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UNDERSTANDING

PLUMBING FIXTURES
FUNDAMENTALS OF PLUMBING

DANILO V. RAVINA

KEYWORDS:

PLUMBING FIXTURE
FIXTURE UNIT
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT (DFU)
WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE (WSFU)
ROUGHING-IN

DANILO V. RAVINA

What are Plumbing Fixtures?


Plumbing Fixtures are approved-type installed receptacles,
devices or appliances supplied with water or liquid-borne
wastes & discharge such wastes into the drainage system to
which they may be directly or indirectly connected. Industrial
or commercial tanks, vats & similar processing equipment are
not plumbing fixtures, but may be connected to or discharge
into approved traps or plumbing fixtures as approved for in
this Code. (Sec. 217.10 NPC 1999)

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

FIXTURE UNIT
207.8
FIXTURE UNIT is an arbitrary quantity in terms of
which the load-producing effects or water
requirements on the plumbing system of different
kinds of plumbing fixtures are expressed in some
arbitrarily chosen scale. One fixture unit is
equivalent to a rate of flow at 28.3 liters per
minute (1 cubic feet per minute) or (7.5 gpm).
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT (DFU) is a numerical
weighing factor to account for the probable
discharge into the plumbing drainage system by
various types of plumbing fixtures, using the single
lavatory as equivalent to 1 DFU.
WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNIT (WSFU) is a
numerical weighing factor to account for the water
demand of various plumbing fixtures, using the
lavatory for private use as equivalent to 1 WSFU.
DANILO V. RAVINA

What are the common types of Plumbing


Fixtures?
Plumbing Fixtures, put in simpler term, are receptacles or
receivers attached to the plumbing system other than a trap
in which water or waste may be collected or retained for
ultimate discharge into the plumbing treatment facility and
point of discharge.
Their common types are:
1. Water Closet
2. Lavatory
3. Bathtub /Shower
4. Kitchen Sink
5. Bidet
6. Urinal
DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

WATER CLOSET
DRAINAGE

Refer to page 80 of the NPC

FIXTURE

MINIMUM
TRAP &
TRAP ARM
SIZE (mm)

DRAINAGE
FIXTURE
UNIT (DFU)

WATER
CLOSET,*
PRIVATE
INSTALLATION

76 mm

4 DFU

WATER
CLOSET,
PUBLIC
INSTALLATION

76 mm

6 DFU

Water closets shall be computed as 6


DFU when determining septic tank size.

WATER SUPPLY

Refer to page 73 of the NPC

FIXTURE

WATER
SUPPLY
FIXTURE
UNIT
(WSFU):
PRIVATE USE

WATER
SUPPLY
FIXTURE
UNIT
(WSFU):
PUBLIC USE

WATER CLOSET
(FLUSH TANK)

3 WSFU

5 WSFU

WATER CLOSET
(ECONOMICAL
FLUSH)

2.5 WSFU

4 WSFU

WATER CLOSET
(FLUSHOMETER
VALVE) 25 mm

6 WSFU

10 WSFU

*Drainage Fixture Unit (DFU) and Water Supply Fixture Unit (WSFU) is a numerical weighing factor to
account for the sewage flow or water demand of various plumbing fixtures, using the lavatory (for private
use) as 1 DFU or 1 WSFU. It is just an index number meant to put all fixtures on a common basis.
DANILO V. RAVINA

What is a Water Closet & What are its


Classifications?

Water Closet is a plumbing fixture used


to receive human excrement & to
discharge it through a waste pipe, using
water as a conveying medium.

Water Closets are classified according to:


1. Design
2. Make
3. Flushing Mechanism Used
4. Shape
5. Installation

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

What are the types of water closet as to Design?


1. Siphon Washdown

2. Siphon Jet

3. Siphon Vortex

1. Siphon Washdown

It is the least expensive but the


noisiest; Only small amount of
standing water, susceptible to
fouling, staining &
contamination

4. Reverse Trap

2. Siphon Jet

The jet being submerged,


introduces water underwater so
that its operation is entirely
muffled. It has a large amount
of standing water to prevent
fouling

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

3. Siphon Vortex

Reverse Trap

This type of bowl develops its


flushing action through the
water entering the diagonal
holes around the rim which
creates a swirling action which
forms a vortex in the center.

The trap way located at the rear


eliminated the bulge at the front.
The design of the bowl plus its
large water area & quietness in
operation, makes it desirable
than the siphon washdown.

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

What are the type of water closets as to Make?


1. One-Piece 2. Close Coupled 3. Pail Flush 4. Squat bowl
One-Piece Water Closet:

The water closet fixture is


manufactured with the bowl &
the flush tank molded into a
single unit
From HCG
DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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Close Coupled Water Closet:

From HCG

From Mariwasa ToTo

A water closet wherein the flush tank


is separate but is attached to the
toilet bowl. It is a two-piece model.
DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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Pail Flush Water Closet:


A water closet comprising only of a bowl
without a flush tank. Flushing action is
obtained only through water poured from a
pail or bucket. This is used in areas where
running water system is not available.

From Royal Tern

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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Squat Bowl Water Closet:


A water closet that
is other wise
known as eastern
type water closet
since the user
assumes a
squatting position
rather than a
sitting position.

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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What are the types of water closets as to Flushing


Mechanism Used?
1. Flush Tank 2. Flushometer Valve
Flush Tank- Holds a supply of water for
flushing the water closet. It flushes 3 to 6
liters.

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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Flushometer Valve:
Flushometer Valve is a
valve designed to supply a
fixed quantity of water for
flushing purposes. It is
activated by direct water
pressure without the use
of a flush tank. It requires
a flow pressure of 69 to
138 kPa (10 to 20 psi)

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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What are the types of water


closets as to Shape?
1. Round Front
2. Elongated Front
Round Front
WC is intended
for installation
on a limited
space.

Elongated Front
is more
comfortable but
occupies a larger
space. Water
closet bowls for
public use shall be
the elongated type.

Section 401
Water closet bowls for
public use shall be the
elongated bowl types
equipped with
open-front seats.
DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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What are the types of water closet as to installation?


1. Free Standing or Floor Mounted
2. Wall Hung or Wall Mounted

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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LAVATORY

What is a Lavatory? What are its types?

A Lavatory is a fixture designed for the washing of the hands


or face. It is also known as a Wash Basin.
The 4 types of Lavatory are:
1. Wall Hung Lavatory
2. Pedestal Lavatory
3. Counter Type Lavatory
a. Overcounter or Counter top
b. Undercounter
4. One-piece Lavatory

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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Wall Hung Lavatory:

Pedestal Lavatory:

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Counter Type Lavatory:


Overcounter Lavatory

Undercounter Lavatory

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One-piece Lavatory:

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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What are the Minimum Clearances & Roughing-ins for


Lavatories?

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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What is a Bathtub?
A Bathtub is a tub for bathing, usually a
fixed plumbing installation designed for
1 person. It is available in left outlet and
right outlet

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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What is a Shower Bath?


A Shower Bath is an apparatus for spraying
water on the body, usually from above. Drain
is through the shower bath floor drain.

Shower Pan
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1.78 meters

SHOWER COMPARTMENT

Min. Area = 0.6 m


762 mm

DANILO V. RAVINA

Sec. 409.4
All shower compartments,
regardless of shape, shall
have a minimum finished
interior area of 0.6 square
meter, and shall also be
capable of encompassing a
762 mm diameter circle.
The minimum area and
dimension shall be
maintained from a point
above the shower drain
outlet to a height of 1.78
meters with no protrusions
other than the fixture valve
or valves, shower head and
safety grab bars or rails.

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What is a Kitchen Sink?


A Kitchen Sink is
a plumbing fixture
consisting of a
basin with a water
supply, connected
with a drain & used
for dishwashing.

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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What is a Bidet?
A Bidet is a plumbing fixture used for
washing the middle part of the body,
especially the genitals. It is also
known as Sitz Bath.

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Bidet is used in tandem with the one-piece water closet or in


integrated with the close coupled water closet:

WASHLET

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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What is a Urinal? What are the types of Urinal?

A Urinal is a plumbing fixture equipped with a water


supply and drain for flushing away urine.
The types of Urinals are:
1. Wall Hung Urinal
2. Pedestal Urinal
3. Stall Urinal
4. Trough Urinal

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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Wall Hung Urinal:

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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Stall Urinal
DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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Urinal Types, Clearances and Roughing-ins:

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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What are other types of Plumbing Fixtures?


Slop Sink A deep sink, set low &
used by janitors for emptying pails
of dirty water & mop cleaning.

Laundry Tub A deep wide sink


used for washing clothes.
DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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Scrub Sink:

Drinking Fountain:

A Scrub Sink is a
plumbing fixture
usually located in the
O.R. in a hospital to
enable personnel to
scrub their hands
prior to a surgical
procedure. The Hot
& Cold water supply
is activated by a
knee action mixing
valve or by wrist or
pedal control or by
automatic sensors.

A Drinking Fountain is a
plumbing fixture consisting
of a shallow basin, together
with a water jet, designed
to provide potable water for
human consumption.

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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What are Toilet and Bath Plumbing


Accessories?

DANILO V. RAVINA, NAMPAP CEBU

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PLUMBING FIXTURES:
CLEARANCES,ROUGHING-IN
DIMENSIONS and FIXTURE UNIT
VALUES (dfu) (wsfu)

DANILO V. RAVINA

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WATER CLOSET

762 mm

1524 mm

219.9
ROUGHING-IN - the
installation of all pipings
and fitting parts of the
plumbing system, which
can be completed prior to
the installation of fixtures
and accessories. These
include sanitary and storm
drainage, tap, hot and
chilled water supplies, gas
pipings, vent pipings and
the necessary fixture
supports.

750 mm
375 mm

457 mm

Clearances are
minimum distances
of fixtures for
human safety and
comfort.

600 mm

600 mm

300 mm

457 mm

381 mm

457 mm

CLEARANCE
DIMENSIONS
DANILO V. RAVINA

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WATER CLOSET

750 mm

762 mm

1524 mm

375 mm

457 mm

Section 401
Water closet bowls for public use
shall be the elongated bowl types
equipped with open-front seats.

219.9
ROUGHING-IN - the installation of
all pipings and fitting parts of the
plumbing system, which can be
completed prior to the installation
of fixtures and accessories. These
include sanitary and storm
drainage, tap, hot and chilled
water supplies, gas pipings, vent
pipings and the necessary fixture
supports.

600 mm

600 mm

300 mm

457 mm

381 mm

457 mm

CLEARANCE
DIMENSIONS
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300 mm

375 MM

750 MM

206 mm

457 MM

150 mm
300 mm

206 mm

ROUGHING-IN FOR WATER CLOSET

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WATER CLOSET ROUGHING-IN

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ANATOMY OF A WATERCLOSET

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FLOOR DRAINS

SHOWER RECEPTORS

409.1
Floor drains shall be considered
plumbing fixtures.

409.2
Shower receptors are plumbing fixtures.

409.3
Each shower receptor shall be an approved type and be
constructed to have a finish dam, curb or threshold which is
at least 25.4 mm lower than the outside floor at the sides
and back of such receptor. In no case shall any dam or
threshold be less than 51 mm nor more than 228 mm in
depth when measured from the top of the dam or threshold
to the drain. The finished floor of the receptor shall slope
uniformly from the sides towards the drain not less than 2%
or 20mm/m or more than 4% or 40mm/m. Thresholds shall
be of sufficient width to accommodate a minimum 559mm
wide door.
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SHOWER / BATH TUB

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PLUMBING ACCESSORIES

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TOILET FOR THE DISABLED

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SHOWER FOR THE DISABLED

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TOILET / POWDER ROOM PLAN

TWO FIXTURE PLAN: PARALLEL

TWO FIXTURE PLAN: ACROSS


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TOILET AND BATH PLAN

THREE FIXTURE PLAN: OPEN TYPE

THREE FIXTURE PLAN:


COMPARTMENT TYPE
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FIXTURE UNIT
207.8
FIXTURE UNIT is an arbitrary quantity in terms of
which the load-producing effects or water
requirements on the plumbing system of different
kinds of plumbing fixtures are expressed in some
arbitrarily chosen scale. One fixture unit is
equivalent to a rate of flow at 28.3 liters per
minute (1 cubic feet per minute) or (7.5 gpm).
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT (DFU) is a numerical
weighing factor to account for the probable
discharge into the plumbing drainage system by
various types of plumbing fixtures, using the single
lavatory as equivalent to 1 DFU.
WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNIT (WSFU) is a
numerical weighing factor to account for the water
demand of various plumbing fixtures, using the
lavatory for private use as equivalent to 1 WSFU.
DANILO V. RAVINA

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DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT VALUES FOR VARIOUS TYPES


OF PLUMBING FIXTURES

(Single)

NOTE: For more details,


refer to Table 7-2 of the
NPC. Page 80

(Private installation )

DANILO V. RAVINA

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*MAXIMUM FIXTURE UNIT LOADING AND MAXIMUM LENGTH OF


EXCRETA DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPING

*THESE
FIGURES ARE
FOUND IN
TABLE 7-5 OF
THE NPC ON
PAGE 88.

NOTES:
1. Excluding trap arm
2. Except sinks, urinals and dishwashers.
3. Except 6 fixture unit traps or water closets.
4. Only four (4) water closet or 6 fixture unit traps are allowed on any vertical pipe or stack, and not
to exceed three (3) water closets or six (6) fixture unit traps on any horizontal branch or drain.
5. Based on 2% or 20.9 mm/m slope. For one (1) percent or 10.4mm/m slope, multiply horizontal
fixture units by a factor of 0.80.
DANILO V. RAVINA

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WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNITS (WSFU)


EQUIVALENT *WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNITS (WSFU)
Number of Water Supply Fixture Units
(WSFU)
Type of Fixture

Private Use

Public Use

Bar Sink

Bathtub (with or without Shower over)

Bidet

Drinking Fountain (each faucet)

Hose Bibb

Laundry Tub or Clothes Washer

Lavatory

Shower (each head)

Sink (kitchen) or dishwasher

Urinal (wall or stall type)

Water Closet Flush Tank

Water Closet Flush Valve: 19mm

Water Closet Flush Valve: 25mm

10

*Water Supply Fixture Unit (WSFU) is a numerical weighing factor to account for the water demand of various
plumbing fixtures, using the lavatory (for private use) as 1 WSFU. It is just an index number meant to put all fixtures
on a common basis.
DANILO V. RAVINA

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ESTIMATING WATER DEMAND

SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH TANKS


LOAD IN WATER
SUPPLY FIXTURE
UNITS (WSFU)

WATER DEMAND

LOAD IN WATER
SUPPLY FIXTURE
UNITS (WSFU)

WATER DEMAND

Gallon per minute

Liter per second

Gallon per minute

Liter per second

3.0

0.19

60

32.0

2.02

5.0

0.32

70

35.0

2.21

6.5

0.41

80

38.0

2.40

8.0

0.51

90

41.0

2.59

9.4

0.59

100

43.5

2.74

10.7

0.68

120

48.0

3.03

11.8

0.74

140

52.5

3.31

12.8

0.81

160

57.0

3.60

13.7

0.86

180

61.0

3.85

10

14.6

0.92

200

65.0

4.10

12

16.0

1.01

250

75.0

4.73

14

17.0

1.07

300

85.0

5.36

16

18.0

1.14

400

105.0

6.62

18

18.8

1.19

500

124.0

7.82

20

19.6

1.24

750

170.0

10.73

25

21.5

1.36

1000

208.0

13.12

30

23.3

1.47

1250

239.0

15.08

35

24.9

1.57

1500

269.0

16.97

40

26.3

1.66

2000

325.0

20.50

45

27.7

1.76

2500

380.0

23.97

50

29.1

1.84DANILO V. RAVINA3000

433.0

27.32

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TABLE 2B. ESTIMATING WATER DEMAND

SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH VALVES


LOAD IN WATER
SUPPLY FIXTURE
UNITS (WSFU)

WATER DEMAND

LOAD IN WATER
SUPPLY FIXTURE
UNITS (WSFU)

WATER DEMAND

Gallon per minute

Liter per second

Gallon per minute

Liter per second

60

54.0

3.41

70

58.0

3.66

80

61.2

3.86

90

64.3

4.06

15.0

0.95

100

67.5

4.26

17.4

1.10

120

73.0

4.61

19.8

1.25

140

77.0

4.86

22.2

1.40

160

81.0

5.11

24.6

1.55

180

85.5

5.39

10

27.0

1.70

200

90.0

5.68

12

28.6

1.80

250

101.0

6.37

14

30.2

1.91

300

108.0

6.81

16

31.8

2.01

400

127.0

8.01

18

33.4

2.11

500

143.0

9.02

20

35.0

2.21

750

177.0

11.17

25

38.0

2.40

1000

208.0

13.12

30

42.0

2.65

1250

239.0

15.08

35

44.0

2.78

1500

269.0

16.97

40

46.0

2.90

2000

325.0

20.50

45

48.0

3.03

2500

380.0

23.97

50

50.0

3.15DANILO V. RAVINA3000

433.0

27.32

57

END OF PRESENTATION

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