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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)

Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016, pp. 304-314, Article ID: IJCIET_07_01_025


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ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
IAEME Publication

MODELLING AND SIMULATION ON


VELOCITY AND PERMEABILITY TO
PREDICT BACILLUS ON LAG PHASE IN
PREDOMINANT LATERITIC AND SILTY
FORMATION IN COASTAL ABONNEMA,
NIGER DELTA OF NIGERIA
Eluozo. S. N
Subaka Nigeria Limited Port Harcourt Rivers State of Nigeria
Director and Principal Consultant Civil and Environmental Engineering,
Research and Development
Ode .T
Department of Civil Engineering, faculty of Engineering
Rivers State University of Science and Technology Port Harcourt
ABSTRACT
The deposition and migration process of bacillus lag phase condition has
been of paramount interest due it challenges in ground water quality, this
study mathematically analyze the migration process base on lag behaviour
the contaminant express in some formations, the study develop a model that
express the migration process and its behaviour between lateritic and silty
formation, the developed model simulated generated theoretical values, it has
shows the level of lag found to be insignificant as the rate of permeability
and velocity of flow influences the level of lag in the formation, the simulated
results were thoroughly compared with experimental values, both parameters
developed a faviourable fits, the validation of the developed model will
definitely made the developed concept a useful tools to experts.
Key words: Modelling and Simulation, Velocity and Permeability, Bacillus,
Lateritic and Silty Formation
Cite this Article: Asst. Prof. Abdul Ridah Saleh Al-Fatlawi and Ahmed Hadi
Hassan, CFRP Strengthening of Circular Concrete Slab with and without
Openings, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 7(1),
2016, pp. 304-314.
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Modelling and Simulation on Velocity and Permeability to Predict Bacillus on Lag Phase in
Predominant Lateritic and Silty Formation in Coastal Abonnema, Niger Delta of Nigeria

1. INTRODUCTION
This travel time was assumed to cause sufficient die off of pathogenic bacteria from
contamination sources (Knorr, 1937). In the past decades, however, viruses, and more
recently protozoa like Cryptosporidium and Giardia, have been recognized as
pathogens of major concern in the water industry (Craun et al., 1997; MacKenzie et
al., 1994; Gerba et al., 1990). These organisms have been related to waterborne
diseases because of their persistence in the environment, resistance to water treatment,
and high infectivity. These organisms are different from bacteria in survival, surface
properties, and size. Moreover, it has become clear that die off in groundwater is not
the only process that governs the transport of microorganisms. For viruses it was
demonstrated that attachment to soil particles was more important than survival in the
groundwater (Schijven, 2001). Therefore, viruses and maybe protozoa could be
transported over longer distances in soil and thus be more significant to the microbial
safety of groundwater number of field studies have been carried out that established
either removal of indigenous microorganisms or lab-cultured seeded microorganisms
(Schijven et al. 1999, 2000, 2001; Van Olphen et al., 1993; Medema and Stuyvesant,
2002). These studies showed that soil passage poses a very effective barrier to
microorganisms, but critical situations may arise (Medema and Stuyfzand, 2002).
Such situations are intrusion of contaminations to unconfined aquifers above
groundwater wells, water abstraction during RBF from a gravel aquifer, with
increased risk during high flow events, or short circuiting during recollection in AR
systems. Field studies are valuable but hampered by some drawbacks. The
concentration of pathogens in the field is generally too low to assess removal, and
only non hazardous model micro-organisms (Escherichia coli, bacteriophage, and
spores of clostridia) can be used in spiking studies (Schijven et al., 2000).. The
importance of attachment and the surface properties of bacteriophage, bacteria, and
soil and of water quality parameters has been elucidated by column experiments
(Burge and Enkiri, 1978; Sobsey et al., 1980; Bales et al., 1991; Jin et al., 1997;
Goldschmid et al., 1972; Fletcher and Marshall, 1982; Scholl et al., 1990; McCaulou
et al., 1994). More recently, transport of the oocysts of Cryptosporidium in soil
columns was studied (Harter et al., 2001; Logan et al., 2001; Bradford and Bettahar,
2005; Tufenkji et al., 2004a), and results indicate the importance of straining on the
removal of these larger organisms. The significance of column studies increases when
results are related to field conditions of the selected soils and validated by field
studies, as described for phage MS2 in dune sand by Schijven (2001). Soil water
regime is highly affected by soil structure and its stability. Various soil structure types
may cause preferential flow or water immobilization (Kodeov et al., 2006, 2007,
2008). Soil structure breakdown may initiate a soil particle migration, formation of
less permeable or even impermeable layers and consequently decreased water fluxes
within the soil profile (Kodeov et al., 2009a). Soil aggregation is under control of
different mechanisms in different soil types and horizons (Kodeov et al., 2009b).
Soil structure and consequently soil hydraulic properties of tilled soil varied in space
and time (Strudley et al., 2008). The temporal variability of the soil aggregate stability
was shown for instance by Chan et al. (1994), and Yang and Wander (1998). While
Chan et al. (1994) documented that temporal changes of aggregate stability were not
positively related to living root length density; Yang and Wander (1998) suggested
that the higher aggregate stability was found due to crop roots, exudates microbial byproducts and wet/dry cycles. The temporal variability of the soil hydraulic properties
(mainly hydraulic conductivities, K) were investigated for instance in following
studies. Murphy et al. (1993) showed that K values at tensions of 10 and 40 mm
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Eluozo. S. N and Ode .T

varied temporally due to the tillage, wetting/drying, and plant growth. Messing and
Jarvis (1993) presented that the K values decreased during the growing season due to
the structural breakdown by rain and surface sealing. Somaratne and Smettem (1993)
documented that while the K values at tension of 20 mm were reduced due to the
raindrop impact, the K values at tension of 40 mm were not influenced. AnguloJaramillo et al. (1997) discovered that only the more homogeneous sandy soil under
furrow irrigation exhibited significant decrease in sorptivity. Petersen et al. (1997)
documented using the dye tracer experiment that cultivation reduced the number of
active preferential flow paths. Azevedo et al. (1998) measured tension infiltration
from 0 to 90 mm and showed that macropore flow decreased from 69% in July to
44% in September. Bodner et al. (2008) discussed the impact of the rainfall intensity,
soil drying and frost on the seasonal changes of soil hydraulic properties in the
structure-related range. Finally, Suwardji and Eberbach (1998) studied both,
aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivities. They documented the lowest
aggregate stability during the winter and increased in spring. The K values decreased
during the growing season. The goal of this study is to assess the seasonal variability
of the soil structure, aggregate stability and hydraulic properties with respect to each
other and to varying soil physical and chemical properties, soil management and
climatic conditions. (Veronika et al 2010).

2. DEVELOPED MATHEMATICAL MODEL

c
c
c
V
Dvx
t
z
z

(1)

Nomenclature

Porosity [ - ]

D(x)

Dispersion number [ - ]

Void Ratio [ - ]

Lag phase [- ]

Concentration [ML-3]

Depth [L ]

Time [T ]

Velocity [LT-1 ]

c
S1C(t ) C(o)
t

(2)

c
S1C( z) C(o)
z

(3)

c
S1C( z) C(o)
z

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(4)

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Modelling and Simulation on Velocity and Permeability to Predict Bacillus on Lag Phase in
Predominant Lateritic and Silty Formation in Coastal Abonnema, Niger Delta of Nigeria

Substituting equation (2), (3) and (4) into equation (1) yields:

S C (t ) S C(t ) VSC( z) DvS C ( z)


S1C(t ) S1C(t ) C(o) Dv S1C( z) C(o)
1

C (t ) 1 S C (t ) VS1 C ( z ) DvS1C ( z )

C(t ) 1
C(t )

(6)

(7)

S C(t) VS C(z) DvC(z)


1

S1

(5)

(8)

V Dv

(9)

S1

C(t ) C(t ) V Dv
(10)

C (t ) S 1C (t ) C (t ) V DvC1

(11)

C(o) V DvC(t )

(12)

S 1C (t ) V DvC (t )

(13)

C (t )

C (t )

S 1C (t )
V Dv

(14)

S 1 (t )
V Dv

(15)

Furthermore, considering the boundary condition, we have at

t 0 C1 (o) C (o) 0

C (t ) S 1 C (t ) VC( z) Dv C ( z) 0

(16)

0
0
V Dv

(17)

Considering the following boundary condition in the equation

C(t ) Co S1 C(t ) Co S (t ) VC( z) VCo S1C( z)


DvS1 ( z) Dv Co S1 ( z)

(18)

C(t) C(t ) SC(t ) Co V DvCo

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(19)

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Eluozo. S. N and Ode .T

Considering the denominator in the equation, we have

C(t ) V DvCo
Considering V

C (t )

(20)

1
Dv Co

(21)

1 2 Dv Co
C (t )

C (t ) 1 2 Dv

(22)

1 Co

(23)

C (t ) 1 2 V Co

(24)

C(t )

(25)

1 2 Dv V Co

(26)

V V2 VDv Co

(27)

V2 VDv V 0

(28)

Applying quadratic expression to equation (28), we have

V2 VDv V 0
2
a = V , b = VDv Co and c = V

b b 2 4ac
2a

(29)

VDv Co VDv Co2 4VV


2V

(30)

VDv Co VDv Co2 4VV


2V

(31)

VDv Co VDv Co2 4VV


2
2V

(32)

Since we have A st B st it implies that

Ct A exp

VDv Co VDv Co2 4VV


2V

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(33)

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Modelling and Simulation on Velocity and Permeability to Predict Bacillus on Lag Phase in
Predominant Lateritic and Silty Formation in Coastal Abonnema, Niger Delta of Nigeria
If A = B = 1
VDv Co VDvCo2 4V V
t
2V

VDv Co VDv Co2 4VV

C (t ) exp
t
2V

(34)

Applying inverse Laplace of the equation yield

VDv Co VDv Co2 4VV


C (t ) t Dv CoCo
t
2V

VDv Co VDv Co2 4VV VDv Co VDv Co2 4VV

t
t
2V
2V

VDv Co VDv Co2 4VV


C (t ) VDv Co 2 Co


t
2
V

(35)

VDv Co VDv Co2 4VV


2V

VDv Co VDv Co2 4VV VDv Co VDv Co2 4VV



t
t
2V
2V

(36)

3. MATERIALS AND METHOD


Standard laboratory experiment where performed to monitor the rate of bacillus
concentration using column experiment at different formation, the soil deposition of
the strata were collected in sequences base on the structural deposition at different
locations, this samples collected at different location generate variation at different
depth producing different migration of bacillus concentration through its flow at
different strata, the experimental result are applied to be compared with the
theoretical values to determined the validation of the model.
Table 1 Theoretical values Bacillus Concentration of flow at Different Depths
Depth [M]
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
33
36

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Theoretical values.
9.84E-07
1.96E-06
2.95E-06
3.93E-06
2.46E-06
5.90E-06
6.90E-06
7.87E-06
8.85E-06
9.94E-06
1.08E-05
1.18E-05

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Table 2 Comparison of Theoretical and Measured Values of Bacillus Concentration Different
Depth
Depth [M]
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
33
36

Predicted values
9.84E-07
1.96E-06
2.95E-06
3.93E-06
2.46E-06
5.90E-06
6.90E-06
7.87E-06
8.85E-06
9.94E-06
1.08E-05
1.18E-05

Measured Values
9.77E-07
1.88E-06
2.88E-06
3.77E-06
2.33E-06
5.88E-06
6.77E-06
7.67E-06
8.78E-06
9.89E-06
1.04E-05
1.14E-05

Table 3 Theoretical values of Bacillus Concentration at Different Depth


Time Per Day
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120

Theoretical values
7.68E-04
1.80E-03
3.10E-03
4.67E-03
6.50E-03
8.61E-03
1.10E-02
1.40E-02
1.70E-02
1.90E-02
2.30E-02
2.70E-02

Table 4 Comparison of Theoretical and Measured Values of Bacillus Concentration Different Time

Time Per Day


10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120

Predicted Values
7.68E-04
1.80E-03
3.10E-03
4.67E-03
6.50E-03
8.61E-03
1.10E-02
1.40E-02
1.70E-02
1.90E-02
2.30E-02
2.70E-02

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310

Measured Values
7.55E-04
1.77E-03
3.05E-03
4.55E-03
6.44E-03
8.44E-03
1.08E-02
1.33E-02
1.66E-02
1.77E-02
2.27E-02
2.55E-02

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Modelling and Simulation on Velocity and Permeability to Predict Bacillus on Lag Phase in
Predominant Lateritic and Silty Formation in Coastal Abonnema, Niger Delta of Nigeria

Theoretical values

1.40E-05

1.20E-05
1.00E-05
8.00E-06
6.00E-06

Theoretical values Ccnc

4.00E-06
2.00E-06
0.00E+00
0

10

20

30

40

Depth [m]

Predicted and Measured Values

Figure1 Theoretical values of Bacillus Concentration at Different Time


1.40E-05
1.20E-05
1.00E-05
8.00E-06
6.00E-06

Predicted values Ccnc

4.00E-06

Measured Values

2.00E-06
0.00E+00
0

10

20

30

40

Depth [m]

Figure 2 Comparison of Theoretical and Measured Values of Bacillus Concentration


Different Depth
3.00E-02

Theoretical Values

2.50E-02
2.00E-02
1.50E-02
Theoretical values Ccnc

1.00E-02
5.00E-03
0.00E+00
0

50

100

150

Depth [m]

Figure3 Theoretical values of Bacillus Concentration at Different Time

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Predicted and Measured Values

3.00E-02
2.50E-02

2.00E-02
1.50E-02

Predicted Values values

1.00E-02

Measured Values

5.00E-03
0.00E+00
0

50

100

150

Depth [M]

Figure 4 Comparison of Theoretical and Measured Values of Bacillus of Concentration


Different Depth

The study has express the behaviour of bacillus in its migration at different
condition, the migration process were observed to be in almost the same process in
the formation, these are base on the concentration of bacillus in formation, the
behaviour of bacillus from the graphical representation shows that exponential phase
of bacillus deposition were observed in the system, with slight fluctuation experienced
in both predicted and measured values, the study express lag phase of bacillus within
the lateritic soil formation, but migrated rapidly at were the silty formation were
deposited, the deposition of silty formation experiences higher degree of porosity in
such deltaic formation. The behaviour of the contaminant observed higher rate of
porosity in silty formation, the study has defined the influential output of porosity in
silty strata, and these condition has been observed to inhibit the lag phase condition of
bacillus in lateritic formation base on the structure of the lithology in deltaic
environment.

4. CONCLUSION
The deposition of bacillus expressing lag phase in some strata has been evaluated, the
condition of lateritic formation developing lag phase were found from the simulation
results, these reflect the reaction with other constituents that may have influences the
contaminant at lateritic formation to have developed lag phase in those strata, such
condition were to monitor various influences on the behaviour of the microbes at
different geological setting of the soil structure, the developed model has definitely
express the level of lag in the system , this study provide the platform which experts
can determined the rate of lag which has been found insignificant in the study location
from the simulation results, the study will be a useful tool in monitoring and
evaluation of bacillus contaminants in the study location.

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Modelling and Simulation on Velocity and Permeability to Predict Bacillus on Lag Phase in
Predominant Lateritic and Silty Formation in Coastal Abonnema, Niger Delta of Nigeria

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