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Table of Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Daily Life in Prehistoric Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Religious Motivation in Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
RockArt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .10
. . . . . 10
Timeline of Prehistory . . . . . . . . . .
. ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Caves in the Vezere Valley . . . .
Kakadu National Park . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .16
. . . . . . .18
The Caves of Altamira. . . . . . . .
Tassili N'Ajjer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
How Does Carbon Dating Work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Rock Art Sites at Tadrart Acacus . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .26
Some Terms Used in Prehistoric Studies . . .
. . . . -26
. .28
Rock Art at Camonica Valley . . . . . . . .
. .28
Rock Art at Alta . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. -32
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index . . .
. .33

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-PublicationData
Teri, Marinella.
Arte rupestre prehistorico. English
rehistoric rock art / by Marinella erzi.
p. cm. - (The World heritage)
Translation of: El arte ruvestre urehistorico.
Includes index.
Summary: Discusses the subject matter, techniques, and cultural significance of
the paintings and en vings made on rocks, both inside caves and in the open
air, by primitive peop e around the world.
ISBN 0-516-08379-1
1. Rock iaintinqs-~uvenile literature. 2. Art. Prehistoric-Juvenile literature.
[I. Cave
2. Rock paintings. 3. Art, Pkhistoric. 4.Art appreciation.]
1. Title. [I. Series.





El Arte Rupestre Prehistorico: O INCAFO S.A/Ediciones S.M./UNESCO 1990
Prehistoric Rock Art: O Childrens Press: Inc./UNESCO 1992
ISBN (UNESCO)92-3-102599-6
ISBN (Childrens Press) 0-516-08379-1

remnants of a more advanced human. Norway. In Europe. Below is a deer's head from Altamira. Neanderthal.C. Painting methods were probably passed on from masters to apprentices. our direct ancestors. Around the same time.little figurines and drawings at first.000 years ago. As these photos show. appeared in Africa. T h e first tools made of flint are from that time. and Europe. a hominid called Homo erectus appeared in Asia and Africa. have been found in Asia. This species is also known as Pithecanthropus. Homo sapiens sapiens had spread into Europe and Asia by 40. painted in the Paleolithic era. they have been called Cro-Magnon. Africa. .'rehistoric iock Art How did the human race begin? This question has puzzled us for ages.000 B.species living in Africa nearly four million years ago. around 1. Early peoples may have had a magical belief that prey could be captured more easily if its image were "captured" first. Homo erectus was a meat eater and so needed cutting tools to butcher animals. and latel.. W e know that there was a hominid-or humanlike. Spain. From about 100. Scientists have named it Australopithecus.000 B. Much latel. depending on where the paintings are found. the styles vary considerably. Homo sapiens sapiens. These are the people who created the first works of art. paintings o n stone. The top photo shows a detail of a painting on stone in Alta. from the later Neolithic period. The Magic of the Hunt Scenes of animals and hunting are the major subjects in prehistoric rock art. T h e structure of their bodies is much like that of modern humans.600..C.


It was often hard simply to survive. This was a period that lasted some two million years.c. . called interglacials. And so. To get the food they needed. occurred throughout Paleolithic times.000 B. or glaciations. When they stood on their hind legs. especially those used for hunting. or Old Stone Age. In Africa the Ice Ages were much milder.The present inhabitants still practice many traditional arts. These first human beings appeared during the Paleolithic Era.People had to deal with difficult childbirths and with illnesses they barely understood. Norway. and their sense of smell less and less. Descendants of the First Australians Many settlements that date as far back as 25. our own type of humans. . after long ages of development. They are World Heri: tage sites. Glaciers. People in the Paleolithic Era would take shelter at the entrances of caves. The map (right)shows the locations of the places mentioned in this book. fished. always ready to catch or gath'er food. chosen by UNESCO for preservation. They began to use their sense of sight more and more. and gathered plants. Australia (oppositepage.Daily Life in Rehistoric Times Hominids needed to develop new abilities to cope with the hardships of their environment. They had to protect themselves against wild beasts. The climate during the Paleolithic Era was much different than today's climate. They protected their bodies with the skins of the animals they hunted. they hunted.spread throughout the world. until about 10. their front limbs were free to make and handle whatever toois they needed. In between glaciations were periods of warmer weather. The population was therefore sparse. top). They had to be alert at all times.000 years have been found in Kakadu National Park. In the photo at the left is a rock painting at Alta. but they produced heavy rainfall. A series of Ice Ages. Homo sapiens sapiens.huge masses of ice-covered much of the earth.


or feelings.000 and 20.000 B. Instead of a nomadic life of hunting. in the Near East. people made tools out of chipped stone. the climate changed.. it was not likely that there were people dedicated only to art. The earliest arf objects may have been made for religious purposes. Art for Worship The first works of art may have had a religious purpose. This change-from a wandering life to a settled lifemarked the beginning of the Mesolithic ~ r aThis . But rainfall also decreased. but as a part of rituals associated with birth. and it resisted scratches. and fertility. Next came the Neolithic Era. Religious Motivation in Art Once our early ancestors developed to a 'certain point. In such small societies. bone. In many cases. in Europe. But Paleolithic art objects were part of rituals and ceremonies related to birth. The female figurines represented in the drawing (left)were created about 20. Stone was easy to shape by chipping.C. Now a much gentler climate prevailed. and fertility. Between 30. The artists faced the same problems and hardships as the other people in their group. and shells. After the last Ice Age. During Paleolithic times.000 ~ c r h photo e at the right shows an image on rock from the Neolithic period found in the Tassili N'Ajjer. people settled next to rivers. death. death. the first figurines of humans were made out of stone. the art may have been related to magic.000 to 9000 B. an artist produces art to express personal ideas. They were not made simply for personal expression. thoughts. and to about 4000 B. With the change in climate came the birth of agriculture. Usually. bone.The first tools were made of stone.C. and ivory. Others appear to be youths or stylized forms. wood. people settled down to tend crops and built more solid houses. Algeria. Some of them clearly represent women. causing severe dryness in many places. . period lasted from about 10.C. They used rocks broken from cliffs or pebbles gathered from streams. In today's way of thinking.C. lasting until around 3000 B. they began to create works of art.

+rn :-+ 9 H E - .

Rock Art Glaciers still covered great parts of northern Europe when humans made the first paintings..000 years ago: Homo sapiens sapiens (modern humans) are the only type of humans From 10.000 B.: Paleolithic Age 1.000 to 9000 B.Below it is an everyday scene among the people of Kakadu: a mother and her two children collect mollusks in the brackish waters that result when sea water and fresh water mix during the flood season.c. and the lime has fossilized the paintings over the years. and charcoal with animal fat.- From 2 million years ago until 10. Nourlangie Rock.R. The paintings are generally multi-colored. They used rapid strokes and various techniques of coloring and shading.C. 4 million years ago: Australopithecus appears . with their hands. It could be that the people believed thkir hunting would be more successful if the prey's image were captured in a painting. Sometimes they used brushes. more than one thousand sites with prehistoric art have been counted. By studying the many styles in rock art.C. There are some paintings of Europe): Mesolithic Age From the Mesolithic to around 3000 BE. Timeline of Prehistory . ocher. They applied the colors to the walls with sticks or reeds.. In other words. carbon-14 dating on page 24.. Most were painted in various shades of red. is shown in the top photo. and yellow. .C. Australians say it represents Barginj. as well as some syrnbols that we don't understand. and reliefs on rock walls. engravings.600.000 and 10.) This type of art reached its peak beginning about 15. we can tell that skills were passed on from masters to apprentices. or by blowing the ground-up pigment onto the rock wall. .wife of the Lightning-Spirit.: Neolithic Age From 3000 to 1100 B. O n e reason the paintings have lasted s o long is because of the water in the caves. Engravings were carved with flint or other stone tools.000 B.000 years ago: Homo erectus appears 100.C..: Bronze Age From 1100 B.(to 4000 B. Flint tools were also used to carve sculptures. (See explanation of . the paintings have gradually turned to stone. The artists made the colors by mixing such substances as manganese. these works can be dated between the present: Iron Age Rites of Yesterday and Today At Kakadu National Park. Using the carbon-14 method. One of them. But most of the paintings shbw figures of animals.c.. black.000 years ago: Neanderthal and Homo sapiens sapiens appear 32.000B. Most of these works were created by people who were talented artists. It contains lime (calcium oxide).


845 feet 1867m e i d .500hectares)+ - The park is'rnade up of wide expanses of sand.000 years old.At the m e time."This is m e land. someof them around 10. m e law. spectacular formationsm ofgreat interest 20 geologists who study the structure and chemistry of the earth. Thre are valuable and unique stone paintings oh &ers Rock. Howew theyare located in one of the three zones reserved exclusively for the native people. ane people!' That hangu phrase swns up the s e m of life in the heart ofAustralia . ft is hone b many fascimtbg animal and plant species. and desert formed by deposits From stream Rising from this desert is the famous monolith of &em Rock. dunes. The natural features of Lntlruwe just as important as the cuIturaf. which reaches a bight of 2. Tourists and photographers are not allowed to enter.TheBPckthatHidesa8ecret Uluru National Park in A d a ' s central desert coven about 522 squm miles I132. Biologists are just as inheresfadinthe national park as an ecosystem. shown in the photo..the native communities confrih& their great cultural and religiousheritage. fts tqp is almost fiat.


The painting on the left is from Altamira._. . ... .."*-... . . there are paintings painted on top of other paintings. They often took advantage of raised areas on rocky walls to make their figures seem more real.C___. . -. .. . ' .. . .'. In some caves.. . .. . These lamps did not give off much light. "..'... France. Many cave paintings were done far from the entrance to a cave. " . to show wounds in the animals..". -. .. . . This may mean that the hunters were trying for rarer forms of prey. . .... but they could last a long time. I I Fine Artistic Techniques Prehistoric artists used excellent techniques. The hunting of animals is one of the most common themes in the paintings and engravings.. Sometimes there are figures of animals that barely existed in the artist's area. Either they were created at different times or were deliberately made that way to to give an impression of depth.5 ounces (300 grams) of animal fat could produce twentyfour hours of light.. Spain. ~ . ..-. Sometimes they accented the outlines of drawings by engraving them with a burin (a pointed flint tool) and filling in with black.*_ . . They used torches to light their way along the lengthy underground corridors. .'. too. . It has been determined that 10..n' .... . in the Vezere Valley..l..'< . There were also stone lamps that were probably set at intersections or in front of decorated areas. . . such as water trickles. In many cases. -- .+ .__.. They even used natural features of the . The one on the right is from Lascaux Cave. . . .':. Such techniques can be seen in Altamira and other Paleolithic caves. This tells us that the people of that time used fire and knew how to control it. These two techniques can be seen in the photos at the left and right. . . '- '.. Remains of torches have been found in various Paleolithic sites.-. * . " . -J\.. An animal painted on such a spot seemed to jut out.. . the painters took advantage of parts of the rock that jutted out. ....--*-.


The present inhabitants. inhabited by a great population of aquatic birds. due mainly to the dust produced by traffic to the sites. and black. 185 miles (300 kilometers) east of the city of Darwin. Their colors were yellow.640feet (500 meters).000 years old.000 years old have been discovered on this plateau. This valley in the French region of Aquitaine. different shades of ocher. have been found in excavations in this region. There is also a rocky plateau. One of the bulls painted there is 18 feet (5.000 years ago. about 20. (Bottom) A rock painting of a turtle in Kakadu.'the Lardil. Some of the paintings show events or activities common in the community. since the native people themselves have been in charge of taking care of them. with mountain masses as high as 1.300 square miles (6.000 years ago. indicating that they were made at more than one time. More than 2. They are very interested in preserving their heritage. Kakadu National Park This Australian park is in the region of Arnhem Land. Other pictures were painted for religious purposes. An Assortment of Animals The Room of the Bulls is one of the most fascinating parts of Lascaux Cave in the Vezere Valley. It contains hundreds of paintings. In the valley are 147 prehistoric sites and 25 decorated cavei The most famous is Lascaux Cave. They are the most ancient relics unearthed so far. to obtain blessings for the group. There is evidence that the first inhabitants of Australia came from Asia at least 40. the paintings are now in danger of deteriorating. One of the most interesting chambers in Lascaux Cave is the Room of the Bulls. are traces of the humans who lived there thousands of years ago. Several human settlements u p to 25. Turtles were eaten by the . Animals of the time are the main subjects in the pictures. the park is comprised of many different types of land. already inhabited 100.000 square kilometers) in area. The best known is Lascaux Cave. some outlined with strokes made by a pointed flint tool called a burin. Australia. in the French region of Aquitaine. There are mangrove swamps and flooded plains. are direct descendants of the area's prehistoric residents. Prehistoric art appears in more than a thousand sites in Kakadu National Park. (Top)A bull and a horse in Lascaux Cave. Stone axes with ground cutting edges.Caves in the Vezere Valley Scattered throughout the Vezere Valley. The artists took advantage of irregularities in the rocks to add some depth or relief. Some drawings are made o n top of others.5meters) long. has 147 sites and 25 decorated caves. Most of them are in shades of ocher and are quite well preserved. However.


500 B.C. near Santillana del Mar in the Cantabrian Mountains. The most outstanding features are the twenty figures on the ceiling of the main room. . The caves of Altamira are now closed to the public to preserve the paintings. are closed to the public now to assure their preservation. are made up of a number of passageways and rooms. With all their rooms and winding corridors. red.C. painted in ocher. A hunter from the region discovered the caves in the middle of the nineteenth century. human beings. horses. and unknown symbols or designs. People probably lived in them as early as 30. It must have taken quite a bit of effort for the artists to have painted them. since theywould have had to work in a very uncomfortable position. The caves were inhabited most heavily around 13. and black tones. and wild boar are the subjects of the paintings. near Santillana del Mar. with a total length of 885 feet (270 meters).C. The twenty impressive multi-colored figures on the ceiling of the main room date from that time. Bison. But the many stone tools around the entrance indicate that the heaviest period of settlement was around 13. Three types of pictures appear in the caves: animals.500B. red. He visited the caves several times. They are painted in various shades of ocher.The Caves of Altamira The caves of Altamira are in northern Spain. the caves' total length is 885 feet (270 meters). The animal figures may represent dead animals lying in a corral after being driven into a slaughter area. but it was his daughter Maria who first discovered the famous bison on the ceiling in 1879. The artists used raised parts of the rock to make the animals look even more realistic. Spain. located in a limestone plateau. Some of the animals' bodies stand out like relief sculptures. When the Marquis of Sautuola heard about them. The caves. he guessed that there might be something interesting inside. and black.000 6. deer. A Ceiling Full of Bisons The caves of Altamira.


On it are more than 15.Struggle Against the Desert The Tassili N'Ajjer is a long. flat rock. They are vivid evidence of the diverse civilizations that have lived in the area. . But it is also of great interest to biologists. about 430 miles long and 62 miles wide (700by 100 kilometers). and other archaeological remains.000 paintings. It contains Mediterranean plants and animalsthat defy the area's tendency to turn into a desert. the southeast corner of Algeria. The Tassili N'Ajjer isvaluable to geologists and archaeologists. from the Saharan Neolithic era until quite recent times.


a n animal very abundant in the region. They serve as a reminder of the past.have found that people have lived in this part of the Sahara region for over 7. the Tassili N'Ajjer is an archaeological site rich with prehistoric art. Archaeologists -scientists who study remains from past civilizations. It rises in the southeastern corner of Algeria.000meters) high. There are paintings from the Saharan Neolithic period all the way up to recent times. s o did the people's way of life. and almost 1.000 years. Besides all this. Wind and storms have worn away its clayey material.25 miles (2. Its plants and animals are similar to those in lands close to the Mediterranean Sea. in the heart of the Sahara Desert of North Africa. . there are more than 15. It depicts a goat. of a time when the arid Sahara was lush and green. At the left is one of the engravings at the Tassili N'Ajjer. each made in a different time period: The Might of the Wind T h e clayey material of the Tassili N'Ajjer has been worn away by winds and storms. engravings. That is the Tassili N'Ajjer. and other archaeological remnants. As conditions changed. leaving unusual formations. O n its rock faces.Tassili N'Ajjer Imagine a single. the dwellers have had to adjust to an ever more arid climate. Together. Through the centuries. such as those in the photo at the right. This erosion has left some unusual formations. Several different styles of paintings are found in the Tassili N'Ajjer.000 paintings. they are a priceless testimony to the many civilizations that have lived in the area. This peculiar terrain is remarkable for its biology as well as its geology. flat rock about 435 miles (700 kilometers) long and 62 miles (100 kilometers) wide.


It was in this era that the camel replaced the horse.D.c. All living things-animals and plants-contain the element carbon. While animals and plants are alive. Plants take in carbon dioxide and also a form of carbon called carbon-14. Most of the paintings at the Tassili N7Ajjerare in this style. There are many pictures of cattle and sheep and of people doing everyday chores. Udng this method. This period lasted from about 1200 B.700 years. The number of radioactive particles shooting out of an object tells how much carbon-14 is still left in it. With an instrument called a Geiger counter.700 years. almost all the carbon-14 is gone. H m Lks Curium-14 Dating Mrk? The carbon44 method was discovered in 1949 by the American physicist Willard Frank Libby. Whether they represent people or spirits or both is not known. Along with the paintings are words written in Tifinagh. from A. When something dies. . These paintings. These are the oldest paintings. 300 to the present. I1 Period of round-headed beings. Cattle herdsmen period. Horse period. The photo above shows some of the clayey mountain masses in the area. The testcan be done on any organic materialthat is. in 5. often very small or very large. scientists can discover the age of objects that are many . show beings with round and exaggerated heads.The art in the bottom photo belongs to the camel period.scientists can count these particles.C. clothing. onequarter of it is left. Camels on the Rocks The paintings at the Tassili N'Ajjer are divided into five styles. the carbon-14 inside them is constantly breaking down. This might be explained by the inhabitants' contacts with Egypt and other North African cultures bordering the Mediterranean. But they are constantly taking in more carbon-14 at the same time.thousands of years old.C. When animals eat plants.700 more years. Camel period. But the carbon14 inside it keeps breaking down &n-14 breaks dawn. After another 5. c . it stops taking in carbon-14. Once they know how much carbon-14 remains in the object. they can determine its age. used between about 4000 and 1200 B.D.C. It is marked by scenes of horse-drawn chariots and of people riding on horseback. a form of writing still used today by the Tuaregs. anything that was once alive.000years. Paintings from the camel period usually have inscriptions in Tifinagh characters. and woad are all objects whose age can be . From A. Artists started making this kind of painting at a time when camels began to be used instead of horses. a (nv uAkactive" particle shoots out. l d using carbon-14 dating. a form of writing still used by the presentday Tuareg people of the area. one-eighth is M. too. depending on the dates when they were created. they take in the phnt's carbon. to the end of the B. Fur. the amount of carbon-14 inside an animal or plant s& the same as long as it's a l i . That's how long it takes for onehalf the original amount of carbon14 to break down.000years old. created about 6000 B . They date from about 6000 to 4000 B. We know that carbon-14 has a "half-life" of about 5.Realistic period. antlers. Thus. Thus. After about 50. T are ~ ~pictures ~ of wild animals of the savanna. carbon-14 dating can be used to find the age of organic material thac is up to 50. 300 to the present time. era.and so on.


c.the Ajjer Tuaregs -are more bound to their ancient traditions than other Tuaregs are. Their styles are very different.000 B.C. One of them is shown in the lower left photo. They are also more independent. dating as far back as 12. and sheep. There. The other two photos Were taken at Italy. are found thousands of engravings and rock paintings. Some Tenns Used in Prehistoric Studies fossil: a remnant or outline of a plant or animal presewed in rock fossilization: the gradual transformation of a plant or animal into rock as minerals replace soft tissues ghciation: an ice qle:the formation of ice sheets covering a h r s @on hominids: humans and closely related human-like beings that are now extinct half-life: the number of years it takes for half an amount of a radioactive material to break down interglacial: a period of warmer climate between ice ages paleontology: the science that studies life in past eras by examining fossil remains r carbon-14dating method - name - The Hidden Valley The rocky mountain mass of Tadrart Acacus in Libya is a natural extension of the TassiliN. raising camels.) There is no camel period.Ajjer Like the site in Algeria.) Round-headed beings (7000 to 4000 B. There. is a rocky mountain mass measuring almost 100 square miles (more than 250 square kilometers). The paintings reveal the great changes in the plant and animal life of the area through the centuries. It is the most important discovery of rock art to date.C. too. In this breathtaking valley are more than 140. Some of them are older than the ones at the Tassili N'Ajjer.C.000 to 7000 B. since the valleywas isolated from the rest of the world so long. goats.) Cattle (4000 to 1200 B.D. to first century A. engraved on some 2.c.000 prehistoric figures. . depending on when they were made.) Horse (1200 B. Rock Art Sites at Tadrart Acacus The Tassili N'Ajjer region extends naturally across the Algerian border into southwestern Libya. They also reflect the different ways of life practiced by the various inhabitants. it contains thousands of rock engravings and paintings.The artists' descendants.400 rocks. The last pictures at Tadrart Acacus were painted before camels were commonly used in that area. They lead a nomadic life. Experts have divided the art at Tadrart Acacus into the same periods as the paintings at the Tassili N'Ajjer: Realistic (possibly 12. at Tadrart Acacus.


Life in Camonica Valley was a world of its own. There is a difference of about 85 feet (26 meters) between the higher (older) works and the lower (newer) ones. The paintings found in this fjord.C. After that. basic elements in the prehistoric religion of the area. but Camonica Valley was far from any of them. Some of the works at Alta date from that period. But most of them were made later. Norway. How can this be? Glaciers covered the far northern part of the earth until at least 8000 B. the valley contains more than 140. Everything seems to indicate that the pictures have a religious meaning. There are also pictures of deer and of sun disks. lies the Camonica Valley. people began to settle there much later than in warmer regions to the south.Rock Art at Camonica Valley In the far northern part of Italy. The more recent ones are lower. Below is a fishing scene in Alta.400 rocks. The top two photos show rock art from Camonica Valley. That was why the valley's distinct culture lasted such a long time.C. nestled in the Alps near the border of Switzerland.C. In civilizations along the shores of the Mediterranean. there are paintings and engravings that seem to belong to the Neolithic Era. its culture started to decline. Important archaeological remains -engravings and paintings -were found in the valley in the early 1900s. pictures from different time periods have been painted or engraved on top of one another. agriculture and cities appeared later in the far north than in the Mediterranean. near the Arctic Circle. the area was opened to trade and communication. Thus.' Rock Art at Alta Along the Alta Fjord in northern Norway. on the other hand. isolated from the outside world. The main elements in the religion -the deer and the sun -appear in almost all the rock paintings there.C. were made between 3000 and 500 B. They show a . In all. There were a number of usual routes across the Alps. An Unfavorable Climate Most of the engravings at Camonica Valley have religious designs. As a result. Engravings of people in poses of adoration are common. near the Arctic Circle. closer to the present sea level. and 500 B.C. These works of art show that a prehistoric culture existed at Camonica Valley beginning around 8000 B. The most ancient works at Alta are generally those found higher than sea level. too. Neolithic culture flourished between 3000 and 1500 B. With so much work done over such a long time. show scenes of everyday life and of the dwellings used by members of the different social classes. Once tourism in the Italian Alps began to develop. between about 1500 B. Once the Romans arrived. belonging to the Etruscan and Roman civilizations. Some pictures. the valley became more widely known.000 figures on about 2. There are more recent images.C.


With its extremely northern location and so unfavorable a climate. . which were made 10. There were differences of up to thousands of years between one region and another. At the very same time that hunting declined in the area.has the most recent paintings. and ritual ceremonies. the paintings stopped. the Neolithic Era did not begin at the same time everywhere. such as the one at the left. Development During the Neolithic Era Prehistoric cultures did not develop in the same way or at the same time all over the world. and whales are some of the local animals shown in the paintings. Alta appears to be the most northerly part of our planet where there was human life in prehistoric times. The figures were carved in the rock and later colored. navigation. which was very difficult in the frigid climate. such as fishing. Bears. Alta. in Norway. also less realistic than Altamira's. Thus. Yet these paintings are much simpler than those of Altamira (opposite page. The paintings at Alta have a very curious feature: the sides of reindeer and elk are sometimes crossed by a number of vertical lines. reindeer. belong to a period between Altamira and Alta.000years earlier:The pictures at Camonica Valley (upper right). elk. some experts have concluded that the lines represent the animals' bones. But there are also scenes of daily life.I I I I Hunting scenes abound. There are even scenes of farming. h e r right). either partly or completely. After much study.

C. in the Alta Fjord. Combarelles. an archaeological and ethnological reserve in the far northern part of Australia. and Roman civilization. . the twenty figures of animals on the ceiling of the central room here are the most outstanding. Rock Art of Camonica Valley. as proven by artistic remains from as far back as 3000 B. More than 15. Of all the remains and paintings that have been preserved. This is the most northerly place where there was human life during prehistory. More than one thousand places in the park have examples of prehistoric art. with a very unusual away of plants and animals. They belong to the long period between 8000 B.000 years. an extension into Libya of the Tassili N'Ajjer. The caves are 885 feet (270 meters) long. Rock Art of Alta. a rocky mountain mass in Algeria. Rock Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus. Norway. Kakadu National Park. Engravings and paintings of great interest are preserved in this valley in the Italian Alps.These Sites Are Part o f the World Heritage Caves of the Vezere Valley.C. It also has thousands of rock paintings and engravings. Tassili N'Ajjer. Caves of Altamira.000 paintings and engravings frorn the Saharan Neolithic period are found here. near Santillana del Mar in the Cantabrian Mountains of Spain. The district has 147 sites and 25 decorated caves. Lascaux. located in the French region of Aquitaine. People have lived there continuously for 40. and Font-de-Gaume are the most outstanding caves.

narrow inlets of the sea between steep cliffs. and social patterns of a particular group of people engraving: a picture made by carving lines into a stone excavate: to find or uncover something by digging or scooping out a hole in the ground fertility: the ability to reproduce figurine: a small carved or molded statue fjords: deep. or a substance taken from a plant or animal prehistoric: "before history". reddish-yellow color obtained from iron ore pigment: a coloring material. Alaska. found along coasts in Scandinavia. and southern South America flint: a hard quartz mineral glacier: a huge body of ice spread out over a large area lime: calcium oxide manganese: a grayish-white metal monolith: a massive stone ocher: an earthy.Glossary apprentice: a student learning a craft from a master archaeologist: a scientist who learns about the past by studying the remains of ancient artifacts and monuments culture: the beliefs. occurring before human history began to be written down relief: a sculpture on a wall or other flat surface that stands out from its background savanna: a grassy plain with few or no trees . values. skills. it could be a powder that is mixed with a liquid.

20-21.16. 27. 15. Libya.30. early humans in. 6. early humans in. 16. early humans in. caves in. 10.8. 20. 2 5 3 0 France. 28 Sahara Desert. 6 .30.24. 4.31 Altamira caves. 5. prehistoric art in. 15. 18 12. 11 Paleolithic Era. 18 Cro-Magnon.31. 12-13 UNESCO.31 Libya.31. 6 . 12.31 Kakadu National Park.31 Nourlangie Rock. 14.31.6. beginnings of. 15.12-13 camels.28. 14 Pithecanthropus. 6. 11. 31 Tassili N'Ajjer. 22.28. 26 religious purposes of art. 10. 20-21. prehistoric art in.35 .19.23. 9. prehistoric art in.31 Tadrart Acacus. 5. 17.26.4 plant and animal life. 4 Neolithic Era.31 World Heritage sites.25. 28 Alta.28 Homo erectus.25. 8 Italy.30. 10 art techniques. 4. 15. 6.28. 4. 16.30. 4 Algeria. 8. 8 . 4 Ayers Rock. 10. 28-29.4 daily life in prehistoric times: 6. 17. 18. 7 Mediterranean region. 6. 3 0 Ice Ages. 27.30 Europe. 12 animals in art. prehistoric art in.18. prehistoric art in. 8. 31 map of prehistoric sites.14.24. 6 glaciers. France.31 Lardil people of Australia.30. 24. 10. 26.31 carbon-14 dating.19.31 Anagu people of Australia. 6. 28 homes and shelters. 9.31 Aps. 27. 4. 6 hominids.24 climate. 24. 5 . 4. 14 fishing. prehistoric art in. 16?17.28 Mesolithic Era. Italy. Africa. 8. 6 hunting.22. 14. 6 . 14.31 Australopithecus. Australia.22. prehistoric art in.28. 3 5 Vezere Valley. 11. 11. Norway.14. 14.28 Roman civilization. Australia.8: 18. 8 . 6 colors.19. 5. 14.20. Australia. Marquis de. 16 Lascaux Cave. 17. early use of. 30.6.29. 30. Algeria.Index Page numbers in boldface type indicate illustrations. France. 16. 18 Spain. 8 fire. 16 Australia.22. 18.31 gathering plants. 7. 4.22. 12.25.28. 30 figurines.31.31 tools. 8 Neanderthal. 16. 16. Spain.8.24. 27. 24. 26. 17. 14. 16. 4 . 27.24-25. 5. 10. 7. 22. 29. 18 Asia.22 Sautuola.30. 17.22 clothing. 10. 10 farming.22.26.20. 8. 5.26 Uluru National Park. 18 Tuareg people of North Africa.28. 6 . 12. 16.30. 4. 28-2930. 4 _ Homo sapiens sapiens.26 Camonica Valley.30 Norway. 8. 22.31 art.

Femandez & C. pp. Ruiz Pastor/Incafo. p. 20-21. Fernandez & C. . R. 15: I? Vauthey/Sygma-Contifoto. Thomas E Kehoe Translator: Angela Ruiz Design: Alberto Caffaratto Cartography: Modesto Arregui Drawings: Olga Perez Alonso Phototypesetting: Publishers Typesetters. A. p. p. back cover: L. A. Project Editor. Larramendi/Incafo. 31: L.25:A. Fernandez & C. de Noriega/Incafo. J. 17: I? Vauthey/Sygma-Contifoto. Fiore/Firo-Foto. Schoenal/Marco-Polo.Titles in the World Heritage Series The Land of the Pharaohs The Chinese Empire Ancient Greece Prehistoric Rock Art The Roman Empire Mayan Civilization Tropical Rain Forests Inca Civilization Prehistoric Stone Monuments Romanesque Art and Architecture Great Animal Refuges of the World Coral Reefs Photo Credits Front cover: Incafo. Incafo. Femandez & C. G. A. pp. Hiser. Femandez & C. 19: J. E. 30: L. Fiore/Firo-Foto. Childrens Press: Ann Heinrichs Original Text: Marinella Terzi Subject Consultant: Dr. 12-13: A. Ruiz Pastor/Incafo. p. S. de Noriega/lncafo. Ruiz Pastor/Incafo. 7: R. Ruiz Pastor/Incafo. 11:D. Inc. FotoStock. 5: L. 18: J. p. Smith. 27: S. Ruiz Pastor/Incafo. J. J. Fernandez & C. de Noriega/ Incafo. L. de Noriega/Incafo. Smith. R. A. de Noriega/Incafo. de Noriega/Incafo. 9: Index. 3: l? Vauthey/Sygma-Contifoto. Fiore/FiroFoto. A. A. Fiore/ Firo-Foto. Fiore/Firo-Foto. p.23. p. p. 29: S. 14: J. p. p. p.22. p.S. p. Smith. S. p.

Scientific. the international community restores. Specialists on the World Heritage Committee have targeted over 300 sites for preservation. UNESCO'smany activities include. science. developing water resources. Its purpose is to contribute to world peace by promoting cooperation among nations through education. . Thus. protects. cultural. for the rule of law.UNESCOb World Heritage The United Nations Educational. Such treasures. UNESCO believes that such cooperation leads to universal respect for justice. are part of a World Heritage that belongs to all people. geological formations. UNESCO established its World Heritage Convention. With members from over 100 nations. and scientific importance.educating people on the environment. In 1972. and promoting human rights. These include significant monuments. and for the basic human rights of all people. their preservation is important to us all. and culture. archaeological sites. this international body works to protect cultural and natural wonders throughout the world. and natural landscapes. Volumes in the World Heritage series feature spectacular color photographs of various World Heritage sites and explain their historical. and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)was founded in 1946. and preserves these sites for future generations. . Through technical and financial aid. combatting illiteracy. for example. the Convention believes.