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Introduction to Vector

Lecturer: Kor Sokchea


Master of IT Engineering
Royal University of Phnom Penh

Semester I

Lecturer: Kor Sokchea

(RUPP)

Scientific Experience Seminar

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Overview
Cartesian Coordinate Systems
Vectors
I

Mathematical Definition of Vector

Vector Notations

Geometric Definition of Vector

Specifying Vectors with Cartesian Coordinates

The Relationship between Points and Vectors

Negating a Vector

Vector Multiplication by a Scalar

Vector Addition & Subtraction

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Cartesian Coordinate Systems

2D Coordinate Spaces
Consist of a special location
called the origin
Exist two straight lines that pass
through the origin
Two axes are perpendicular to
each other

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Cartesian Coordinate Systems

Specify a point in 2D Cartesian

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Cartesian Coordinate Systems

Example points labeled with 2D Catesian coordinates

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Cartesian Coordinate Systems

3D Cartesian Space
Extend 2D into 3D by addin a
3rd axis
xy, xz, and yz planes

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Cartesian Coordinate Systems

Specify a point in 3D Cartesian

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Cartesian Coordinate Systems

Left-handed & Right-handed rule

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Cartesian Coordinate Systems

Positive Rotation for Left-Right Hand

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Vector

Mathematical Definition of Vector


 Vectors are the formal mathematical entities we use to do 2D and 3D
math
 Mathematically, a vector is nothing more than an array of numbers
 The dimesion of a vector tells how many numbers the vector
contains
 Vectors may be of any positive dimension (1D, 2D, 3D, 4D)

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Vector

Vector Notations
 There are two ways to write vector:
 Column vector

x
y
z
 Row vector


x y z

 What is the different between them?

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Vector

Vector Notations
 In math, integer indices are used to access the elements of vector

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Vector

Geometric Definition of Vector


 The branch of mathematics that deals primarily with vectors and
matrices is called linear algebra
 For 3D math, we are mostly concerned with the geometric
interpretations of vectors and vector operations
 Geometrically speaking, a vector is a directed line segment that has
magnitude and direction
 What is magnitude and direction?

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Vector

Geometric Definition of Vector


 The magnitude of a vector is the length of the vector
 A vector may have any nonnegative length
 direction of a vector describes which way the vector is pointing in
space
 Where is this vector?

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Vector

Geometric Definition of Vector


 Vectors do not have position, only magnitude and direction
 Sound Impossible?

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Vector

Geometric Definition of Vector


 Many quantities we deal with on a daily basis have magnitude and
direction

Vector Quantities
 Displacement Take three step forward
 Velocity I am traveling northeast at 50 mph

Scalar Quantities
 Distance
 Speed

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Vector

Specifying Vectors with Cartesian Coordinates

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Vector

The Zero Vector


 There is a special vector, known as the zero vector for any given
vector dimension

The Zero Vector Notation

0
0

0=
....
....
0
 The Zero vector consist of a magnitude of zero
 The Zero vector has no direction
 The Zero vector of a given dimesion is the additive identity for the
set of vectors of that dimension
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Vector

The Relationship between Points and Vectors

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Vector

Negating a Vector
 The negation operation can be applied to vectors

Defintion
Every vector v has an additive inverse -v of the same dimension
such that:
v + (v) = 0

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Vector

Negating a Vector
Official Linear Algebra Rules
 To negate a vector of any dimension, we simply negate each
component of the vector as folows:

a1
a1
a2 a2

. .

. = .

an1 an1
an

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an

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Vector

Negating Vector: Geometric Interpretation


 Negating a vector results in a vector of the same magnitude but
opposite direction

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Vector

Vector Multiplication by a Scalar


Official Linear Algebra Rules

a1
a2

k
. =
.

an1
an

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ka1
a1
ka2
a2

.
.

. k = .

.
.

kan1
an1
kan
an

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Vector

Vector Multiplication by a Scalar


Example: Multiplying a 3D Vector by scalar


x
x
kx
k y = y k = ky
z
z
kz

Example: Dividing a 3D Vector by a nonzero scalar

 
vx /k
1
=
v = vy /k
k
k
vz /k
v

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Vector

Vector Multiplication by a Scalar


 Geometrically, multiplying a vector by a scalar K has the effect of
scaling the length by a factor of k

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Vector

Vector Addition
 Two vectors can be added if they are of the same dimension

Official Linear Algebra Rules


a1
b1
a1
a2
a2 b2

. .

. + . =

. .

an1
an1 bn1
an
an
bn

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+ b1
+ b2

+ bn2
+ bn

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Vector

Vector Subtraction
 Two vectors can be subtracted if they are of the same dimension

Official Linear Algebra Rules


b1
a1
b1
a1
a2 b2
a2 b2


. .
. .

. . = . + . =

. .
. .

an1 bn1
an1 bn1
bn
an
an
bn

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a1 b1
a2 b2

an1 bn2
an bn

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Vector

Vection Addition & Subtraction: Geometric Interpretation

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Vector

Adding Vector Example

Example
add the vectors a = (8,13) and b = (26,7)
c=a+b
c = (8,13) + (26,7) = (8+26,13+7) = (34,20)

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Vector

Subtracting Vector Example


 Reversing the vector we want to subtract by adding negative value,
then add

example
Subtract k = (6, 5) from v = (8, 3)
a=v+k
a = (8, 3) + (6, 5) = (8, 3) + (6,5) = (86,35) = (2,2)
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Vector

Vector Magnitude (Length)

v
u n
q
uX
2
2
kvk = t
vi2 = v12 + v12 + ... + vn1
+ vn
i=1

Example

kvk =
kvk =

Lecturer: Kor Sokchea

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q
vx2 + vy2

(f or2Dvectorv)

q
vx2 + vy2 + vz2

(f or3Dvectorv)

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Vector

Unit Vector
A unit vectors or normalized vectors are a vector that has a
magnitude of one
Some vectors become shorter after normalization if their length was
greater than 1
Some vectors become longer after normalization if their length was
less than 1
v
v
=
kvk

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Vector

Vector Dot Product


Official Linear Algebra Rules


b1
a1
a2 b2

... ...

... ... = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + ... + an1 bn1 + an bn

an1 bn1
bn
an

a.b=

n
X

ai bi

i=1

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Vector

Vector Cross Product


Official Linear Algebra Rules

x1
x2
y1 z2 z1 y2
y1 y2 = z1 x2 x1 z2
z1
z2
x1 y2 y1 x2

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Literature

Literature
1

Foley, J. D., Van Dam, A., Feiner, S.K., Hughes, J. F., &
Phillips R. L. (1996). Introduction to Computer Graphics.
Addison-Wesley

Watt A. H. (1990). Fundamentals of three-dimensional computer


graphics. Addison-Wesley.

Eberly D. H. (2001). 3D game engine design, a practical approach


to real-time computer graphics. Academic Press, Morgan Kaufmann.

Hughes, J. F., Van Dam, A., Foley, J. D., & Feiner, S. K.


(2013). Computer graphics: principles and practice. Pearson
Education.

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Literature

Literature
1

Dunn, F., & Parberry, I. (2011). 3D math primer for graphics and
game development. CRC Press.

ARB, Dave Shreiner, editor,


I

OpenGL programming guide (RED)

OpenGL programming guide for the X-Windowsystem (GREEN)

OpenGL reference manual (BLUE) Addison-Wesley, 1999

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