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Mata kuliah Fenomena Transport 2

Sistem penilaian:

Kehadiran

: 10%

Kuis

: 15% (2 kali sebelum UTS dan 2 kali sebelum UAS)

Tugas kelompok

: 15% (1 kali sebelum UTS dan 1 kali sebelum UAS)

UTS dan UAS

: 60%

Metode pembelajaran
Materi dari dosen
Bagian pokok diterangkan dosen
Bagian lainnya dipelajari sendiri (bagian dari Student Centered Learning)
Tugas kelompok (bagian dari Student Centerd Learning)
1

Dr. Victor Yuardi Risonarta

Heat Transfer
Steady State
Conduction
1 Dimension
No internal energy generation

Dr. Victor Yuardi Risonarta

The term one-dimensional refers to the fact that only one coordinate is
needed to describe the spatial variation of the dependent variables.
Characteristics of a one-dimensional system conduction steady state:
temperature gradients exist along only a single coordinate direction,
and heat transfer occurs exclusively in that direction.
the temperature at each point is independent of time
for one-dimensional, steady-state conduction in a plane wall with no
heat generation and constant thermal conductivity, the temperature
varies linearly with x.
both the heat rate
are constants, independent of x.

3 cases of heat balance for all heat transfer cases:


There could be internal heat generation
There could be thermal storage inside the investigated body
fins can be used to enhance heat transfer by convection to an adjoining fluid.

Conduction 1D at planar wall

Dr. Victor Yuardi Risonarta

For steady-state conditions with no


distributed source or sink of energy within
the wall, the appropriate form of the heat
equation

If the thermal conductivity of the wall


material is assumed to be constant, the
equation may be integrated twice to obtain
the general solution

For one-dimensional, steady-state conduction in a plane wall with no heat generation


and constant thermal conductivity, the temperature varies linearly with x.

Thermal Resistance

Dr. Victor Yuardi Risonarta

In particular, an analogy exists between the diffusion of heat and electrical charge.
Just as an electrical resistance is associated with the conduction of electricity,
a thermal resistance may be associated with the conduction of heat.

the thermal resistance for conduction in a plane wall is

A thermal resistance may also be associated with heat transfer by convection at a


surface. From Newtons law of cooling
The thermal resistance for convection is then

Thermal Resistance and Circuit

Dr. Victor Yuardi Risonarta

qx is constant throughout the network

Because the conduction and convection


resistances are in series and may be summed,
it follows that

Radiation exchange between the surface and surroundings may also be important if the
convection heat transfer coefficient is small (as it often is for natural convection in a
gas). A thermal resistance for radiation may be defined by

Composite Wall

Dr. Victor Yuardi Risonarta

Equivalent thermal circuits may also be used for more complex systems, such as
composite walls. Such walls may involve any number of series and parallel thermal
resistances due to layers of different materials. Consider the series composite wall. The
one-dimensional heat transfer rate for this system may be expressed as

Since qx is constant, then

Exercise

Dr. Victor Yuardi Risonarta

1. Thin silicon chip and an 8-mm-thick aluminum substrate are separated by a 0.02mm-thick epoxy joint. The chip and substrate are each 10 mm on a side, and their
exposed surfaces are cooled by air, which is at a temperature of 25C and provides a
convection coefficient of 100 W/m2 K. If the chip dissipates 104 W/m2 under normal
conditions, will it operate below a maximum allowable temperature of 85C?

1 Dimensional Steady State Radial Systems

Dr. Victor Yuardi Risonarta

For steady-state conditions with no heat generation, the appropriate form of the heat
equation
The rate at which energy is conducted across any cylindrical surface in the solid may
be expressed as
where A 2rL is the area normal to the direction of heat transfer

1 Dimensional Steady State Radial Systems

Dr. Victor Yuardi Risonarta

the temperature distribution in the cylinder

Note that the temperature distribution without internal energy generation associated
with radial conduction through a cylindrical wall is logarithmic, not linear, as it is for
the plane wall under the same conditions.
the heat transfer rate
For radial conduction in a cylindrical wall, the thermal resistance is of the form

1 Dimensional Steady State Radial Systems

Dr. Victor Yuardi Risonarta

Consider now the composite system of Figure 3.8. Recalling how we treated the
composite plane wall and neglecting the interfacial contact resistances, the heat
transfer rate may be expressed as

or

1 Dimensional Steady State Radial Systems

Dr. Victor Yuardi Risonarta

1 Dimensional Steady State Radial Systems

Dr. Victor Yuardi Risonarta

Exercise
A steam pipe of 0.12-m outside diameter is insulated with a layer of calcium silicate.
If the insulation is 20 mm thick and its inner and outer surfaces are maintained at Ts,1
800 K and Ts,2 490 K, respectively,
a. The thermal resistance
b. what is the heat loss per unit length (q) of the pipe?

1 Dimensional Steady State Sphere System

Dr. Victor Yuardi Risonarta

Now consider applying the alternative method to analyzing conduction in the hollow
sphere
For the differential control volume of the figure, energy conservation requires that
for steady-state, one-dimensional conditions with no heat generation. The
appropriate form of Fouriers law is

1 Dimensional Steady State Sphere System

Dr. Victor Yuardi Risonarta

Exercise
A spherical Pyrex glass shell has inside and outside diameters of D1 0.1 m and D2 0.2
m, respectively. The inner surface is at Ts,1 100C while the outer surface
is at Ts,2 45C.
(a) Determine the temperature at the midpoint of the
shell thickness, T(rm 0.075 m).
(b) For the same surface temperatures

Summary

Dr. Victor Yuardi Risonarta

One-dimensional, steady-state solutions to the heat equation with no internal energy


generation