motivation, influence,
persuasion, informing, translation, or simply entertaining.

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There are essentially five types of public speaking: 1) Introductions 2) Toasts


3) Informational 4) Persuasive and 5) Demonstration. Every public speaking
topic falls into one of these five categories.

 Introductions:

The purpose of an introduction is to allow the audience to remember


the person's name and enough background material to start up a
conversation. The other purpose, when before a group, is to persuade
the audience that the speaker is qualified to speak.

 Toasts:

Toasts are a specialty speech that has a general format, similar to


introductions. The toast, some background material on the toast, and
then the toast again. Toasts are generally very short speeches.

 Informational:

These speeches follow the format of opening, purpose, supportive


points and conclusion. They should be packed with facts and figures.
This is probably 90% of the speeches that most people are asked to
do.

 Persuasive:

These speeches are intended to persuade the audience. Often, the


most effective are in the form of stories where the moral is the
persuasion. It is the least structured of the public speaking types.

 Demonstration:

These speeches include visual aids, they are essentially how to


speeches. Powerpoint is not a demonstrational speaking style, as it is
normally just a reinforcement of your informational or persuasive
speech. Demonstration speech visual aids are normally three
dimensional, or active two dimensional, like a blackboard.

Some tips for good public speaking

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Feeling some nervousness before giving a speech is natural and healthy. It


shows you care about doing well. But, too much nervousness can be
detrimental. Here's how you can control your nervousness and make
effective, memorable presentations:

• Know the room. Be familiar with the place in which you will speak.
Arrive early, walk around the speaking area and practice using the
microphone and any visual aids.

• Know the audience. Greet some of the audience as they arrive. It's
easier to speak to a group of friends than to a group of strangers.

• Know your material. If you're not familiar with your material or are
uncomfortable with it, your nervousness will increase. Practice your
speech and revise it if necessary.

• Relax. Ease tension by doing exercises.

• Visualize yourself giving your speech. Imagine yourself speaking,


your voice loud, clear, and assured. When you visualize yourself as
successful, you will be successful.

• Realize that people want you to succeed. Audiences want you to


be interesting, stimulating, informative, and entertaining. They don't
want you to fail.

• Don't apologize. If you mention your nervousness or apologize for


any problems you think you have with your speech, you may be calling
the audience's attention to something they hadn't noticed. Keep silent.

• Concentrate on the message -- not the medium. Focus your


attention away from your own anxieties, and outwardly toward your
message and your audience. Your nervousness will dissipate.

• Turn nervousness into positive energy. Harness your nervous


energy and transform it into vitality and enthusiasm.

• Gain experience. Experience builds confidence, which is the key to


effective speaking. A Toastmasters club can provide the experience
you need.

More Guidelines......

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• Your audience is there to hear your message. Relax and deliver that
message, instead of focusing on yourself.

• Make sure that your speech is right for your audience.

• Take your time. Don’t read your speech word-for-word and don’t rush
through it. Be conversational, as if you were talking with a group of
friends.

• Don’t stand up there like a stick, clenching the podium at both sides.
Be natural and animated. Use hand gestures, drink water, move
around a little. But don’t rock back and forth — that conveys
nervousness.

• Keep the speach short and simple.

• Make eye contact with the audience. Connect with them. Get them to
nod their heads to acknowledge what you’re saying. Make them pay
attention to you.

• Practice your speech ahead of time. Take time to pause in the right
places to make eye contact and catch your breath.

• Don’t get into a debate if someone disagrees. Talk with him/her after
your speech.

Tools of communication
Process or medium by which communication is done is known as tools of
communication. It may be oral or in written form. Some example of tolls of
communication is as follows:

Written:

 Business letter
 Memorandum
 Office order
 Office circular
 Office notice

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 Reports
 Proposal
 House journals
 Corporate Brochures
 Press Release/conferences
 E-mail
 Data warehousing
 Fax
 Internet
 Brochure
 Manuals
 Printed materials

Oral:
 Face to face
 Meetings
 Television
 Radio
 Video-conferencing
 Mobile phones
 Tele-conferencing
 Audio tapes
 Presentation

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