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Product Overview

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Product Overview

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the
product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This document is not an official
customer document and Nokia Networks does not take responsibility for any errors or omissions
in this document. No part of it may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or means without
the prior written permission of Nokia Networks. The document has been prepared to be used by
professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when
using it. Nokia Networks welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous
development and improvement of the documentation.
The information or statements given in this document concerning the suitability, capacity, or
performance of the mentioned hardware or software products cannot be considered binding but
shall be defined in the agreement made between Nokia Networks and the customer.
Nokia Networks WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE IN ANY EVENT FOR ERRORS IN THIS
DOCUMENT OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING
MONETARY LOSSES), that might arise from the use of this document or the information in it.
UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHALL NOKIA BE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY LOSS OF USE,
DATA, OR INCOME, COST OF PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES,
PROPERTY DAMAGE, PERSONAL INJURY OR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
PUNITIVE OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES HOWSOEVER CAUSED.
THE CONTENTS OF THIS DOCUMENT ARE PROVIDED "AS IS". EXCEPT AS REQUIRED
BY APPLICABLE MANDATORY LAW, NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT,
ARE MADE IN RELATION TO THE ACCURACY, RELIABILITY OR CONTENTS OF THIS
DOCUMENT. NOKIA RESERVES THE RIGHT TO REVISE THIS DOCUMENT OR
WITHDRAW IT AT ANY TIME WITHOUT PRIOR NOTICE.
This document and the product it describes are considered protected by copyright according to
the applicable laws.
NOKIA and Nokia Connecting People are registered trademarks of Nokia Corporation. Other
product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective companies,
and they are mentioned for identification purposes only.
Copyright Nokia Corporation 2005. All rights reserved. Reproduction, transfer, distribution or
storage of part or all of the contents in this document in any form without the prior written
permission of Nokia is prohibited.
Nokia FlexiHopper (Plus), Nokia MetroHopper, Nokia MetroHub, Nokia MetroSite and Nokia
UltraSite are trademarks of Nokia Corporation.
Hereby, Nokia Corporation declares that this Nokia AXC ATM Cross-connect is in compliance
with the essential requirements and other relevant provisions of Directive: 1999/5/EC.

FCC ID:PM5T5580001 This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is
subject to the following two conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and
(2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operation.

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Contents

Contents
Contents 3
1

Changes between releases G.0 and H.0 7

2
2.1
2.2
2.3

Introduction 9
Nokia AXC 9
Nokia AXC features 12
Transmission interface options

3
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1.5
3.1.5.1
3.1.5.2
3.1.6
3.1.7
3.1.8
3.1.9
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

Features 21
ATM capabilities 21
ATM cross-connecting 21
ATM service categories 22
BTS AAL2 multiplexing [application software] 23
Support for High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) 26
Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) 26
Overdimensioning of IMA groups for PDH link protection 27
IMA configurations 28
ATM over fractional E1/JT1/T1 [application software] 28
Circuit Emulation Service [application software] 30
Traffic management functions 32
ATM OAM functions 33
Integrated IP router 33
AXC protection options 35
E1/JT1/T1 interface operating mode 36
Performance monitoring 36
Synchronisation of AXC 38

4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7

Applications 39
Network applications of AXC 39
Site applications of AXC 40
Combining 2G and 3G traffic 41
Support for structured SDH networks 44
IP routing function of AXC 46
Nokia AXC Compact (AXCC and AXCD) 48
AXC node configuration 49

5
5.1
5.1.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6

Management 53
Nokia AXC management 53
Nokia NetAct 53
Nokia AXC Manager 54
Nokia AXC automated commissioning concept
Q1 management 56
Nokia AXC-FB Hopper Manager 57
Neighbour Node Discovery (NND) 58

6
6.1

Mechanical structure 61
Nokia AXC mechanics 61

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Product Overview

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6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12

Stand-alone AXC mechanics 63


AXC power supply 65
ATM cross-connect unit (AXU) 65
AXCC - AXC Compact for 8 x symmetrical E1/JT1/T1 66
AXCD - AXC Compact for 8 x coaxial E1 68
IFUA - interface unit for 8 x symmetrical E1/JT1/T1 69
IFUC - interface unit for 3 x STM-0/STM-1 or 3x OC-1/OC-3
IFUD - interface unit for 8 x coaxial E1 71
IFUE - interface unit for 3 x Flexbus 72
IFUF - interface unit for 1 x STM-1 (VC-12) 73
IFUG - interface unit for 8 x Ethernet interfaces 74

7
7.1
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.3
7.4
7.4.1
7.4.2
7.4.3
7.5
7.5.1
7.5.2
7.5.3
7.6
7.6.1
7.6.2
7.6.3
7.7
7.7.1
7.7.2
7.7.3
7.8
7.8.1
7.8.2
7.8.3
7.9
7.9.1
7.9.2
7.9.3
7.10
7.10.1
7.10.2
7.10.3
7.11
7.11.1
7.11.2
7.11.3
7.12

Technical specifications 75
Delivery content of AXC 75
AXC performance 77
Traffic capacity 77
Operation 81
AXC environmental requirements 84
AXU 86
AXU interfaces 86
AXU power requirements 87
AXU dimensions and weight 88
AXCC 89
AXCC interfaces 89
AXCC power requirements 89
AXCC dimensions and weight 90
AXCD 91
AXCD interfaces 91
AXCD power requirements 91
AXCD dimensions and weight 92
IFUA 93
IFUA interfaces 93
IFUA power requirements 93
IFUA dimensions and weight 94
IFUC 94
IFUC interfaces 94
IFUC power requirements 97
IFUC dimensions and weight 98
IFUD 98
IFUD interfaces 98
IFUD power requirements 99
IFUD dimensions and weight 99
IFUE 100
IFUE interfaces 100
IFUE power requirements 101
IFUE dimensions and weight 102
IFUF 102
IFUF interfaces 102
IFUF power requirements 104
IFUF dimensions and weight 105
IFUG 105

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Contents

7.12.1
7.12.2
7.12.3
7.13
7.13.1
7.13.2
7.14
7.15
7.15.1
7.15.2
7.15.3
7.15.4
7.15.5

IFUG interfaces 105


IFUG power requirements 105
IFUG dimensions and weight 106
Stand-alone mechanics 106
S-AXC power requirements 106
S-AXC dimensions and weight 108
Nokia AXC Manager and Nokia AXC-FB Hopper Manager system
requirements 109
AXC standards 110
Interface standards and recommendations 110
ATM capabilities recommendations 116
EMC standards 117
Environmental standards 119
Safety recommendations 119

Appendix A Glossary 121


A.1
Glossary for AXC 121

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Product Overview

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Changes between releases G.0 and H.0

Changes between releases G.0 and H.0


Nokia AXC features

AXC release availability and features have been updated. RAN releases have
been renamed RAS releases.
Optional features have been renamed as application software and more
information on licensing has been added.
Information on new AXC release C2.6 has been added. Support for HSDPA and
support for AXCC JT1/T1 have been advanced from C2.7 to C2.6.
The following features have been added to C2.7:
.

WAM-AXU interface hidden in Nokia AXC Manager

Licence management for all application software

Support for High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) has been added to C3.0.
AXU redundancy protection features have been merged and will be implemented
in C3.0.
ATM OAM functions have been removed from C2.7 and US-WCDMA support
for IFUF removed from C3.0. Their implementation in later releases is under
further study.
ATM service category rt-VBR has been removed from C3.0. Alternative
solutions are being investigated.
Support for High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)

New section.
IFUB

Information on IFUB interface unit and JT2 interface has been removed.

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Product Overview

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Introduction

Introduction

2.1

Nokia AXC
Nokia AXC is a transport node for third generation (3G) networks. It functions as
an ATM cross-connect device for Radio Access Network (RAN) that complies
with 3GPP standards. Nokia AXC supports all relevant international standards.
There are three node alternatives for Nokia AXC:
.

Modular embedded Nokia AXC (AXUA/B + IFUs)

Nokia AXC Compact (AXCC and AXCD)

Stand-alone AXC (S-AXC)

The modular embedded Nokia AXC and Nokia AXC Compact function as
integrated transport nodes for Nokia WCDMA base stations and Triple-Mode
Nokia UltraSite EDGE base stations (with WCDMA upgrade kit). The S-AXC is
a stand-alone network element.
Nokia AXC provides a wide range of interfaces for transporting the 3G ATMbased traffic over the existing transmission networks. Nokia AXC interfaces
support all transmission media: wireline, optical fibre, and microwave radio.
For information about the related 3G Radio Access Network products, please
refer to Nokia UltraSite WCDMA Product Overview, Nokia MetroSite WCDMA
Product Overview, Nokia UltraSite EDGE Base Station Product Overview,
WCDMA RAN System Information Set, Nokia Radio Network Controller
Product Description, Nokia FlexiHopper Product Overview and Nokia
MetroHopper Product Overview.
Because it is possible to use the existing plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH)
and synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) transmission infrastructure, investments
in a separate ATM network are not required. Consequently, the co-siting of 2G
and 3G base stations is a viable option.

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Product Overview

Each modular embedded AXC or S-AXC node consists of an ATM Crossconnect Unit (AXU) and a number of transmission interface units (IFUs).
Because of the modular design of Nokia AXC, different types of interfaces can
flexibly be configured to meet the transmission requirements up to the maximum
ATM switching capacity of 1.2 Gbit/s. Whenever traffic volumes increase and
additional transmission interfaces are required, new AXC transmission interface
units can simply be added. They can be inserted either into a WCDMA BTS
cabinet or into a subrack located, for example, in a Nokia UltraSite Supreme/
Optima site support cabinet. For more information, refer to AXC node
configuration.
The non-expandable Nokia AXC Compact contains AXU and IFU functionality
in a single unit.

Figure 1.

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AXC hardware image in Nokia AXC Manager

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Introduction

Moreover, the co-siting of WCDMA and GSM/EDGE/PDC base stations


provides further possibilities to use the existing infrastructure effectively and save
significantly in site acquisition costs. Physical transmission links can be shared
between the 2nd and 3rd generation, or traffic in fixed networks. This ensures a
smooth evolution path towards the 3G environment.
Modular embedded Nokia AXC

The modular embedded Nokia AXC is fully integrated into Nokia WCDMA base
stations and Triple-Mode Nokia UltraSite EDGE base stations (with WCDMA
upgrade kit). It interconnects and multiplexes the traffic from different sectors of
the BTS. It connects the base station to the Radio Network Controller (RNC)
through the Iub interface. Moreover, it is capable of cross-connecting traffic
between other base stations and the RNC (see Site applications of AXC).
The modular embedded AXC also provides the clock to the BTS reference clock
circuitry. The clock can be either recovered from the transmission network or
received from an external clock input or from the internal clock of the AXU.
Nokia AXC Compact (AXCC and AXCD)

Nokia AXC Compact is an optimized AXC node solution for tail sites and small
hubs. Like the modular embedded Nokia AXC, it is fully integrated into Nokia
WCDMA base stations and Triple-Mode Nokia UltraSite EDGE base stations
(with WCDMA upgrade kit) and used for interconnecting and multiplexing the
traffic from different sectors of the BTS. Nokia AXCC and AXCD can also be
installed in Stand-alone AXC subrack.
Stand-alone AXC (S-AXC)

The Stand-alone AXC (S-AXC) can be installed in a standard ETSI or 19-inch


rack, and co-located with a Radio Network Controller or a BTS site. The S-AXC
can also be installed in Nokia UltraSite Supreme/Optima site support cabinet. It is
used for multiplexing and cross-connecting traffic between different base stations
and the RNC.
Typically, the Stand-alone AXC:

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acts as an ATM traffic concentrator also in locations other than BTSs sites

functions as transmission interface converter towards the RNC

provides extra interfaces at base station locations

provides circuit emulation services

acts as an SDH mapping converter from VC-4 to VC-12

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Product Overview

2.2

Nokia AXC features


The following table describes the relation of Nokia AXC releases and WCDMA
Radio Access System (RAS) releases.

Table 1.

AXC release availability

Nokia AXC

WCDMA RAS

C2.0

RAN1.5.2ED1/RAN1.5.2ED2

C2.1

RAN1.5.2ED2/RAN04

C2.5

RAN1.5.2ED2/RAN04

C2.6

RAS05

C2.7

RAS05.1

C3.0

RAS06

The main features of Nokia AXC releases are listed below. In each release, the
listed features are added to the previous release. Changes in the feature list may
occur to suit market requirements and technical evolution.
The following features are not part of Nokia AXC operating software and are
marked as application software:
.

ATM over fractional E1/JT1/T1

Structured and unstructured CES

MSP1:1

BTS AAL2 multiplexing

Depending on the AXC software release, these features may require a separate
licence file.
In C2.5, feature activation mechanism based on licence files is introduced for
BTS AAL2 multiplexing running on Nokia AXC Compact. In C2.6, BTS AAL2
multiplexing is licensed in AXUB as well. The licence file must be downloaded
to each network element in which the feature in question is meant to be activated.

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In release C2.7, all Nokia AXC application software is licence-controlled.


Additionally, from C2.7 onwards, the licence files contain identification data that
connects each licence file to one specific network element.
C2.0 Features
.

ATM Cross-connect Unit (AXU)

Modular embedded AXC and Stand-alone AXC mechanics

interface units IFUA, IFUC, IFUD and IFUE

service categories UBR and CBR

Interface protection for STM-0 and STM-1 (MSP1:1) [application


software]

ATM over fractional E1/JT1 [application software]

CES for unstructured synchronous E1/JT1/Flexbus [application software]

CES for structured synchronous E1/JT1 [application software]

CES pass-through

BTS AAL2 multiplexing [application software]

Neighbour Node Discovery (NND)

Performance Monitoring for physical interfaces E1, JT1, Flexbus, STM-0


and STM-1

ATM Performance Monitoring for STM-0, STM-1, E1 and JT1

IMA Performance Monitoring

integrated IP router

Q1 support

Nokia AXC Manager

AXC automated commissioning concept

CORBA based management protocol compliant with NWI3

XML configuration export

C2.1 Features

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interface units IFUF and IFUG

US-WCDMA support:

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T1
SONET OC-1 and OC-3
ATM over fractional T1 [application software]
CES for unstructured/structured synchronous T1 [application
software]
Interface protection for OC-1 and OC-3 (MSP1:1) [application
software]
Performance Monitoring for physical interface T1
ATM Performance Monitoring for OC-1, OC-3 and T1

ATM OAM functions: VP (F4) AIS & RDI (end-to-end)

enhancements to ATM Performance Monitoring

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

DHCP Server

proxyARP for single IP subnet at the BTS

inATMARP for autodetection of IP addresses on ATM interfaces

Early Packet Discard (EPD) and Partial Packet Discard (PPD)

automatic HW change notification to Nokia NetAct

C2.5 Features (Nokia AXC Compact only)


.

Nokia AXC Compact (AXCC and AXCD) with E1 interfaces


-

BTS AAL2 Multiplexing [application software]


licence management for BTS AAL2 Multiplexing

C2.6 Features Under Development

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Support for High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)

JT1 and T1 interface support for AXCC

CES for unstructured/structured synchronous E1/JT1/T1 for AXCC/D


[application software]

MSP1:1 interface protection for IFUF

licence management for BTS AAL2 Multiplexing (both AXUB and


AXCC/D)

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Introduction

C2.7 Possible Feature Candidates


.

IMA Performance Monitoring for IFUF

WAM-AXU interface hidden in Nokia AXC Manager

Remote user information and event log management

Licence management for all application software

C3.0 Possible Feature Candidates


.

Support for High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA)

AAL2 CS2 (Capability Set 2) path selection and connection modification

AXU redundancy protection (for S-AXC and BTS through traffic as well
as BTS traffic)

CES Performance Monitoring

time window for AXC measurement data collection

Apart from Nokia AXC Compact featured in C2.5, Nokia AXC releases do not
require any architectural changes compared to previous releases, in other words
no changes in basic hardware or mechanics are needed. Introducing the new
features does, however, require software updates to existing AXC nodes or
adding new plug-in units to existing AXCs.

2.3

Transmission interface options


Nokia AXC transmission interface units (IFUs) provide the physical connection
from Nokia WCDMA base stations to Radio Access Network. The units handle
the mapping of ATM cells into transmission frames, cell delineation, and
monitoring of transmission signals. They feature options for wireline, fibre optic,
and radio transmission.
The units can be installed in Nokia UltraSite WCDMA base stations, Nokia
MetroSite WCDMA base station, Triple-mode Nokia UltraSite EDGE base
station and in an S-AXC.
Nokia AXC supports any combination of IFUs as long as the following rules are
respected:

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Product Overview

the maximum switching capacity is not exceeded

the maximum number of powered Nokia FlexiHoppers is nine

the number of logical interfaces is less than or equal to 32


Each physical interface E1, JT1 and T1 (not configured to belong to an
IMA group), STM-0, STM-1, OC-1 or OC-3 counts as one logical
interface. However, an IMA group containing E1, JT1 or T1 physical
interfaces, E1s within Flexbus interfaces or VC-12 counts as one logical
interface.

IFUA
.

eight symmetrical PDH interfaces that are software configurable as either


E1 (8 x 2.048 Mbit/s), JT1 (8 x 1.544 Mbit/s) or T1 (8 x 1.544 Mbit/s)

each of the interfaces can be deployed as plain ATM E1/JT1/T1 links or


assigned to the Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) function

ATM over fractional E1/JT1/T1 [application software]

CES for structured or unstructured E1/JT1/T1 [application software]

IFUC
.

three optical STM interfaces, each of which can be configured


independently as either STM-0 mapping VC-3 (51.84 Mbit/s), STM-1
mapping VC-4 (155.52 Mbit/s), OC-1 (51.84 Mbit/s) or OC-3 (155.52
Mbit/s)

interface protection MSP 1:1 [application software]

IFUD
.

eight coaxial PDH interfaces for E1 (8 x 2.048 Mbit/s)

each of the interfaces can be deployed as plain ATM E1 links or assigned


to the Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) function

ATM over fractional E1 [application software]

CES for structured or unstructured E1 [application software]

IFUE

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three Flexbus interfaces, each with up to 16 x E1 (2.048 Mbit/s)

provides Flexbus connection to Nokia MetroHopper and Nokia


FlexiHopper (Plus) radios, and to Nokia GSM/EDGE base stations

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Introduction

can be connected directly to another Flexbus interface (IFUE, FIU19,


RRIC, FXC RRI)

each of the E1 links within Flexbus interface can be deployed as plain


ATM links or assigned to the Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)
function

CES for unstructured E1 [application software]

2 Mbit/s cross-connections between Flexbus interfaces

up to three radio outdoor unit power feeds

Q1 branching function via Flexbus interfaces for connecting other Q1


network elements

16 x E1 add-drop capacity to AXU

Hot Standby for Flexbus 1 and Flexbus 2 for protecting connected Nokia
FlexiHopper (Plus) microwave radio outdoor units

IFUF
.

one optical interface for structured STM-1 (155.52 Mbit/s) connections

16 plain VC-12s or up to 63 VC-12s with IMA

interface protection MSP 1:1 with a second IFUF [featured in C2.6]

IFUG
.

eight 10 BaseT Ethernet ports

connects external equipment on the AXC site to the common DCN

AXCC

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eight symmetrical PDH interfaces that are software configurable as either


E1 (8 x 2.048 Mbit/s), JT1 (8 x 1.544 Mbit/s) or T1 (8 x 1.544 Mbit/s).
[JT1 and T1 featured in C2.6]

each of the interfaces can be deployed as plain ATM E1/JT1/T1 links or


assigned to the Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) function

CES for structured or unstructured E1/JT1/T1 [application software,


featured in C2.6]

BTS AAL2 Multiplexing [application software]

non-expandable; only IFUG interface units can be added

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Product Overview

AXCD
.

eight coaxial PDH interfaces for E1 (8 x 2.048 Mbit/s)

each of the interfaces can be deployed as plain ATM E1 links or assigned


to the Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) function

CES for structured or unstructured E1 [application software, featured in


C2.6]

BTS AAL2 Multiplexing [application software]

non-expandable; only IFUG interface units can be added

FlexiHopper radio
(max 16 x 2M)

AXC

AXU

Flexbus
IFU
STM-0/STM-1
OC-1/OC-3
Structured STM-1
IFU

MetroHopper radio
(4 x 2M)
Nokia GSM/
EDGE BTS
ATM leased lines or
SDH equipment

Unmanaged
Ethernet hub

IP-managed
equipment on site

E1/JT1/T1
IFU or AXCC/D

Leased lines or
PDH/SDH equipment
2G BTS via CES
(Nokia and other)

Figure 2.

Interface options for AXC

Easy capacity upgrading

Whenever transmission capacity needs to be upgraded, new transmission


interface units can easily be added to Nokia AXC node. Because Nokia AXC
supports hot insertion, interface units can be added or replaced without disturbing
the operation of the node.
The actual number of IFUs that can be installed depends on the type of the base
station. The Stand-alone AXC can house five IFUs. Nokia AXC Compact
(AXCC and AXCD) is non-expandable but can house additional IFUG units. For
more information, refer to AXC node configuration.

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For more information on the AXC units, refer to the following sections:

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ATM cross-connect unit (AXU)

AXC Compact (AXCC)

AXC Compact (AXCD)

Interface Unit IFUA

Interface Unit IFUC

Interface Unit IFUD

Interface Unit IFUE

Interface Unit IFUF

Interface Unit IFUG

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Features

Features

3.1

ATM capabilities

3.1.1

ATM cross-connecting
The evolving end user services - be it voice, data or multimedia - require flexible
transmission in terms of variable bit rates, real-time transmission, and efficient
usage of transmission capacity. ATM has been chosen by the international
standardisation bodies as the transmission technology for 3G networks because it
fulfils these demands as well as the related quality of service requirements.
ATM cross-connect unit (AXU)

Nokia AXC serves as a Virtual Path (VP) and Virtual Channel (VC) crossconnect device for semi-permanent ATM connections.
The ATM Cross-connect unit (AXU) is the master unit which controls the Nokia
AXC node. AXU and its ATM switch fabric performs all ATM functionality for
communication within the base station, as well as for the connections to other
base stations or RNC.
Switching and interface capacity

Because of the modular design of Nokia AXC, different types of interfaces can be
flexibly configured to meet the transmission requirements. The maximum
bidirectional ATM switching capacity of Nokia AXC is 1.2 Gbit/s. The maximum
switching capacity of the Nokia AXC Compact is 165 MBit/s.
Supported VPI/VCI bits

The Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) indicates the virtual path and the Virtual
Channel Identifier (VCI) the virtual channel over which an ATM cell is routed.
The table below shows the default number of bits supported for VPI and VCI per
physical/logical interface.

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Table 2.

Supported VPI/VCI bits


Bits (AXC and S-AXC)

Bits (AXC Compact)

VPI

18 (default 4)

15 (default 2)

VCI

112 (default 7)

In AXC and S-AXC, the sum of bits used for VPI/VCI per interface cannot
exceed 13. The VPI/VCI bit range can be increased to a maximum of 13 bits in
up to 14 interfaces. Alternatively, the range can be increased to 12 bits in up to 32
interfaces.
In AXC Compact, the number of VCI bits for each logical interface is always 7.
The default number of VPI bits is 2. It can be changed as long as the number of
logical interfaces is smaller than 8. The number of VCI blocks required by an
interface is 2 to the power of VPI bits (2VPI bits) and the sum of VCI blocks cannot
exceed 32. For example, it is possible to have one interface with 3 VPI bits and 6
interfaces with 2 VPI bits (23 * 1 + 22 * 6 = 32).

Note
VCIs from 0 to 7 are not configurable. VCIs from 8 to 31 are configurable but
should not be used. They are reserved by standardisation bodies for other
purposes.
VC 21 in VP 0 is configurable but should not be used. It is reserved for
Neighbour Node Discovery which is an ATM end-to-end management feature.

3.1.2

ATM service categories


Nokia AXC supports ATM service categories CBR, UBR and rt-VBR, as defined
by the ATM Forum. These are applicable to both semi-permanent Virtual Path
Connections (VPC) and semi-permanent Virtual Channel Connections (VCC).

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Constant Bit Rate (CBR)

Constant Bit Rate (CBR) service category has been defined for connections that
continuously require a constant bit rate. The bandwidth is further determined by
the Peak Cell Rate (PCR). For CBR services, there is a defined Quality of Service
guaranteed, if the peak cell rate is not exceeded. CBR connections can transport
data at peak cell rate without having an impact on the Quality of Service of other
connections.
CBR supports real-time applications that have strong requirements for Cell
Transfer Delay (CTD) and Cell Delay Variation (CDV). ATM cells, for which the
maximum cell delay variation is exceeded, are discarded. Typical applications are
voice traffic, video-conference, and circuit emulation. In Nokia AXC, CBR is
used for user plane and control plane traffic.
Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR)

Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) has been defined for services that have no real-time
requirements. Because Quality of Service is not guaranteed, the connection has to
be secured on higher layers. UBR services are also called "best-effort" services. A
typical application is data transfer such as file transfer or management data. In
Nokia AXC, UBR is used for O&M traffic.
Real Time Variable Bit Rate (rt-VBR)

Like CBR, Real Time Variable Bit Rate (rt-VBR) service category supports realtime applications that have strong requirements for Cell Transfer Delay (CTD)
and Cell Delay Variation (CDV). However, termination points are expected to
transmit data at a variable cell rate (for example, MPEG-coded videoconferencing
data).
The Quality of Service is defined by the Peak Cell Rate (PCR), and a Sustainable
Cell Rate (SCR) together with a Maximum Burst Size, so that rt-VBR supports
the principle of statistical multiplexing. ATM cells, for which the maximum cell
delay variation is exceeded, are discarded.

3.1.3

BTS AAL2 multiplexing [application software]


ATM technology for transport in 3G Radio Access Networks provides statistical
multiplexing gain and consequently the available network capacity is utilised
very efficiently. An even higher statistical multiplexing gain is achieved by using
AAL2 connections that allow multiple WCDMA voice and data cells to be
conveyed on one ATM connection.

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Product Overview

The BTS AAL2 multiplexing implemented by the AXUB unit and Nokia AXC
Compact significantly improves the statistical multiplexing gain in ATM
Adaptation Layer type 2 (AAL2). A patent is pending for this feature.
BTS AAL2 multiplexing makes the usage of the ATM payload more effective by
multiplexing AAL2 user plane connections of the base station WAM units into a
smaller number of VCCs. In addition, the AXC node acts in this case as an
intermediate AAL2 switch and therefore only one AAL2 signalling link per BTS
is required. This will simplify the transmission network planning, as transmission
capacity can be calculated, not for each sector, but for the entire base station.
Figure Basic AAL2 multiplexing shows the principle of basic AAL2 multiplexing
executed only by the BTS WAM unit. Figure BTS AAL2 multiplexing shows the
principle of AAL2 multiplexing on BTS level where the AAL2 multiplexing
function within the AXUB or AXC Compact acts as an intermediate AAL2
switch which multiplexes the AAL2 traffic from several BTS WAM units.

BTS

RNC
AXC

Sector 1

AAL2SIG

WAM
User traffic
AAL2SIG

Sector 2

WAM

VPC
User traffic
AAL2SIG

Sector 3

Figure 3.

24 (126)

WAM

User traffic

Basic AAL2 multiplexing

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BTS

Sector 1

WAM

AXC

RNC

1
AAL2SIG

Sector 2

WAM

VPC
2

User traffic
AAL2

Sector 3

Figure 4.

WAM

BTS AAL2 multiplexing

BTS AAL2 multiplexing provides the following benefits:


.

depending on the traffic mix and the parameters, the Iub transmission
capacity savings can be notable, 10-20% or more

the number of VCCs between the RNC and BTS is minimised

better trunking gain is achieved

only one AAL2 signalling Virtual Channel Connection (VCC) per BTS is
needed instead of one for each Wideband Application Manager (WAM)

transmission network planning is simplified because transmission capacity


can be calculated for the entire BTS instead of each sector

Iub fragmentation is significantly decreased

HSDPA is more efficiently supported if two or more active WAMs are


installed

BTS AAL2 multiplexing is not available for Stand-alone AXC.

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Product Overview

3.1.4

Support for High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)


Nokia AXC hardware supports High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)
that provides high data rate transmission in a WCDMA downlink, ensuring that
users requiring effective multimedia capabilities benefit from data rates
previously unavailable because of limitations in the radio access network.
In release C2.6, Nokia AXC introduces support for HSDPA also for
configurations where BTS AAL2 multiplexing application software is utilised
and two user plane VCCs are configured per WAM.

3.1.5

Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)


Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) is a feature that enables efficient transport
of broadband ATM traffic in the existing PDH/SDH transmission network. This
technique allows to combine several physical links into one logical link and saves
capacity by enabling the division of a high bandwidth ATM data stream into
several lower bit rate PDH/SDH transmission links. The data stream can then be
recombined at the far end without affecting the original ATM cell order.
The main benefits of IMA are:

26 (126)

the transmission network becomes transparent for ATM

capacity is saved because of better utilisation of E1/JT1/T1/VC-12


connections

VP/VCs bigger than one single link can be transported by creating n x E1/
JT1/T1/VC-12 bit pipes

IMA via FlexiHopper or n x E1 provides an intermediate hierarchy


before SDH

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IMA Group

Link 0

PHY

IMA Group
PHY

Link 1
PHY
Single ATM
cell stream from
ATM layer

PHY

TX direction cells
distributed across
links in round robin
sequence

Figure 5.

PHY
Link 2
PHY

Original ATM
cell stream to
ATM layer

RX direction cells
recombined into
single ATM stream

Principle of Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)

The transmitting end of an IMA link aligns the transmission of IMA frames on all
physical links. This allows the receiving end to adjust to differential link delays
from which the physical links belonging to the IMA group suffer. This is done by
measuring the arrival times of the IMA frames on each physical link. This ensures
that the receiving end of the IMA link can recreate the original ATM cell stream
and pass it back to the ATM layer. The maximum Differential Link Delay (DLD)
that the IMA engine can tolerate is 25 ms.
3.1.5.1

Overdimensioning of IMA groups for PDH link protection

Resilience of IMA groups against IMA link failures can provide a means for PDH
link protection. If a link in an IMA group fails, the IMA engine is able to recover
and reassign the distribution of ATM cells to the other PDH links in the same
IMA group. As a result, the IMA group remains operational even though its
capacity is reduced. The recovery time of the IMA engine upon PDH link failure
is approximately 2 seconds.
The minimum number of active IMA links that allows a group to stay active is
specified in Nokia AXC Manager by the parameter Minimum Number of Links.
An IMA group becomes unavailable if the number of operative links in the group
is less than the Minimum Number of Links. A link becomes operationally
unavailable when transmission failures (such as LOS or LOF) are detected.

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Product Overview

3.1.5.2

IMA configurations

IMA functionality is supported by the PDH/SDH transmission interface units,


and it can easily be configured with Nokia AXC Manager. One IMA link can be
assigned to each PDH/SDH transmission interface. All links within one IMA
group must be from the same transmission interface unit. The IMA functionality
of the IFUs can be configured as follows:

3.1.6

IFUA: 1 to 4 IMA groups, with 1 to 8 E1/JT1/T1 links per IMA group

IFUD: 1 to 4 IMA groups, with 1 to 8 E1 links per IMA group

IFUE: 1 to 8 IMA groups, with 1 to 8 E1 links per IMA group

IFUF: 1 to 16 IMA groups, with 1 to 32 VC-12 links per IMA group

AXCC: 1 to 4 IMA groups, with 1 to 8 E1/JT1/T1 links per IMA group

AXCD: 1 to 4 IMA groups, with 1 to 8 E1 links per IMA group

ATM over fractional E1/JT1/T1 [application software]


The use of fractional E1, JT1 or T1 enables the adding of full or partial E1/JT1/T1
channels filled with 3G traffic into existing 2G traffic, without disturbance. The
timeslots within a standard PCM frame can be freely shared between ATM and
TDM traffic with a granularity of 64 kbit/s. Figure ATM over fractional E1/JT1/
T1 gives an example of multiplexing of ATM traffic into TDM traffic with the
help of ATM over fractional E1/JT1/T1.

2G BTS

TDM/E1/JT1/T1 64k XC

64k XC

TDM/E1/JT1/T1

2G BTS

E1/JT1/T1
AXC
IFUA/D

Figure 6.

28 (126)

AXC
ATM/Fract
E1/JT1/T1

ATM/Fract
E1/JT1/T1

IFUA/D

ATM over fractional E1/JT1/T1

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For example, each of the eight interfaces in IFUA can be configured to operate as
either ATM over E1/JT1/T1 or ATM over fractional E1/JT1/T1. In the fractional
E1/JT1/T1 links, the timeslots that are unused by ATM traffic can be filled with
TDM traffic by external 64 kbit/s cross-connects (Nokia Talk Family BTS, Nokia
MetroHub and Nokia UltraSite GSM/EDGE BTS).
In a fractional interface, a number of PDH timeslots are reserved for ATM traffic.
The following characteristics apply to the PDH structures and the usage of
fractional interfaces in Nokia AXC:
.

E1 frame contains 32 timeslots

JT1 frame contains 24 timeslots

T1 frame contains 24 timeslots

The timeslots in an E1 frame are numbered from 0 to 31. Timeslot 0 is reserved


for functions of the physical layer such as framing, alarm indications,
performance monitoring and so on. Therefore, timeslot 0 of E1 frames cannot be
used for fractional interfaces. Timeslot 16 is typically used for the transport of
signalling information. Therefore, it is normally not possible to use timeslot 16
for fractional interfaces. However, Nokia AXC Manager provides the option to
use the timeslot 16. The usage of fractional interfaces for E1 is characterized by a
number of timeslots (N, N=1, 2, ..., 31).
The timeslots in a JT1 or a T1 frame are numbered from 1 to 24. The physical
layer functions which are performed by timeslot 0 in E1 are done by specific F
bits of the JT1 frame structure which are not included in any of the 24 timeslots.
The usage of fractional interfaces for JT1 is characterized by a number of
timeslots (N, N=1, 2, ..., 24).
The actual timeslots, which are configured for fractional interfaces, are always
from 1 to N. Timeslots that are configured for fractional interfaces have to start
from timeslot 1 and they have to be contiguous.

Note
Fractional E1s are not supported by Nokia AXC Compact.

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Product Overview

3.1.7

Circuit Emulation Service [application software]


Circuit Emulation Service (CES) is a technique that allows mapping TDM traffic
into ATM cells. It is supported by interface units IFUA, IFUD and IFUE. CES for
Nokia AXC Compact (AXCC/D) is featured in C2.6.
CES for unstructured E1/JT1/T1 emulates a point-to-point E1/JT1/T1 circuit,
which means that the complete E1/JT1/T1 frame is transported within ATM cells
(granularity of E1/JT1/T1).
CES for structured E1/JT1/T1 emulates a point-to-point fractional E1/JT1/T1
circuit, where only the timeslots filled by the TDM signal are transported within
ATM cells (granularity of 64 kbit/s). One contiguous block of timeslots starting
with any timeslot can be configured.
The CES pass-through function of Nokia AXC is an internal CES function that
allows to perform a TDM cross-connection by setting up a circuit emulation
service simultaneously on two AXC interfaces with an associated ATM
connection (see 1 in the figures below). Pass-through is available for the IFUA,
IFUD and IFUE (unstructured) interface units.
The CES can be terminated either in the same AXC (1 in the figures below) or
another AXC (2 in the figures below).

Note
Nokia AXC supports up to 32 CES connections. Each CES connection equals
one logical ATM interface.

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AXC

AXC

Figure 7.

CES

ATM
cross-connection
ATM
cross-connection

CES

(2)

IFUA/D
E1/TDM

IFUA/D

(1)
(2)

(2)
e.g. IFUC

e.g. IFUC
ATM
ATM
ATM
Network
CES
CES
(unstructured)
(unstructured)

ATM cross-connection

E1/TDM

CES for unstructured E1 in AXC

IFUA/D

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(1)

CES

AXC

Figure 8.

E1/TDM

AXC

Fractional
E1/TDM
(1)

CES

Fractional
E1/TDM
(2)

IFUA/D
CES

Fractional
E1/TDM

IFUA/D
CES

(1)
(2)

(2)

e.g. IFUC

e.g. IFUC
ATM
CES
(structured)

ATM
Network

ATM
CES
(structured)

ATM cross-connection

ATM
cross-connection

ATM
cross-connection

IFUA/D

CES for structured E1 in AXC

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3.1.8

Traffic management functions


Nokia AXC features a set of traffic and congestion control functions which help
to ensure network efficiency and fulfil the defined Quality of Service objectives.
Connection Admission Control (CAC)

Nokia AXC checks the consistency of VPI/VCI values to determine whether a


VP/VC connection request may be accepted or not. Nokia AXC also checks if
new VPCs or VCCs can be accepted considering the total capacity requirements
of all connections, and the available capacity of the physical/logical interface.
User-Network Interface (UNI)

User-Network Interface (UNI) and Network Node Interface (NNI) signalling is


transparent to Nokia AXC. However, Nokia AXC supports UNI cell header
format. Nokia AXC is uncontrolled ATM equipment, and therefore the Generic
Flow Control (GFC) bits are fixed to zero.
Usage Parameter Control (UPC)

The network monitors and controls that the traffic contract is respected in terms
of the traffic offered and the validity of the ATM connections. Nokia AXC
provides a means to detect malicious connections. UPC is performed at the UNI,
and it can be enabled or disabled for all connections at an interface. Nonconformant traffic is either tagged (CLP=0 toggles to CLP=1) or discarded. The
Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (CDVT) value is used by the usage parameter
control algorithm that checks the conformance to the declared cell rates of an
observed cell stream.
The table below illustrates the actions for non-conforming cells of a cell stream
that consists of cells with CLP=0 and CLP=1 depending on the conformance
tests. UBR.2 is typically used together with Partial Packet Discard (PPD).

Table 3.

32 (126)

Conformance test definitions for UPC

Conformance test

Parameters

Action for nonconforming cells

CBR.1

PCR; CDVT

Discard cell

UBR.1

PCR; CDVT

Discard cell

UBR.2

PCR; CDVT

Toggle CLP=0 to CLP=1


(tagged)

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Traffic shaping for CBR connections

Traffic shaping alters the traffic characteristics of a VPC/VCC cell stream in order
to achieve better network efficiency. Nokia AXC features a traffic shaping
functionality for CBR connections on both VP and VC level. Traffic shaping is
done with respect to the Peak Cell Rate (PCR) specified in the traffic descriptor of
the CBR connection.
Traffic shaping for UBR connections

UBR traffic is normally used for DCN connections that are terminated in the
integrated IP router of Nokia AXC. The traffic that is generated by this router is
shaped according to the PCR that is specified in the traffic descriptor of each
DCN virtual channel connection.
Early Packet Discard and Partial Packet Discard (EPD/PPD)

Nokia AXC features both Early Packet Discard (EPD) and Partial Packet Discard
(PPD) for VC connections carrying AAL5 traffic. EPD occurs in case the ATM
buffer is congested and exceeds the defined EPD limit. PPD applies for cells that
are to be discarded due to policing violation, Cell Loss Priority (CLP) threshold
violation, or because no free buffer space is available.

3.1.9

ATM OAM functions


Virtual Path (F4) AIS & RDI (end-to-end)

The OAM cell flows can be used for monitoring end-to-end connections on
Virtual Path level. There are two types of alarms that are generated in error
situations. Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) sends an error message to the direction
of the signal and Remote Defect Indication (RDI) sends an error message to the
transmitting terminal.

3.2

Integrated IP router
Up to 96 VCCs can be terminated in the integrated IP router of Nokia AXC.
Some of these VCCs are used for the DCN connections between the AXC and
BTS, Neighbour Node Discovery and AAL2 signalling, but the remaining VCCs
can be used to access the DCN. Each Operation and Maintenance VCC can be
used for several IP routes.

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Product Overview

AXC is also capable of directly connecting IP over ATM streams on the ATM
level. The connections are handled as normal ATM connections. These features
enable the integrated IP router to support a variety of DCN topologies. For more
information, see IP routing function of AXC.
In addition, an Ethernet-based Local Management Port (LMP) is available at the
front panel of Nokia AXC. It is needed for local management of both Nokia AXC
and WCDMA base station. Nokia AXC provides two different modes concerning
the LMP: restricted and unrestricted mode. In the restricted mode, it is not
possible to access network elements other than the local AXC/BTS via the LMP.
In the unrestricted mode, network elements other than the local AXC/BTS can
also be accessed using the Local Management Tool (LMT). Nokia AXC supports
unnumbered links.
The functions of the integrated IP router can be further extended with IFUG
application. For more information, see AXC with Ethernet hub extension.
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol is used for updating the IP
routing tables automatically in the RAN DCN. The routes are calculated on the
basis of the number of routers, transmission speed, delays and route cost. Each
AXC node is configured to belong to a certain OSPF area and all the nodes in the
same area share the same routing information. Between the OSPF areas, the
routing information is exchanged through area border routers. Area border routers
are typically RNCs.
Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP)

Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP) enables dynamic IP host configuration.


Nokia AXC acts as a DHCP server for the clients connected to the LMP or IFUG
unit. The clients can be either static equipment (such as a site support cabinet) or
dynamic equipment (such as a laptop for local management). Each client receives
its IP address only for a certain pre-defined period of time (lease time that can
vary between one week and one month). After this period of time, the client has
to renew its lease. If the lease is not renewed, the address becomes free and the
DHCP server can allocate it to another client.
proxyARP

ProxyARP is an address resolution protocol which enables an intermediate device


to send an ARP response to the requesting host on behalf of the end node. Using
proxyARP means that all IP traffic directed to the base station is handled and
routed by the AXC. In this way, the BTS and AXC can use the same subnet and
IP addresses are used more efficiently.

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inATMARP

Inverse ATM Address Resolution Protocol (inATMARP) is a protocol that


enables the automatic detection of IP addresses on ATM interfaces. This makes
the configuration of the DCN connections much faster since only the public IP
address of the AXC node has to be set during configuration.

3.3

AXC protection options


Nokia AXC features protection mechanisms that enable the operator to maintain
the transmission service in the event of failure. A protection mechanism is
activated upon the detection of failures either in the physical connections between
network elements or within network elements on particularly critical functional
modules. The protection mechanisms in Nokia AXC can be categorised as
follows:
.

AXU redundancy: A second AXU can be installed for redundancy


protection. The first AXU is always installed in the first slot and the
redundant AXU will be installed in the last slot. In the event of an internal
failure on one of the two AXUs, the critical functions will be automatically
switched over to the redundant unit. [Featured in C3.0]

IFUE interface protection: Redundant PDH links for Nokia FlexiHopper


and MetroHopper radios may be established. Flexbus interfaces 1 and 2
can protect each other (Hot Standby).

IFUC and IFUF interface protection: Redundant physical SDH links may
be established for protection. When an external failure is detected in a
physical link or IFU, protection switching is executed automatically from
one physical interface to another.
-

IFUC interface protection: MSP1:1 (Protecting interfaces can be on


the same or another IFUC, the maximum switching time is 50 ms)
IFUF interface protection: MSP1:1 with a second IFUF [ Featured in
C2.6]
In MSP 1:1 the protecting interface carries user traffic only when the main
link is broken. It differs from MSP 1+1 where the user traffic is transmitted
on both paths simultaneously but just received from one of them.

Note
Nokia AXC supports eight SDH/Sonet interfaces and can use up to seven
additional SDH/Sonet interfaces for protection. The interfaces used for protection
cannot carry additional ATM user traffic.

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Product Overview

3.4

E1/JT1/T1 interface operating mode


E1/JT1/T1 interfaces can automatically detect if they need to operate in short or
long haul mode. This means that depending on the used cable and its length (and
thus the attenuation the cable adds), the IFUA and IFUD interface units of Nokia
AXC adopt the required mode. The following table shows the supported
attenuation ranges for E1/JT1/T1 interfaces in short and long haul modes.

Table 4.

Attenuation ranges for E1/JT1/T1 interfaces

Operating mode

Attenuation range

Short haul

max. 10 dB

Long haul

max. 30 dB

JT1 and T1 require a line build-out setting that adjusts the TX power output.

3.5

Performance monitoring
Performance information is collected, for example, during commissioning to
detect possible wrong configurations, during normal operation to detect potential
future failures, or during network optimisation to predict bottlenecks in the
network and the most critical links. Performance Monitoring (PM) features
provided by Nokia AXC are the following:
Physical performance monitoring for E1, JT1, T1, STM-0, STM-1, OC-1 and
OC-3 interfaces:
.

unavailable seconds

errored seconds

severely errored seconds

background block errors

IMA performance monitoring for E1, JT1 and T1 interfaces:

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IMA control protocol cell violations

severely errored seconds

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Features

unavailable seconds

Tx and Rx unusable seconds for the network element (Near and Far End)

number of one second intervals where the GTSM is down

number of NE group failure condition entrances (Near and Far End)

Tx and Rx link failure counts (Near and Far End)

Out of IMA Frame anomalies per link

Tx and Rx stuffing events per link

IMA performance monitoring for IFUF will be featured in C2.7.


ATM performance monitoring for E1, JT1, T1, STM-0, STM-1, OC-1, OC-3 and
VC-12 interfaces:
.

number of HEC errors cells per TCTT (Transmission Convergence Trail


Termination Point)

discarded cells due to HEC violation

discarded cells due to protocol errors

number of Tx and Rx cells/second per VC, SDH interface, IMA group and
AXC

number of Tx and Rx cells/second per QoS traffic class (CBR, UBR)

number of discarded cells due to buffer overflow per AXC

number of Tx and Rx cells discarded due to EPD and PPD per AXC

number of Rx cells tagged due to Policing per AXC

number of Rx cells dropped by UPC per AXC

ATM performance monitoring for AAL5 connections:


.

sums of CPI errors, oversized received SDU and length violation

total number of AAL5 frames with CRC-32 errors

ATM performance monitoring for AAL2 layer:

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number of AAL2 CPS packets discarded due to CPS HEC errors

number of succeeded and rejected connection establishments per VC TP

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Product Overview

number of Tx and Rx messages in AAL2 signalling layer per VC TP

SSCOP connection monitoring counter and errored PDUs counter

Further performance data can be collected on the Flexbus interfaces of IFUE. For
more information, refer to Maintaining Nokia FlexiHopper (Plus) and
MetroHopper with IFUE.

3.6

Synchronisation of AXC
The clock distribution circuitry of Nokia AXC is located in the AXU or AXC
Compact. It provides a reference clock for all the transmission interface units, and
for the BTS Synchronisation and Clock Unit (WSC).
The reference clock can be either recovered from any physical interface, received
from an external timing source, or received from an internal reference. The user
can define a primary and a secondary reference clock source for Nokia AXC. For
example, an STM-1 interface can be selected as the primary and a PDH interface
as the secondary reference clock source. It is also possible to select an external
timing source as the primary reference clock. If the primary reference clock
source is lost, Nokia AXC switches first to the secondary reference clock source,
then into hold-over mode for up to 24 hours and after this to free-run mode.
The radio network controller (RNC) provides the primary reference clock source
for all other RAN network elements and as Nokia AXC connects the BTS to the
RNC it also acts as a synchronisation interface between the two elements. This is
the preferred option for synchronisation.
Synchronisation Status Messages (SSM) are used to trace the source of the
synchronisation signals distributed via physical transmission lines. Nokia AXC
supports SSMs in transparent mode only, passing all messages through without
using the information.
The AXU features two interfaces for external reference clock input using
different clock source options. The internal clock source is used only if no other
reference clock is available.
The synchronisation functions are controlled with Nokia AXC Manager.

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Applications

Applications

4.1

Network applications of AXC


Nokia AXC transfers ATM traffic to the Iub interface between the base station and
the radio network controller. It can also interconnect different base stations in the
network topology.
Nokia AXC enables the WCDMA networks to fully utilise PDH and SDH
technologies in access networks, and thus there is no need to implement an ATMbased core network. ATM cells from WCDMA base stations are carried in PDH/
SDH frames or virtual containers as the PDH/SDH network delivers the
bandwidth the ATM layer needs.
Figure Example of Radio Access Network transmission topologies illustrates
different network topologies that can be implemented using the transmission
capability of Nokia AXC.

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Product Overview

SGSN

MSC

RNC
Iur

Iu

RNC

Iur
RNC

BTS
Iub
BTS
BTS

BTS

BTS
BTS

BTS

STM-1 LOOP
63 x 2M

BTS
PDH LOOP
16 x 2M

BTS
BTS

BTS
BTS

BTS

BTS
BTS

BTS

BTS
BTS
n X E1 leased lines
PDH radio
SDH radio
SDH optical fibre

Figure 9.

BTS

BTS

Example of Radio Access Network transmission topologies

For more information on various transmision network topologies refer to Nokia


UltraSite WCDMA Product Overview, Nokia UltraSite System Overview, and
Nokia MetroSite System Overview.

4.2

Site applications of AXC


Nokia AXC interconnects and multiplexes traffic from different sectors of the
base station. Nokia AXC connects the base station to the radio network controller
(RNC) and it can also cross-connect traffic between other base stations and the
RNC.

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Furthermore, the Stand-alone AXC can act as an ATM traffic concentrator also in
locations other than BTS sites, function as a transmission interface converter
towards the RNC and provide extra interfaces at base station locations.

BTS Cabinet

RNC

Sector
Sector
AXC

Integrated
RNC
ATM
functionality

Sector
Sector
Sector
Sector

BTS Cabinet

BTS Cabinet

Sector
Sector
Sector
Sector
AXC

AXC

Sector
Sector

Sector
BS Cabinet

Figure 10.

4.3

Sector
Sector

BS Cabinet

Example of modular embedded Nokia AXC in a simple tree network


topology

Combining 2G and 3G traffic


Nokia AXC provides different solutions for combining 2G (TDM) and 3G (ATM)
transmission. Nokia AXC can be connected to external PDH or SDH/Sonet
equipment which can be used to add and drop traffic at E1/JT1/T1 or STM-1
level. The required cross-connections can be performed by, for example, Nokia
MetroHub or 2G BTS-integrated transmission units.
Nokia AXC offers traffic grooming functions for combining 2G and 3G traffic.
There are various options for traffic grooming:

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Product Overview

ATM over fractional E1/JT1/T1

Circuit Emulation Service (CES)

Grooming at E1 granularity

Nokia AXC enables the use of existing transmission infrastructure for the 3G
solution. The existing spare capacity can also be taken into use. The transmission
of co-sited base stations can be combined, for example, by using fractional E1,
JT1 or T1. In Nokia AXC, fractional E1, JT1 or T1 is implemented by the IFUA
and IFUD interface units.
In addition, the possibility to connect external cross-connect or transmission
equipment to Nokia AXC further increases the configuration options. Nokia AXC
provides inter-connection to Nokia MetroHopper and Nokia FlexiHopper radios
as well as to Nokia GSM/EDGE base stations. This is implemented by the
Flexbus interfaces of the IFUE interface unit that can be installed to Nokia AXC.
IFUE can be directly connected to Nokia MetroHopper and Nokia FlexiHopper
but also to other Nokia PDH microwave radio indoor units, like RRIC, FXC RRI,
FIU 19(E) or another IFUE.
Figure Combining 2G and 3G transmission at shared sites illustrates how 2G and
3G traffic can be combined at shared sites. In this example, radio links are used
for connecting shared base station sites and the BSC/RNC. When introducing
WCDMA into the existing networks, the ATM traffic from 3G base station (I ub
interface) can be transported via Nokia AXC (for example, over an E1 link) to the
co-sited 2G base station. The BSC and RNC are connected to the underlaying
base stations via a hub (for example, Nokia MetroHub). The Stand-alone AXC
co-sited with BSC/RNC may be used as an ATM hub.

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Applications

Introducing WCDMA:
- 2G BTS allocates capacity to 3G BTS
- PDH/SDH transmission supported
- physical link devices supported

Growth of WCDMA:
- optionally ATM based transport
for 2G traffic(3G BTS allocates
capacity to 2G BTS)
- Stand-alone AXC available as ATM hub

BSC

BSC

HUB

HUB

RNC

RNC
Combined Abis +I UB
(I UB mapped into E1s
or fractional E1s)
I UB
2G

2G

2G
AXC
3G

2G

3G

AXC
3G

Combined
I UB +A bis
(A bis over ATM)
A bis

AXC
3G

2G

GSM/EDGE BTS
with PDH
cross-connect

HUB PDH hub

WCDMA BTS
with AXC

ATM hub
HUB (S-AXC)

Figure 11.

A bis

AXC

Combined Abis +I UB
(I UB mapped into E1s
or fractional E1s)
I UB

Combined
I UB +A bis
(A bis over ATM)

AXC
3G

Combining 2G and 3G transmission at shared sites

Figure 2G and 3G traffic sharing illustrates the combining of 2G and 3G traffic


with existing Nokia products in more detail. When using the TDM layer for
sharing transport links, ATM-based WCDMA Iub traffic is transported over STM1, E1/JT1/T1 or fractional E1 connections. The WCDMA base station is
connected to the GSM/EDGE base station or to an external transmission node.

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Product Overview

Site 1

Site 2
AXC

AXU
IFUA

RRIC
RRIC
NOKIA
TALK
BTS

NOKIA
UltraSite
WCDMA
BTS Optima

NOKIA
FlexiHopper
Microwave
radio

FXC
RRI
FXC
RRI

NOKIA
METRO
FXC
HUB
RRI

Site 3
NOKIA UltraSite
WCDMA BTS
Optima
AXC
I
A
F
X
U
U
A

Figure 12.

FXC RRI
FXC RRI
FXC E1/T1

16X
2Mbit/s
PDH
LOOP

NOKIA
UltraSite BTS
GSM/EDGE

Flexbus TO BSC/
16x2M RNC
1.) FIU 19
2.) MetroHub
3.) AXC

2G and 3G traffic sharing

Grooming at E1 granularity

2G and 3G traffic can also be combined with a granularity of E1. In the IFUE
interface unit, the 16 E1 links of a Flexbus interface can be freely shared between
ATM and TDM based traffic. Thus, for each Flexbus interface, it is possible to
mix a number n of independent E1 signals with a broadband ATM signal with a
bandwidth of m x E1, when n + m d 16.

4.4

Support for structured SDH networks


In addition to STM-1 with VC-4 mapping, Nokia AXC provides support for
structured STM-1 with IFUF interface unit. This offers the opportunity to
terminate VC-12 Virtual Containers at Nokia WCDMA BTS or S-AXC locations.

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Figure Structured SDH network shows how Nokia S-AXC or modular embedded
Nokia AXC equipped with IFUF interface units can be deployed in an exemplary
network. The S-AXC can be used for VC-12/VC-4 interface conversion between
the SDH network and RNC, and as a hub for VC-12/Flexbus interface
conversion.

STM-1
VC-12

BTS
BTS

RNC

3xE1

3xE1

BTS

SDH
mux

BTS

9xE1

BTS

SDH transport
(e.g. STM-1
or STM -16)

3xE1
BTS
3xE1 BTS

SDH
mux

S-AXC

BTS

9xE1
BTS

STM-1
VC-4

3xE1

3xE1
S-AXC

STM-1
VC-12

3xE1
6xE1

STM-1
VC-12

SDH
mux

3xE1

BTS
3xE1

BTS

BTS

BTS

Figure 13.

BTS

WCDMA BTS

Structured SDH network

If a legacy structured SDH network exists or the offered structured SDH leased
lines are more attractive to an operator as ATM-based leased lines, some
advantages can be achieved. These are the reduction of transmission cabling cost,
the improvement of reliability and the improved manageability of changes.
Furthermore, the necessity of external equipment that would consume valuable
site space is further reduced.
As Figure IFUF application shows, Nokia AXC offers even the possibility of
adding and dropping, for example, E1 traffic from another WCDMA base station
or third-party microwave radio equipment. The IMA function of IFUF can be
used to combine several E1s (mapped into VC-12s) to an IMA group.
Up to 16 interfaces are supported between each IFUF and the ATM switch fabric.
These 16 interfaces can be any mixture of single E1s and n x E1 IMA groups.

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IFUA

IFUE

IFUF

AXUA/B

Product Overview

E.g. 4 x
E1 IMA

E1-based
network

E.g. 24 x
VC-12 IMA

Towards other
BTSs

STM-1 (VC-12)
based network

Figure 14.

4.5

IFUF application

IP routing function of AXC


The embedded IP router of Nokia AXC enables not only star but also tree Data
Communication (DCN) topologies in Nokia RAN.
In the star alternative, there are point-to-point ATM connections established
between the RNC and each Nokia WCDMA base station. In this case only the
O&M data of the base station itself is routed (and terminated) on the IP level in
AXC, whereas the O&M data for other base stations is cross-connected on the
ATM level. This results in a more simple IP network topology but on the other
hand in a more complex ATM topology.
In a tree topology, there is only one O&M channel between adjacent AXCs. The
user traffic related connections are cross-connected and the ATM connection for
O&M is terminated in each base station. Thus, the O&M data of the base station
itself and also that of the other base station in the subtree is routed in AXC. This
leads to a more complex IP but a simple ATM topology.

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VC Termination
VC Connection
Physical Connection

BTS

BTS

AXC

AXC

BTS
AXC

RNC
AXC

Router

BTS

AXC

Tree Topology
BTS

AXC

BTS

Figure 15.

Star Topology

AXC

BTS

DCN tree and star topologies

Nokia AXC with Ethernet hub extension

The IP routing function of Nokia can be extended with the IFUG interface unit
that acts as an Ethernet hub collecting IP traffic (typically Operation and
Maintenance traffic) from other co-located Nokia or third-party equipment, such
as Nokia RealTilt control unit and various IP-managed BTS site support devices.
They can then be accessed remotely through the Data Communication Network.
Each piece of equipment connected to the IFUG is assigned an IP address
dynamically by the DHCP server in the AXC.
The LMP of the AXU is simply connected to one Ethernet port of the IFUG. Up
to 6 external Ethernet connections can be provided as one port needs to be
reserved for the Local Management of AXC.

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AXUA/B
IFUG
IFUC

Product Overview

LMP

LMT

3rd party device


1...6

DCN

FIU19E

Figure 16.

4.6

IFUG application

Nokia AXC Compact (AXCC and AXCD)


Nokia AXC Compact (AXCC and AXCD) is an optimized solution for tail sites
and small tree or chain topologies. It contains AXU and IFU functionality in a
single unit and it is fully integrated into Nokia WCDMA BTSs and Triple-Mode
Nokia UltraSite EDGE BTSs (with WCDMA upgrade kit).
The AXCC provides 8 x symmetrical E1/JT1/T1 connections with IMA and the
AXCD 8 x coaxial E1 connections with IMA. Both units support ATM VP and
VC cross-connections and their maximum switching capacity is 165 Mbit/s.
Nokia AXC Compact supports BTS AAL2 multiplexing and will support all
other Iub efficiency features, such as AAL2 path selection. Nokia AXC Compact
is non-expandable, but it is possible to add IFUG interface units.

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Star topology
BTS
BTS
2xE1

2xE1
2xE1

RNC

S-AXC

BTS
2xE1

Tail sites

BTS
2xE1
BTS

3xE1
BTS

5xE1
BTS

RNC

Tree topology
BTS

2xE1
5xE1
BTS

RNC

1xE1
BTS

Figure 17.

4.7

Nokia AXC Compact applications

AXC node configuration


Nokia AXC provides a maximum ATM switching capacity of 1.2 Gbit/s, which
can be shared by the transmission interfaces of up to five IFUs. The actual
number of IFUs that can be installed depends on the BTS type. The Stand-alone
AXC can house five IFUs. Note that the optimised Nokia AXC Compact (AXCC
and AXCD) is non-expandable. No additional IFUs apart from IFUGs can be
installed.
Depending on the slots available for IFUs, Nokia AXC supports 8 STM-1/OC-3,
15 STM-0/OC-1, or 32 E1/JT1/T1 interfaces (40 physical interfaces when IMA is
used). The maximum number of Flexbus interfaces with remote power feed is 9.
Any mixture of interface units is supported (for more information see
Transmission interface options).

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Product Overview

Table 5.

Minimum and maximum configuration for AXC plug-in units


AXU

IFUs

AXC Compact

Nokia UltraSite WCDMA


BTS Supreme

15

1 with 14 IFUGs

Nokia UltraSite WCDMA


BTS Optima Indoor /
Optima Compact Outdoor

13

1 with 12 IFUGs

Nokia MetroSite WCDMA


BTS

1 with no IFUGs

Nokia MetroSite 50 BTS

1 with no IFUGs

Nokia Triple-Mode UltraSite


EDGE BTS

1 with no IFUGs

Nokia Stand-alone AXC

15

1 with 14 IFUGs

The AXU unit is always installed in slot 1. With certain restrictions (see
Transmission interface options) any combination of IFUs can be installed to the
remaining slots.
In future releases of the Nokia AXC, a redundant AXU can be installed in the
rightmost slot of the Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS Supreme, the Nokia
UltraSite WCDMA BTS Optima/Optima Compact and the S-AXC. In the new
version of Optima Compact cabinet (WREB), the redundant AXU is installed in
the rightmost slot of the lower rack.
The following table shows the maximum number of AXC interfaces in Nokia
WCDMA BTSs and in the Stand-alone AXC. Note that all maximum numbers of
interfaces cannot be used simultaneously.

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Table 6.

Maximum number of physical/logical interfaces in Nokia WCDMA


BTSs and S-AXC

AXC installation
environment

Transmission
interface type

Max. number of
physical interfaces

Nokia UltraSite WCDMA


BTS Supreme

E1/JT1/T1

40 with IMA, 32 without IMA

STM-0/OC-1

15

STM-1/OC-3

STM-1 (structured)

Flexbus

9*

E1/JT1/T1

24 with/without IMA

STM-0/OC-1

STM-1/OC-3

STM-1 (structured)

Flexbus

E1/JT1/T1

4 with/without IMA

STM-0/OC-1

STM-1/OC-3

STM-1 (structured)

Flexbus

E1/JT1/T1

8 with/without IMA

STM-0/OC-1

STM-1/OC-3

STM-1 (structured)

Flexbus

E1/JT1/T1

8 with/without IMA

STM-0/OC-1

STM-1/OC-3

STM-1 (structured)

Flexbus

Nokia UltraSite WCDMA


BTS Optima and Optima
Compact

Nokia MetroSite WCDMA


BTS

Nokia MetroSite 50 BTS

Nokia UltraSite Edge


Triple Mode BTS
(WCDMA part)

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Product Overview

Table 6.

Maximum number of physical/logical interfaces in Nokia WCDMA


BTSs and S-AXC (cont.)

AXC installation
environment

Transmission
interface type

Max. number of
physical interfaces

Nokia Stand-alone AXC

E1/JT1/T1

40 with IMA, 32 without IMA

STM-0/OC-1

15

STM-1/OC-3

STM-1 (structured)

Flexbus

9*

* Nine remote power feeds from IFUE to Nokia Microwave Radio Outdoor Unit
are supported. The total number of Flexbus interfaces can be 15 in Nokia
UltraSite WCDMA BTS Supreme and Nokia S-AXC.

Note
Each IFUE can add/drop a maximum of 16 times E1 to the switch fabric of AXC.
Each IFUF can add/drop either a maximum of 16 plain VC-12s or up to 63 VC12s distributed over a maximum of 16 IMA groups (with up to 32 IMA links) to
the switch fabric of AXC.
Each of these E1 or VC-12 connections counts as one logical interface, and AXC
supports a maximum of 32 logical interfaces. It is therefore recommended to
group them using IMA.

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Management

Management

5.1

Nokia AXC management


Nokia AXC features a CORBA based management protocol compliant with the
NWI3 interface specification, and it is managed either with
.

Nokia NetAct network management system


or with

Nokia AXC Manager

Both Nokia NetAct and Nokia AXC Manager use the same network management
interface to Nokia AXC. The remote management communication takes place via
an inband Data Communications Network (DCN) channel using IP over ATM.
Each Nokia AXC node features an embedded IP router for routing management
traffic so that various base stations (AXCs) can be managed via the same O&M
virtual channel.

5.1.1

Nokia NetAct
Nokia NetAct provides a full range of functions securing efficient performance,
configuration, transmission, security, fault management and hardware and
software management capabilities, such as the scheduled software upgrade of
several AXCs at the same time.
Nokia NetAct network management system can be used in a centralised manner
to collect alarm and measurement data on the Nokia AXC nodes within a
network. Nokia AXC Manager integrated into Nokia NetAct can be used to
remotely configure a Nokia AXC node. Nokia AXC-FB Hopper Manager
integrated into Nokia NetAct can be used to remotely configure a Nokia
FlexiHopper or MetroHopper microwave radio link. Whenever the hardware
configuration of Nokia AXC changes, a notification is automatically sent to
Nokia NetAct.

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Product Overview

For further information, please refer to NMS for 3G Mobile Systems (NetAct)
User Manual.

5.2

Nokia AXC Manager


Nokia AXC is managed with Nokia AXC Manager software application. A
laptop as Local Management Tool (LMT) can be used to access the node via the
Local Management Port (LMP) located in the AXU. Through the LMP, it is
possible to manage either the local AXC, or any other Nokia AXC node within
the same network.
Nokia AXC Manager can be downloaded from Nokia Online Services (NOLS).
Management features

The following functions can be performed with the Nokia AXC Manager:

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commission a new Nokia AXC node interactively through the graphical


user interface

commission a new Nokia AXC node automatically by downloading an


XML file

view and configure the settings and controls of Nokia AXC

monitor the alarms generated by a node

monitor the physical performance management data

download and activate new Nokia AXC node software releases

export data for use with other tools, for example, Nokia planning tools

print Nokia AXC settings and alarm history

record, store and run a sequence of operations with the macro recorder

make configuration backups and restore AXC node configurations

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Management

Figure 18.

AXC Manager hardware view

Ease of management

Nokia AXC Manager provides an easy-to-use graphical user interface with which
you can, for example, configure and commission Nokia AXC nodes, and make
cross-connections.

5.3

Nokia AXC automated commissioning concept


Nokia AXC automated commissioning concept is used for commissioning Nokia
AXC by importing an XML configuration file to Nokia AXC. This can be
performed either locally via Nokia AXC Manager or remotely via Nokia NetAct.
The application of remote configuration is useful, for example, when making
major changes to existing networks (such as reparenting of RNCs or
implementation of new features).
The XML configuration file is created with Nokia NetAct planning tools. The
result of this planning phase is an AXC-specific XML file that contains all Nokia
AXC configuration parameters, such as VCI/VPI values of ATM connections, the
corresponding traffic descriptors and information about the transmission
interfaces to which these ATM connections belong. After the XML configuration
file has been imported and activated, Nokia AXC is fully operational.

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Product Overview

Automated commissioning reduces the commissioning time of Nokia AXC


remarkably. It reduces the manual commissioning effort and minimizes
configuration errors during the commissioning phase. This leads to significant
savings in time and costs of 3G roll-out.
It is also possible to generate an XML file that contains the current configuration
of the AXC node. The XML file is then imported to Nokia NetAct PlanEditor
where the settings can be changed or added. Finally, a new XML file is created
and imported to the AXC node.
An XML file of the current AXC configuration can also be created for backup
purposes.

Note
The configuration of the Flexbus part of the IFUE including Q1 bus settings
cannot be configured via XML files.

5.4

Q1 management
Nokia Q1 is a Nokia proprietary management protocol for PDH network
elements, such as Nokia MetroHopper and Nokia FlexiHopper radios and
associated indoor units. Nokia AXC provides a path to reach Q1 managed
network elements that are below the AXC from the network topology point of
view.
Nokia AXC contains a Q1 support function (Q1SF), which implements a Q1
polling functionality, and forwards Q1 messages over IP. The Q1SF acts as a Q1
bus master. Its Q1 bus is connected to a Q1 interface (V.11) located on the front
panel of the AXU for direct connection to any Q1 managed network element,
such as a Nokia UltraSite Support Supreme/Optima cabinet. Optionally, the Q1
bus can also be connected to the Q1 embedded operation channels (Q1 EOC) in
the PDH frames of the IFUA, the IFUD or the IFUE in order to manage remote
Nokia Q1 equipment (e.g. located in a GSM/EDGE BTS). Furthermore, the Q1
bus can be transported over the overhead bytes of the Flexbus frame on the IFUE.
For managing the Flexbus part of the IFUE, its operation and maintenance
microprocessor can be directly accessed via the local management port (LMP) of
the IFUE.

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Management

A Nokia Q1 agent acts as a mediation device between Nokia NetAct and the
AXC Q1 support function and it is typically used to configure the AXC Q1
support function. However, if there is no connection to this mediation device
available during Nokia AXC commissioning, the Q1 support function within the
AXC can also be configured using a GCS command line tool that is embedded in
Nokia AXC Manager.

Nokia NetAct / Nokia Q1 Agent


Q1 messages (in Q&M VCC)

IFUE

IFUA/D

IFUE

AXU

DCN

LMP
FB 1

...

External
e.g. Site Q1 Bus
Support
V.11
System

LMP LMP
FB 1
Q1
Polling FB 2
(Q1 SF)
FB 3

. . .. . .. . .

LMT

(AXC Manager)

8
E1/JT1/
T1

FB 3
...

FB
E1

LMT

(AXC-FB
Hopper
Manager)
Flexbus
O&M
function

Internal Q1 Bus/ Q1 EOC

Figure 19.

5.5

AXC Q1 management

Nokia AXC-FB Hopper Manager


Nokia AXC-FB Hopper Manager is used for managing Nokia FlexiHopper and
Nokia MetroHopper radios connected to the Flexbus interfaces of the IFUE. It
also manages the Flexbus part of the IFUE itself. Nokia AXC-FB Hopper
Manager can be connected to the IFUE either directly via the LMP of the IFUE or
remotely via the DCN. It is possible to manage either the local radio or some
aspects of a radio at the far end of the radio hop. The commissioning of Nokia
FlexiHopper and MetroHopper radios is carried out with Nokia AXC-FB Hopper
Manager. Nokia AXC-FB Hopper Manager provides an easy-to-use graphical
interface with a commissioning wizard that guides the user through the
commissioning tasks.

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Product Overview

The following functions can be performed with Nokia AXC-FB Hopper


Manager:
.

commission new nodes

change the configuration of a new or previously configured node

create 2 Mbit/s cross-connections between Flexbus interfaces

troubleshoot a node

monitor the fault status of a node

monitor signal quality

re-initiate channel selection procedure (Nokia MetroHopper)

download new software

Figure 20.

5.6

Nokia AXC-FB Hopper Manager equipment view

Neighbour Node Discovery (NND)


Nokia AXC provides means for managing ATM connections between different
AXCs. AXC supports an automated mechanism for updating network topology
information. The Neighbour Node Discovery (NND) feature of Nokia AXC
provides ATM level topology information to Nokia NetAct ATM Manager. ATM
Manager provides tools for managing the ATM layer connectivity in Nokia 3G
RAN, centralised ATM layer end-to-end configuration management and fault
monitoring.

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Figure 21.

Nokia NetAct ATM Manager

NND can send information packets through each AXC interface. Each
information packet contains a node identifier of the sending AXC and an
interface identifier. By reception of such a packet the AXC can determine the
neighbouring AXC node and the interface through which the AXC nodes are
connected. The NND feature is configurable for each interface and as default it is
activated. A pre-defined channel VP/VC (0,21) is reserved for packet exchange.
In order to keep required bandwidth at minimum, information packets are sent
once per minute. This means that the peak cell rate is 5 cells/s and the sustained
bandwidth less than 1kb/s. The used traffic class is UBR.

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Product Overview

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Mechanical structure

Mechanical structure

6.1

Nokia AXC mechanics


The modular embedded Nokia AXC is integrated in the Nokia WCDMA base
stations. Both modular embedded and stand-alone AXC consist of the same
hardware and software, and therefore provide the same features. The only
difference is in the environment the AXC units are installed into.
The modular embedded Nokia AXC is designed to be scalable. Thus the
configuration is easy to change according to your needs. However, the optimised
Nokia AXC Compact for tail sites and small hubs is non-expandable.
All the AXC units are connected together through a common backplane.

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Product Overview

IFU = Transmission
Interface Unit
AXU = ATM
Cross-connection Unit
WSC = System
Clock Unit
Wideband Application
Manager (WAM)

Figure 22.

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Modular embedded Nokia AXC in Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS


Supreme Indoor

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Mechanical structure

6.2

Stand-alone AXC mechanics


The Stand-alone AXC subrack consists of two 6-slot S-AXC cartridges with a fan
unit, two DC-PIUs and plug-in units (AXU and IFUs). The stand-alone subrack
can be installed in a 600 mm wide ETSI rack or a 19-inch rack (9 height units).
One stand-alone subrack houses up to two S-AXC nodes. The S-AXC can also be
installed in Nokia UltraSite Supreme/Optima site support cabinets to provide
additional transmission capacity and transmission interfaces to a BTS site. With
the Circuit Emulation Service feature, the S-AXC allows to extract TDM traffic
out of the ATM data stream, for example, at an RNC location.
Figure Nokia S-AXC subrack illustrates the S-AXC subrack as delivered to the
customer. Figure S-AXC subracks in an ETSI rack shows several S-AXC
subracks installed in an ETSI rack. The S-AXC subracks can be installed directly
on top of each other.

Upper plate
Fan unit

6-slot
cartridge

Frame

Blanking
plate

Cable tray

ID sticker

DC-PIU cartridge
with 2 DC-PIUs

Figure 23.

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Nokia S-AXC subrack

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63 (126)

Product Overview

Figure 24.

64 (126)

S-AXC subracks in an ETSI rack

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Mechanical structure

6.3

AXC power supply


The modular embedded Nokia AXC, AXC Compact, the backplane and all
attached units are powered through the base station. A base station site can be
powered with either DC or AC. When the base station site is powered with AC,
the integrated AXCs are powered via the Wideband Power Supply (WPS) unit(s)
that can be protected. However, in the case of an AC failure, all base stations
further down in the network will also be out of service. When the base station site
is powered with DC that is protected by battery backup, all base stations further
down in the network will remain operational even in the case of an AC failure or
the fail of the WPS unit(s).
The S-AXC is powered with protected DC-PIUs installed in the S-AXC subrack.

6.4

ATM cross-connect unit (AXU)


The AXU is the master unit which controls the Nokia AXC node. It occupies one
slot in the cabinet/subrack. It houses the ATM switch fabric, the LMP and the
clock distribution circuitry.
There are two AXU units available: AXUA and AXUB. AXUB supports BTS
AAL2 multiplexing application software. It is enabled by the ATM Adaptation
Module (AAM) of the AXUB unit.
Front panel interfaces

The AXU has the following interfaces on the front panel:

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LMP with 10 BaseT Ethernet interface (RJ-45 connector)

Q1 port with V.11 interface (D-sub9 connector)

External Reference Clock 1 (ERC1), with symmetrical TQ connector

External Reference Clock 2 (ERC2), with coaxial BT-43 connector

3-colour status LED indicating the operational status of the unit

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Product Overview

Power
module
Ejector
LED
LMP
Q1
AAM-Module
(AXUB)

ERC1
ERC2

Microcontroller
module

Ejector

Figure 25.

6.5

AXU unit

AXCC - AXC Compact for 8 x symmetrical E1/JT1/


T1
The AXCC is a combined unit that provides both AXU and IFU functionality
including CES and BTS AAL2 multiplexing application software. It houses the
ATM switch fabric, LMP, clock distribution circuitry and interfaces for standard
ETSI E1 (2.048 Mbit/s), Japanese JT1 (1.544 Mbit/s) and ANSI T1 (1.544 Mbit/
s) connections. It occupies two slots in the cabinet/subrack and it is nonexpandable. [CES and JT1/T1 support featured in C2.6]

66 (126)

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Mechanical structure

Front panel interfaces

The AXCC has the following interfaces on the front panel:


.

LMP with 10 BaseT Ethernet interface (RJ-45 connector)

Q1 port with V.11 interface (D-sub9 connector)

External Reference Clock (ERC), with coaxial BT-43 connector

3-colour status LED indicating the operational status of the unit

eight symmetrical TQ-connectors (E1: 120 / JT1: 110 / T1: 100 )

Ejector
LED
LMP
Q1

ERC

8x
E1/JT1/T1

Ejector

Figure 26.

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AXCC unit

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Product Overview

6.6

AXCD - AXC Compact for 8 x coaxial E1


The AXCD is a combined unit that provides both AXU and IFU functionality
including CES and BTS AAL2 multiplexing application software. It houses the
ATM switch fabric, LMP, clock distribution circuitry and interfaces for eight E1
(2.048 Mbit/s). It occupies two slots in the cabinet/subrack and it is nonexpandable. [CES featured in C2.6]

Ejector
LED
LMP
Q1

ERC

8 x E1

Ejector

Figure 27.

68 (126)

AXCD unit

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Mechanical structure

6.7

IFUA - interface unit for 8 x symmetrical E1/JT1/T1


The IFUA is the interface unit for the standard ETSI E1 (2.048Mbit/s), the
Japanese JT1 (1.544 Mbit/s) or the ANSI T1 (1.544 Mbit/s) connections.
Front panel interfaces

The IFUA features eight symmetrical TQ-connectors (E1: 120 / JT1: 110 /
T1: 100 ) on the front panel. A 3-colour status LED on the front panel indicates
the operational status of the unit.

Power
module
Ejector
LED

8x
E1/JT1/T1
Microcontroller
module

Ejector

Figure 28.

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IFUA unit

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Product Overview

6.8

IFUC - interface unit for 3 x STM-0/STM-1 or 3x OC1/OC-3


The IFUC is the interface unit for SDH/Sonet connections using optical fibre. It
provides three interfaces, each of which is software configurable either as STM-0
(VC-3) or as STM-1 (VC-4) or as OC-1 or OC-3.
Front panel interfaces

The IFUC has three standard STM/OC optical interfaces with LC connectors on
the front panel. A 3-colour status LED on the front panel indicates the operational
status of the unit.

Power
module
Ejector
LED

3 x STM-0/
STM-1/
OC-1/OC-3

Microcontroller
module
Ejector

Figure 29.

70 (126)

IFUC unit

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Mechanical structure

6.9

IFUD - interface unit for 8 x coaxial E1


The IFUD is the interface unit for eight E1 (2.048Mbit/s) connections.
Front panel interfaces

The IFUD has 16 coaxial BT-43 connectors (75 ) on the front panel. A 3-colour
status LED on the front panel indicates the operational status of the unit.

Power
module

Ejector
LED

8 x E1

Microcontroller
module

Ejector

Figure 30.

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IFUD unit

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Product Overview

6.10

IFUE - interface unit for 3 x Flexbus


The IFUE is the interface unit with three Nokia proprietary Flexbus interfaces,
each with a maximum capacity of 16 x E1 (2.048 Mbit/s). The Flexbus interfaces
provide inter-connection as well as power to the outdoor microwave radio units.
Front panel interfaces

The IFUE has 3 coaxial Flexbus TNC connectors (50 ) on the front panel. The
IFUE also features a Local Management Port (BQ connector) for managing the
connected radio equipment. Two 3-colour status LEDs on the front panel indicate
the operational status of the unit. In addition, each Flexbus interface has its own
status LED.

Power
module
Ejector
LED (ATM)
MP
LED (FB)
LMP

3 x Flexbus
connector

LED (DC on)

Microcontroller
module

Ejector

Figure 31.

72 (126)

IFUE unit

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Mechanical structure

6.11

IFUF - interface unit for 1 x STM-1 (VC-12)


The IFUF is the interface unit for structured SDH connections using optical fibre.
It provides one interface, which is software configurable as STM-1 (VC-12). Up
to 63 x VC-12 can be terminated in Nokia AXC. These VC-12s can be distributed
over a maximum of 16 IMA groups (with up to 32 IMA links) or alternatively up
to 16 plain VC-12 can be add/dropped to the AXC switch fabric.
Front panel interfaces

The standard STM-1 optical interface of IFUF has a LC connector on the front
panel. A 3-colour status LED on the front panel indicates the operational status of
the unit.

Power
module

Ejector
LED
STM-1

Microcontroller
module
Ejector

Figure 32.

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IFUF unit

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73 (126)

Product Overview

6.12

IFUG - interface unit for 8 x Ethernet interfaces


The IFUG interface unit provides multiple simultaneous connections (8 x 10
BaseT Ethernet ports), i.e. it connects external equipment on the site to the
common DCN. One connection is required to the local management port (LMP)
of the AXU and another to connect Nokia AXC Manager to an interface of the
hub for local AXC/BTS Management. The remaining six Ethernet interfaces can
be used e.g. for Nokia Remote Downtilt Unit or for any other equipment that is
managed via IP.
Front panel interfaces

IFUG interface unit has eight RJ-45 connectors for Ethernet interfaces, one of
which serves as LMP. A 3-colour status LED on the front panel indicates the
operational status of the unit.

Ejector
LED

8x
Ethernet

Ejector

Figure 33.

74 (126)

IFUG unit

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Technical specifications

Technical specifications

7.1

Delivery content of AXC


Table 7.
Part

Quantity

19 subrack

ETSI rack adaptor brackets

AXC 6slot cartridge with fan unit

DC-PIU cartridge

DC-PIU (incl. alarm and internal power


cables)

Blanking plates installed in the AXC 6


slot cartridge

10

Cable tray

Table 8.

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Contents of AXC Stand-alone 19"-rack/ETSI rack T30454.01

AXC and S-AXC plug-in units

Part

Code

AXUA (AXU)

T32107.01

AXUB (AXU)

T32107.09

AXCC

T32107.10

AXCD

T32107.11

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Product Overview

Table 8.
Part

Code

IFUA (symmetrical E1/JT1/T1)

T32107.02

IFUC (SDH/Sonet)

T32107.05

IFUD (coaxial E1)

T32107.03

IFUE (Flexbus)

T32107.06

IFUF (structured SDH)

T32107.07

IFUG (Ethernet hub)

T32107.08

Table 9.

Product documentation

Product

Code

AXC C2.1/C2.5 Product Doc NED NOLS

C33857.80

AXC C2.1/C2.5 Product Doc NED CD


ROM (1 pcs)

C33857.90

AXC C2.1/C2.5 Product Doc NED CD


ROM (10 pcs)

C33857.09

Table 10.

76 (126)

AXC and S-AXC plug-in units (cont.)

Product Overview

Product

Code

Nokia AXC ATM cross-connect Product


Overview NED NOLS

C33857.81

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Technical specifications

7.2

AXC performance

7.2.1

Traffic capacity

Table 11.

Capacity of AXUA

Property

Value

Switching capacity

1.2 Gbit/s

Simultaneous connections

1000 (with any mix of VPs and VCs)

Supported ATM service categories

Constant Bit Rate (CBR)


Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR)
ATM Forum af-tm-0056.000 (Traffic
Management)

Supported cross-connections

semi-permanent Virtual Path Connections


(VPC)
semi-permanent Virtual Channel
Connections (VCC)

Table 12.

Capacity of AXUB

Property

Value

Switching capacity

1.2 Gbit/s

Simultaneous connections

1000 (with any mix of VPs and VCs)

Supported ATM service categories

Constant Bit Rate (CBR)


Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR)
ATM Forum af-tm-0056.000 (Traffic
Management)

Supported cross-connections

semi-permanent Virtual Path Connections


(VPC)
semi-permanent Virtual Channel
connections (VCC)

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Product Overview

Table 13.

Capacity of integrated IP router

Property

Value

Maximum throughput

1.5 MBit/s

Maximum number of static routes

100

Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU) size

1500 bytes

Maximum number of IP DCN interfaces

96

IPoA encapsulation

LLC/SNAP

Table 14.

Capacity of AXCC

Property

Value

Switching capacity

165 Mbit/s

Simultaneous connections

1000 (with any mix of VPs and VCs)

Supported ATM service categories

Constant Bit Rate (CBR)


Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR)
ATM Forum af-tm-0056.000 (Traffic
Management)

Supported cross-connections

semi-permanent Virtual Path Connections


(VPC)
semi-permanent Virtual Channel
connections (VCC)

Interface capacity

8 x 2.048 Mbit/s (E1)


8 x 1.544 Mbit/s (JT1) [featured in C2.6]
8 x 1.544 Mbit/s (T1) [featured in C2.6]

ATM capacity

8 x 1.920 Mbit/s; 8 x 4 528 cells/s (E1)


8 x 1.536 Mbit/s; 8 x 3 622 cells/s (JT1)
8 x 1.536 Mbit/s; 8 x 3 622 cells/s (T1)

Tolerance range

50 ppm (E1)
32 ppm (JT1)
32 ppm (T1)

78 (126)

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Technical specifications

Table 15.

Capacity of AXCD

Property

Value

Switching capacity

165 Mbit/s

Simultaneous connections

1000 (with any mix of VPs and VCs)

Supported ATM service categories

Constant Bit Rate (CBR)


Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR)
ATM Forum af-tm-0056.000 (Traffic
Management)

Supported cross-connections

semi-permanent Virtual Path Connections


(VPC)
semi-permanent Virtual Channel
connections (VCC)

Interface capacity

8 x 2.048 Mbit/s (E1)

ATM capacity

8 x 1.920 Mbit/s; 8 x 4 528 cells/s (E1)

Tolerance range

50 ppm (E1)

Table 16.

Capacity of IFUA

Property

Value

Capacity

8 x 2.048 Mbit/s (E1)


8 x 1.544 Mbit/s (JT1)
8 x 1.544 Mbit/s (T1)

ATM capacity

8 x 1.920 Mbit/s; 8 x 4 528 cells/s (E1)


8 x 1.536 Mbit/s; 8 x 3 622 cells/s (JT1)
8 x 1.536 Mbit/s; 8 x 3 622 cells/s (T1)

Tolerance range

50 ppm (E1)
32 ppm (JT1)
32 ppm (T1)

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Product Overview

Table 17.

Capacity of IFUC

Property

Value

Capacity

3 x 51.84 Mbit/s (STM-0/VC3; OC-1)


3 x 155.52 Mbit/s (STM-1/VC4; OC-3)

ATM capacity

3 x 48.384 Mbit/s; 3 x 114 113 cells/s


(STM-0/VC3; OC-1)
3 x 149.760 Mbit/s; 3 x 353 207 cells/s
(STM-1/VC4; OC-3)

Tolerance range

20 ppm (STM-0/VC3; OC-1; STM-1/


VC4; OC-3)

Any mix of SDH or SONET interfaces is possible on optical interfaces 1 - 3.

Table 18.
Property

Value

Capacity

8 x 2.048 Mbit/s (E1)

ATM capacity

8 x 1.920 Mbit/s; 8 x 4 528 cells/s (E1)

Tolerance range

50 ppm (E1)

Table 19.

80 (126)

Capacity of IFUD

Capacity of IFUE

Property

Value

Capacity

Up to 16x2.048 Mbit/s signals;


microwave radio outdoor unit power
supply

ATM capacity

16 x 1.920 Mbit/s; 16 x 4 528 cells/s (E1)

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Technical specifications

Table 20.

Capacity of IFUF

Property

Value

Capacity

1 x 155.52 Mbit/s (STM-1)

Mapping

63 x VC-12 (63 x E1 with 2.048 Mbit/s)

ATM capacity

63 x 1.920 Mbit/s; 63 x 4 528 cells/s (E1)

Tolerance range

20 ppm

Note
The tolerance ranges given in this section are equipment requirements. The RAN
system requirement for Nokia BTSs is 0.015 ppm which is needed in order to
fulfil the 3GPP requirements for the air interface. The extracted clock signal from
the Iub interface or an external clock source is used as the BTS clock reference
source in a WCDMA network.

7.2.2

Operation
Delays

Table 21.

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Estimated intrinsic delays

Interface type

Estimated intrinsic delay/interface

STM-1/OC-3

16 s

STM-0/OC-1

24 s

STM-1/VC-12

380 s

E1

260 s

JT1

316 s

IMA (n x E1)

800 s

IMA (n x JT1)

1000 s

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Product Overview

Table 21.

Estimated intrinsic delays (cont.)

Interface type

Estimated intrinsic delay/interface

IMA (n x VC-12)

1850 s

Flexbus

30 s

CBR cross-connection

350 s

UBR cross-connection

0 s

AAL2 switching

200 s

When estimating Cell Transfer Delay (CDT), the AAL2 switching delay has to be
taken into account only in BTS AAL2 multiplexing, not in cases where AAL2
traffic is chained through the AXC. The delay caused by CIF is insignificant and
has no effect on CDT.

Table 22.

Estimated generated Cell Delay Variation (CDV)

Interface

CDV for CBR

CDV for UBR

STM-1/OC-3

12 s

12 s

STM-0/OC-1

12 s

12 s

STM-1/VC-12

25 s

25 s

E1

660 s

220 s

JT1

828 s

276 s

IMA (2 x E1)

120 s

120 s

IMA (4 x E1)

70 s

70 s

IMA (8 x E1)

40 s

40 s

IMA (2 x JT1)

160 s

160 s

IMA (4 x JT1)

85 s

85 s

IMA (n x VC-12)

15 s

15 s

The following example illustrates how the estimated delay can be calculated for
the STM-1 - IMA (n x E1) connection shown in the figure below.

82 (126)

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Technical specifications

STM-1

IMA (2xE1)

AXC
Delay

Figure 34.

Estimated delay

If the connection is of type UBR the mean Cell Transfer Delay can be calculated
with the following formula: intrinsic STM-1 + intrinsic E1 + intrinsic IMA (n x
E1) or 16 + 260 + 800 = 1076 s.
If the connection is of type CBR the mean Cell Transfer Delay can be calculated
with the following formula: intrinsic STM-1 + CBR CC STM-1 + intrinsic E1 +
intrinsic IMA (n x E1) or 16 + 350 + 260 + 800 = 1426 s.
The maximum Cell Transfer Delay can be calculated with the following formula:
CTD Max = CTD Mean + CDV/2. Thus for this connection the maximum CTD is
CTD Mean + CDV IMA (2 x E1)/2, or for the UBR connection 1076 + 120/2 =
1136 s and for the CBR connection 1426 + 120/2 = 1486 s.
The following table shows the Cell Transfer Delay (CTD) mean and maximum
values for these UBR and CBR connections. The propagation delay of any layer
on transport medium is not included.

Table 23.

CTD for example connection

STM-1 - IMA (2 X E1)

CTD mean

CTD max

UBR

1076 s

1136 s

CBR

1426 s

1486 s

Mean time between failures

Table 24.

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Predicted mean time between failures (years)

Unit

MTBF

AXUA

22 years

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Product Overview

Table 24.

7.3

Predicted mean time between failures (years) (cont.)

Unit

MTBF

AXUB

20 years

AXCC

30 years

AXCD

30 years

IFUA (symmetrical E1/JT1/T1)

29 years

IFUC (SDH/SONET)

25 years

IFUD (E1 coaxial)

28 years

IFUE (Flexbus)

19 years

IFUF (structured SDH)

34 years

IFUG (Ethernet hub)

47 years

S-AXC DC-PIU

114 years

S-AXC Fan Unit

112 years

AXC environmental requirements


Conditions of storage and transport

Nokia AXC complies with the following climatic conditions of storage and
transport:

Table 25.

Climatic specifications, storage and transport

All units, storage and transport

Ambient temperature of AXC

Temperature

-45 to +45C (storage)


-40 to +70C (transport)

Nokia AXC complies with the following international standards for storage and
transport:

84 (126)

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Technical specifications

Table 26.

Standards for storage and transport

Standard

Standard name

ETS 300 019-1-1

Equipment Engineering (EE);


Environmental conditions and
environmental tests for
telecommunications equipment Part 1-1:
Classification of environmental conditions
Storage

Class 1.3E

ETS 300 019-1-2


Class 2.3

Equipment Engineering (EE);


Environmental conditions and
environmental tests for
telecommunications equipment Part 1-2:
Classification of environmental conditions
Transportation.

Conditions of operation

Nokia AXC complies with the following climatic conditions of operation:

Table 27.

Climatic specifications, operation

All units, operation

Ambient temperature of AXC

Temperature

-33 C to -10 C (warm-up)


-10 to +55 C (operational)

Nokia AXC complies with the following international standards for operation:

Table 28.

Standards for operation

Standard

Standard name

ETS 300 019-1-3

Equipment Engineering (EE);


Environmental conditions and
environmental tests for
telecommunications equipment Part 1-3:
Classification of environmental conditions
Stationary use at weatherprotected
locations.

Class 3.2
ETS 300 019-1-3A1

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Product Overview

Table 28.

Standards for operation (cont.)

Standard

Standard name

ETS 300 019-1-4

Equipment Engineering (EE);


Environmental conditions and
environmental tests for
telecommunications equipment Part 1-4:
Classification of environmental conditions
Stationary use at non-weatherprotected
locations.

Class 4.1
ETS 300 019-1-4A1

Earthquake requirements

Nokia AXC complies with the following earthquake requirements:

Table 29.

Earthquake requirements

Standard

Standard name

Bellcore GR-63-Core, Zone 4

Network Equipment-Building System


(NEBS) Requirements: Physical
Protection

7.4

AXU

7.4.1

AXU interfaces

Table 30.

AXUA and AXUB interfaces

Interface

Connector

Local Management Port (LMP)

10 BaseT crossed Ethernet interface,


RJ-45 connector

Ethernet standards IEEE 802.3 and


ANSI 8802.3, RFC 1483 (routed)
Q1 management port

86 (126)

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V.11 interface, D-sub 9 connector

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Technical specifications

Table 30.

AXUA and AXUB interfaces (cont.)

Interface

Connector

External reference clock interface 1 (ERC 1)

TQ connector (symmetrical), 110


64 kHz + 8 kHz (AMI with 8 kHz bipolar
violation)

External reference clock interface 2 (ERC 2)

Coaxial BT-43 connector, 75


1.544 MHz, 2.048 MHz, 2 Mbit/s

Note
In order to fulfil the 3GPP requirements for the air interface, the external clock
references must meet the long-term accuracy of 0.015 ppm.

7.4.2

AXU power requirements

Table 31.
Property

Value

DC power supply

-37.5 to -60 VDC

Power consumption (typical)

35 W

Power consumption (max.)

40 W

Table 32.

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AXUA power supply and consumption

AXUB power supply and consumption

Property

Value

DC power supply

-37.5 to -60 VDC

Power consumption (typical)

38 W

Power consumption (max.)

43 W

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Product Overview

7.4.3

AXU dimensions and weight

Table 33.
Property

Value (metric)

Height

264 mm

Width

25 mm

Depth

285 mm (incl. front panel)

Weight

800 g

Table 34.

88 (126)

AXUA dimensions

AXUB dimensions

Property

Value (metric)

Height

264 mm

Width

25 mm

Depth

285 mm (incl. front panel)

Weight

900 g

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Technical specifications

7.5

AXCC

7.5.1

AXCC interfaces

Table 35.

AXCC interfaces

Interface

Connector

E1 interfaces

TQ connector (symmetrical), 120/110/100

ITU-T G.703/ G.704


TTC JT-G.703/ TTC JT-G.704
ATM Forum af-phy-0064.000 (E1 Physical
Interface Specification)
ATM Forum af-phy-0086.000 (Inverse
Multiplexing for ATM (IMA))
ATM Forum af-phy-0086.001 (Inverse
Multiplexing for ATM (IMA))
ATM Forum af-vtoa-0078.000 (Circuit
Emulation Service)
Local Management Port (LMP)

10 BaseT crossed Ethernet interface, RJ-45


connector
Ethernet standards IEEE 802.3 and ANSI
8802.3, RFC 1483 (routed)

7.5.2

Q1 management port

V.11 interface, D-sub 9 connector

External reference clock interface


(ERC)

Coaxial BT-43 connector, 75

AXCC power requirements

Table 36.

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1.544 MHz, 2.048 MHz

AXCC power supply and consumption

Property

Value

DC power supply

-37.5 to -60 VDC

Power consumption (typical)

10 W

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Product Overview

Table 36.

7.5.3

Property

Value

Power consumption (max.)

10 W

AXCC dimensions and weight

Table 37.

90 (126)

AXCC power supply and consumption (cont.)

AXCC dimensions and weight

Property

Value (metric)

Height

264 mm

Width

50 mm

Depth

285 mm (incl. front panel)

Weight

950 g

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7.6

AXCD

7.6.1

AXCD interfaces

Table 38.

AXCD interfaces

Interface

Connector

E1 interfaces

Coaxial BT-43 connectors, 75

ITU-T G.703
ITU-T G.704
ATM Forum af-phy-0064.000 (E1
Physical Interface Specification)
ATM Forum af-phy-0086.000 (Inverse
Multiplexing for ATM (IMA))
ATM Forum af-phy-0086.001 (Inverse
Multiplexing for ATM (IMA))
ATM Forum af-vtoa-0078.000 (Circuit
Emulation Service)
Local Management Port (LMP)

10 BaseT crossed Ethernet interface, RJ45 connector


Ethernet standards IEEE 802.3 and ANSI
8802.3, RFC 1483 (routed)

Q1 management port

V.11 interface, D-sub 9 connector

External reference clock interface (ERC)

Coaxial BT-43 connector, 75


1.544 MHz, 2.048 MHz

7.6.2

AXCD power requirements

Table 39.

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AXCD power supply and consumption

Property

Value

DC power supply

-37.5 to -60 VDC

Power consumption (typical)

10 W

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Product Overview

Table 39.

7.6.3

Property

Value

Power consumption (max.)

10 W

AXCD dimensions and weight

Table 40.

92 (126)

AXCD power supply and consumption (cont.)

AXCD dimensions and weight

Property

Value (metric)

Height

264 mm

Width

50 mm

Depth

285 mm (incl. front panel)

Weight

950 g

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Technical specifications

7.7

IFUA

7.7.1

IFUA interfaces

Table 41.

IFUA interfaces

Interface

Connector

E1/JT1/T1 interfaces

TQ connector (symmetrical), 120/110/


100

ITU-T G.703/ G.704


TTC JT-G.703/ TTC JT-G.704
ANSI T1.403/T1.102
ATM Forum af-phy-0130.000 (ATM on
Fractional E1/T1)
ATM Forum af-phy-0064.000 (E1
Physical Interface Specification)
ATM Forum af-phy-0086.000 (Inverse
Multiplexing for ATM (IMA))
ATM Forum af-phy-0086.001 (Inverse
Multiplexing for ATM (IMA))
ATM Forum af-vtoa-0078.000 (Circuit
Emulation Service)

7.7.2

IFUA power requirements

Table 42.

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IFUA power supply and consumption

Property

Value

DC power supply

-37.5 to -60 VDC

Power consumption (typical)

13 W

Power consumption (max.)

13 W

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Product Overview

7.7.3

IFUA dimensions and weight

Table 43.

IFUA dimensions

Property

Value (metric)

Height

264 mm

Width

25 mm

Depth

285 mm (incl. front panel)

Weight

850 g

7.8

IFUC

7.8.1

IFUC interfaces

Table 44.

IFUC interfaces

Interface

Connector

Optical interfaces 1  3

LC connector, 0

ITU-T G.707
TTC JT-G.707
ANSI T1.105.06

Table 45.

STM-0/OC-1 optical interface characteristics

Property

Value for STM-0

Value for OC-1

Nominal bit rate (kbit/s)

51 840

51 840

Application code

I-0

IR-1

TTC JT-G.957

ANSI T1.105.06

SM (G.652)

SM (G.652)

Type of fibre

94 (126)

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Table 45.

STM-0/OC-1 optical interface characteristics (cont.)

Property

Value for STM-0

Value for OC-1

Operating wavelength
range (nm)

1270 - 1335

1260 - 1360

Transmitter at reference point S


Transmitter laser type

MLM

MLM

Spectral characteristics:

NA

NA

Max. mean launched


power (dBm)

-11

-8

Min. mean launched


power (dBm)

-17

-15

Min. extinction ratio (dB)

11

8.2

-max. RMS width (nm)

Optical path between S and R


Attenuation range (dB)

0-6

0 - 12

Max. dispersion (ps/nm)

NA

NA

Min. optical return loss of


cable plant at S, incl. any
connectors (dB)

NA

NA

Max. discrete reflectance


between S and R (dB)

NA

NA

Receiver at reference point R

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Min. sensitivity (dBm)

-23

-28

Max. input power (dBm)

-8

-8

Max. optical path penalty


(dB)

NA

NA

Max. reflectance of
receiver, measured at R
(dB)

NA

NA

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Product Overview

Table 46.

STM-1/OC-3 optical interface characteristics

Property

Value for STM-1

Value for
OC-3

Nominal bit
rate (kbit/s)

155 520

155 520

Application
code

I-1

I-1

S-1.1

SR-1

ITU-T G.957

ATM megalink
service UNI

TTC JT-G.957

ANSI
T1.105.06

Type of fibre

SM

SM

SM

SM

(G.652)

(G.652)

(G.652)

(G.652)

1260 - 1360

1260 - 1360

1261 - 1360

1260 - 1360

Operating
wavelength
range (nm)

Transmitter at reference point S


Transmitter
laser type

MLM

MLM

MLM

MLM

Spectral
characteristics:

40

40

7.7

40

Max. mean
launched
power (dBm)

-8

-8

-8

-8

Min. mean
launched
power (dBm)

-15

-15

-15

-15

Min. extinction
ratio (dB)

8.2

8.2

8.2

8.2

-max. RMS
width (nm)

Optical path between S and R

96 (126)

Attenuation
range (dB)

0-7

0-7

0 - 12

0-7

Max.
dispersion
(ps/nm)

18

18

96

18

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Table 46.

STM-1/OC-3 optical interface characteristics (cont.)

Property

Value for STM-1

Value for
OC-3

Min. optical
return loss of
cable plant at
S, incl. any
connectors
(dB)

NA

NA

NA

NA

Max. discrete
reflectance
between S
and R (dB)

NA

NA

NA

NA

Receiver at reference point R

7.8.2

Min.
sensitivity
(dBm)

-23

-23

-28

-23

Max. input
power (dBm)

-8

-8

-8

-8

Max. optical
path penalty
(dB)

Max.
reflectance of
receiver,
measured at
R (dB)

NA

NA

NA

NA

IFUC power requirements

Table 47.

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IFUC power supply and consumption

Property

Value

DC power supply

-37.5 to -60 VDC

Power consumption (typical)

18 W

Power consumption (max.)

20 W

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Product Overview

7.8.3

IFUC dimensions and weight

Table 48.

IFUC dimensions

Property

Value (metric)

Height

264 mm

Width

25 mm

Depth

285 mm (incl. front panel)

Weight

750 g

7.9

IFUD

7.9.1

IFUD interfaces

Table 49.

IFUD interfaces

Interface

Connector

E1 interfaces

Coaxial BT43 connector, 75

ITU-T G.703
ITU-T G.704
ATM Forum af-phy-0130.000 (ATM on
Fractional E1)
ATM Forum af-phy-0064.000 (E1
Physical Interface Specification)
ATM Forum af-phy-0086.000 (Inverse
Multiplexing for ATM (IMA))
ATM Forum af-phy-0086.001 (Inverse
Multiplexing for ATM (IMA))
ATM Forum af-vtoa-0078.000 (Circuit
Emulation Service)

98 (126)

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7.9.2

IFUD power requirements

Table 50.

7.9.3

Property

Value

DC power supply

-37.5 to -60 VDC

Power consumption (typical)

13 W

Power consumption (max.)

13 W

IFUD dimensions and weight

Table 51.

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IFUD power supply and consumption

IFUD dimensions

Property

Value (metric)

Height

264 mm

Width

25 mm

Depth

285 mm (incl. front panel)

Weight

800 g

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Product Overview

7.10

IFUE

7.10.1

IFUE interfaces

Table 52.

IFUE interfaces

Interface

Connector

Flexbus interfaces 1-3

TNC connector 50 (female)

FB1, FB2, FB3

ATM Forum af-phy-0064.000 (E1


Physical Interface Specification)
ATM Forum af-phy-0086.000 (Inverse
Multiplexing for ATM (IMA))
ATM Forum af-phy-0086.001 (Inverse
Multiplexing for ATM (IMA))
ATM Forum at-vtoa-0078.000 (Circuit
Emulation Service)

Local Management Port (LMP)

BQ connector

Measurement Point (MP)

SMB connector

Table 53.

Flexbus cable requirements

Property

Value

Cable type

Coaxial cable, double shielded or semirigid

Characteristic impedance

50 2

DC resistance

< 4.6 (sum of inner and outer


conductor)

Data attenuation

< 9.0 dB at 19 MHz

Flexbus signals

- DC power supply
- Bidirectional data (37 Mbit/s, NRZ code,
1.4 V pulse amplitude)

100 (126)

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Technical specifications

Table 53.

Flexbus cable requirements (cont.)

Property

Value

Note
Over-voltage protection and cable equalizer are integral parts of the Flexbus
interface. Primary over-voltage protection is a 90 V gas-arrester. External gasarresters can be used as well.
To provide a sufficient long-term over-current protection to Flexbus cables,
these have to be routed through metallic tubes.

Table 54.

7.10.2

RG-223

Maximum length 140 m

RG-214

Maximum length 300 m

IFUE power requirements

Table 55.

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Recommended cable types

IFUE power supply and consumption

Property

Value

DC power supply

-37.5 to -60 VDC

Power consumption (typical)

25 W

Power consumption (max.)

25 W

Remote power feeding per Flexbus


interface (typical)

30 W

Power consumption for remote power


feeding per Flexbus interface (max.)

35 W

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Product Overview

7.10.3

IFUE dimensions and weight

Table 56.

IFUE dimensions

Property

Value (metric)

Height

264 mm

Width

25 mm

Depth

285 mm (incl. front panel)

Weight

1000 g

7.11

IFUF

7.11.1

IFUF interfaces

Table 57.

IFUF interfaces

Interface

Connector

Optical interface

LC connector, 0
ITU-T G.707
ITU-T G.783
ATM Forum af-phy-0086.000 (Inverse
Multiplexing for ATM (IMA))
ATM Forum af-phy-0086.001 (Inverse
Multiplexing for ATM (IMA))

Table 58.

102 (126)

STM-1 optical interface characteristics

Property

Value for STM-1

Nominal bit
rate (kbit/s)

155 520

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Table 58.

STM-1 optical interface characteristics (cont.)

Property

Value for STM-1

Application
code

I-1

I-1

S-1.1

ITU-T G.957

ATM megalink
service UNI

TTC JT-G.957

Type of fibre

SM

SM

SM

(G.652)

(G.652)

(G.652)

1260 - 1360

1260 - 1360

1261 - 1360

Operating
wavelength
range (nm)

Transmitter at reference point S


Transmitter
laser type

MLM

MLM

MLM

Spectral
characteristics:

40

40

7.7

Max. mean
launched
power (dBm)

-8

-8

-8

Min. mean
launched
power (dBm)

-15

-15

-15

Min. extinction
ratio (dB)

8.2

8.2

8.2

-max. RMS
width (nm)

Optical path between S and R

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Attenuation
range (dB)

0-7

0-7

0 - 12

Max.
dispersion
(ps/nm)

18

18

96

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Product Overview

Table 58.

STM-1 optical interface characteristics (cont.)

Property

Value for STM-1

Min. optical
return loss of
cable plant at
S, incl. any
connectors
(dB)

NA

NA

NA

Max. discrete
reflectance
between S
and R (dB)

NA

NA

NA

Receiver at reference point R

7.11.2

Min.
sensitivity
(dBm)

-23

-23

-28

Max. input
power (dBm)

-8

-8

-8

Max. optical
path penalty
(dB)

Max.
reflectance of
receiver,
measured at
R (dB)

NA

NA

NA

IFUF power requirements

Table 59.

104 (126)

IFUF power supply and consumption

Property

Value

DC power supply

-37.5 to -60 VDC

Power consumption (max.)

10 W

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7.11.3

IFUF dimensions and weight

Table 60.

IFUF dimensions

Property

Value (metric)

Height

264 mm

Width

25 mm

Depth

285 mm (incl. front panel)

Weight

650 g

7.12

IFUG

7.12.1

IFUG interfaces

Table 61.

IFUG interfaces

Interface

Connector

Ethernet port

10 BaseT, RJ-45 connector


Ethernet standards IEEE 802.3 and ANSI
8802.3

7.12.2

IFUG power requirements

Table 62.

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IFUG power supply and consumption

Property

Value

DC power supply

-37.5 to -60 VDC

Power consumption (max.)

6W

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Product Overview

7.12.3

IFUG dimensions and weight

Table 63.

IFUG dimensions

Property

Value (metric)

Height

264 mm

Width

25 mm

Depth

285 mm (incl. front panel)

Weight

500 g

7.13

Stand-alone mechanics

7.13.1

S-AXC power requirements

Table 64.

S-AXC power supply and power consumption

Property

Value

DC power supply

-40.5 to -60 VDC

Power consumption (max.)

< 500 W

Recommended ext. fuse rating

16 A, 20 A, 25 A

Ext. power cable recommendation

2.5 - 4 mm2

Power loss (output diodes not connected)

< 1.5 V * Iload

Fan unit power consumption

6W

DC-PIU power consumption at 500 W


load

10 W (single mode, output diode not


used)
15 W (protected mode, output diode
used)

106 (126)

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Technical specifications

The maximum power consumption of 500 W of the Nokia S-AXC cartridge is


reached with a combination of 3 IFUE interface units, 9 connected and powered
Nokia FlexiHoppers, 2 AXU units and 1 IFUC interface unit. The maximum
number of powered FlexiHoppers is nine, but up to 5 IFUE interface units can be
installed in Nokia S-AXC.

Table 65.

DC-PIU energy storage

Property

Value

Capacitance

> 6 mF

Holdup capacity:
.

Uout drops from 54 V to 40.5 V

Table 66.

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> 4.5 ms at maximum load (800 W)

DC-PIU alarm interface

Property

Value

Alarm configurations

GND or VPB referenced or closed loop

Expected voltage level with reference to


GND at alarm inputs A2in, B2in and D2in,
no alarm

2.8 ... 7.0 V

Expected voltage level with reference to


GND at alarm inputs A2in, B2in and D2in,
alarm

0.0 ... 1.5 V

Input impedance

10 kOhms (pull-up resistors to + 5 V)

Maximum ratings of the relay outputs at 


48 Vdc, Resistive load IDC

0.5 A

Maximum ratings of the relay outputs at 


48 Vdc, Inductive load IDC

0.15 A

Max. resistance (DC) with closed relay


contacts

0.5 Ohm

Min. resistance (DC) with open relay


contacts

1 MOhm

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Product Overview

7.13.2

S-AXC dimensions and weight

Table 67.

Dimensions of S-AXC

Property

Value (metric)

Height

400 mm (9HU)

Width

485 mm

Depth

< 350 mm

Weight

14.6 kg (empty)
33 kg (fully equipped)

Table 68.
Property

Value (metric)

Height

330 mm

Width

170 mm

Depth

320 mm

Weight

4600 g

Table 69.

108 (126)

Dimensions of 6-slot cartridge

Dimensions of Fan unit

Property

Value (metric)

Height

33 mm

Width

165 mm

Depth

310 mm

Weight

1100 g

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Technical specifications

Table 70.

7.14

Dimensions of DC-PIU

Property

Value (metric)

Height

265 mm

Width

36 mm

Depth

210 mm

Weight

1500 g

Nokia AXC Manager and Nokia AXC-FB Hopper


Manager system requirements
Table 71.

Hardware requirements for Nokia AXC Manager and Nokia AXC-FB


Hopper Manager

Requirement

Value

Processor

Intel Pentium II 600 MHz or higher

RAM

Min. 64 MB

Hard disk space

Min. 50 MB exclusively for AXC Manager, 100 MB


recommended

Display

Colour display, minimum resolution 800 x 600.


1024 x 768 with 16 bit or more colour depth
recommended.

Accessories

CD-ROM or DVD drive (optional)


Microsoft Windows -compatible mouse or pointing
device with required software
Microsoft Windows -compatible printer (optional)
Communication cable between PC and AXC (10
BaseT crossed Ethernet with RJ-45 connector)

Interface ports

Ethernet port
Serial port or parallel port for printer
Mouse port (in case mouse is used as the pointing
device)

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Product Overview

Table 72.

Software requirements for Nokia AXC Manager and Nokia AXC-FB


Hopper Manager

Operating System

Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, Microsoft


Windows 98, Microsoft Windows 2000,
Windows XP

Regional settings

English (United States, United Kingdom,


Ireland), Finnish, German (Standard)

7.15

AXC standards

7.15.1

Interface standards and recommendations


E1 interface

Table 73.

110 (126)

Recommendations relating to line interface E1

Standard

Description

ITU-T G.703

Physical/electrical characteristics of
hierarchical digital interfaces

ITU-T G.704

Synchronous frame structures used at


primary and secondary hierarchical levels

ITU-T G.706

Frame alignment and cyclic redundancy


check procedures (CRC) relating to basic
frame structures defined in
Recommendation G.704

ITU-T G.775

Loss of Signal (LOS), Alarm Indication


Signal (AIS) and Remote Defect
Indication (RDI). Defect detection and
clearance criteria of PDH signals

ITU-T G.804

ATM cell mapping into Plesiochronous


Digital Hierarchy (PDH)

ITU-T G.823

The control of jitter and wander within


digital networks which are based on the
2048 kbit/s hierarchy

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Table 73.

Recommendations relating to line interface E1 (cont.)

Standard

Description

ITU-T G.826

Error performance parameters and


objectives for international, constant bit
rate digital paths at or above primary rate

ETS 300 011

Integrated Services Digital Network


(ISDN) Primary rate User - Network
Interface (UNI), Part 1: Layer 1
specification

ETS 300 166

Transmission and Multiplexing; Physical


and electrical characteristics of
hierarchical digital interfaces for
equipment using 2048 kbit/s - based
plesiochronous or synchronous digital
interfaces

ATM Forum af-phy-0064.000

E1 Physical Interface Specification

ATM Forum af-phy-0086.000

Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)

ATM Forum af-phy-0086.001

Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)

ATM Forum af-phy-0130.000

ATM on Fractional E1/T1

ATM Forum af-vtoa-0078.000

Circuit Emulation Service Interoperability

JT1 interface

Table 74.

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Recommendations relating to line interface JT1

Standard

Description

ITU-T G.703

Physical/electrical characteristics of
hierarchical digital interfaces

TTC JT-G.703

Physical characteristics of hierarchical


digital interfaces

TTC JT-G.704

Frame structures used at primary and


secondary hierarchical interfaces

TTC JT-G.706

Frame synchronisation and CRCprocedure

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Product Overview

Table 74.

112 (126)

Recommendations relating to line interface JT1 (cont.)

Standard

Description

ITU-T G.775

Loss of Signal (LOS), Alarm Indication


Signal (AIS) and Remote Defect
Indication (RDI). Defect detection and
clearance criteria of PDH signals

ITU-T G.804

ATM cell mapping into Plesiochronous


Digital Hierarchy (PDH)

ITU-T G.824

The control of jitter and wander within


digital networks which are based on the
1544 kbit/s hierarchy

ITU-T G.826

Error performance parameters and


objectives for international, constant bit
rate digital paths at or above primary rate

TTC JT-I.431

ISDN Primary Rate User-Network


Interface Layer 1 - Specification

ETS 300 011

Integrated Services Digital Network


(ISDN) Primary rate User - Network
Interface (UNI), Part 1: Layer 1
specification

ETS 300 166

Transmission and Multiplexing; Physical


and electrical characteristics of
hierarchical digital interfaces for
equipment using 2048 kbit/s - based
plesiochronous or synchronous digital
interfaces

ATM Forum af-phy-0086.000

Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)

ATM Forum af-phy-0086.001

Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)

ATM Forum af-phy-0130.000

ATM on Fractional E1/T1

ATM Forum af-vtoa-0078.000

Circuit Emulation Service Interoperability

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Technical specifications

T1 interface

Table 75.

Recommendations relating to line interface T1

Recommendation

Recommendation name

ANSI T1.403

Telecommunications - Network-toCustomer Installation - DS1 Metallic


Interface

ANSI T1.102

Telecommunications - Digital Hierarchy


Electrical Interfaces

ANSI T1.408

Telecommunications - Integrated Services


Digital Networks (ISDN) Primary Rate Customer Installation Metallic Interfaces
Layer 1 Specification

ATM Forum af-phy-0086.000

Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)

ATM Forum af-phy-0086.001

Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)

ATM Forum af-phy-0130.000

ATM on Fractional E1/T1

ATM Forum af-vtoa-0078.000

Circuit Emulation Service Interoperability

STM-0/STM-1 and OC-1/OC-3 interface

Table 76.

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Recommendations relating to STM-0/STM-1/OC-1/OC-3 interface

Standard

Description

ITU-T G.707

Network - Node Interface for the


Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

TTC JT-G.707

Network - Node Interface for the


Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

ITU-T G.783

Characteristics of Synchronous Digital


Hierarchy (SDH) equipment functional
blocks

ITU-T G.825

The control of jitter and wander within


digital networks which are based on the
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

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Product Overview

Table 76.

114 (126)

Recommendations relating to STM-0/STM-1/OC-1/OC-3 interface


(cont.)

Standard

Description

TTC JT-G.825

The control of jitter and wander within


digital networks which are based on the
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

ITU-T G.826

Error performance parameters and


objectives for international, constant bit
rate digital paths at or above primary rate

ITU-T G.957

Optical interfaces for equipment and


systems relating to the synchronous
hierarchy

TTC JT-G.957

Optical interfaces for equipment and


systems relating to the synchronous
hierarchy

ITU-T G.958

Digital line systems based on the


Synchronous Digital Hierarchy for use on
optical fibre cables

TTC JT-G.958

Digital line systems based on the


Synchronous Digital Hierarchy for use on
optical fibre cables

ITU-T I.356

B-ISDN ATM layer cell transfer


performance

TTC JT-I.356

B-ISDN ATM layer cell transfer


performance

ITU-T I.432.2

B-ISDN User - Network Interface;


Physical layer
specification: 155 520 kbit/s and 622 080
kbit/s operation

TTC JT-I.432.2

B-ISDN User - Network Interface;


Physical layer
specification: 155 520 kbit/s and 622 080
kbit/s operation

TTC JT-I.432.4

B-ISDN User - Network Interface;


Physical layer
specification: 51 840 kbit/s operation

ANSI T1.105.06

Telecommunications - Synchronous
Optical Network (SONET) - Physical
Layer Specifications

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Technical specifications

Table 77.

Recommendations relating to STM-0/STM-1/OC-1/OC-3 interface

ATM Forum af-phy-0086.000

Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)

ATM Forum af-phy-0086.001

Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)

Flexbus interface

Table 78.

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Recommendations relating to Flexbus interface

Standard

Description

ITU-T G.704

Synchronous frame structures used at


primary and secondary hierarchical levels

ITU-T G.706

Frame alignment and cyclic redundancy


check procedures (CGC) relating to basic
frame structures defined in
Recommendation G.704

ITU-T G.775

Loss of Signal (LOS), Alarm Indication


Signal (AIS) and Remote Defect
Indication (RDI). Defect detection and
clearance criteria of PDH signals

ITU-T G.804

ATM cell mapping into Plesiochronous


Digital Hierarchy (PDH)

ITU-T G.823

The control of jitter and wander within


digital networks which are based on the
2048 kbit/s hierarchy

ITU-T G.826

Error performance parameters and


objectives for international, constant bit
rate digital paths at or above primary rate

ITU-T G.921

Digital sections based on the 2048 kbit/s


hierarchy

ATM Forum af-phy-0086.000

Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)

ATM Forum af-phy-0086.001

Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)

ATM Forum af-vtoa-0078.000

Circuit Emulation Service Interoperability

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Product Overview

IP DCN Extension interface

Table 79.

7.15.2

Standard

Description

IEEE802.3/ANSI8802.3

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with


Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access
Method and Physical Layer Specifications

RFC 1027

Using ARP to Implement Transparent


Subnet Gateways

RFC 1483

Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM


Adaptation Layer 5

RFC 2131

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

RFC 2132

DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor


Extensions

RFC 2225

Classical IP and ARP over ATM

RFC 2328

OSPF Version 2

RFC 3004

User Class Option for DHCP

ATM capabilities recommendations

Table 80.

116 (126)

Recommendations relating to IP DCN Extension interface

Recommendations relating to ATM capabilities of AXC

Recommendation

Recommendation name

ITU-T Q.2630.1

AAL type 2 signalling protocol (Capability


SET 1)

ITU-T Q.2630.2

AAL type 2 signalling protocol (Capability


SET 2)

ITU-T Q.2150.2

AAL type 2 signalling converter on


SSCOP

ITU-T Q.2130

B-ISDN signalling ATM adaptation layer Service specifc coordination function for
support of signalling at the user-network
interface (SSCF at UNI)

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Technical specifications

Table 80.

7.15.3

Recommendations relating to ATM capabilities of AXC (cont.)

Recommendation

Recommendation name

ITU-T Q.2210

Service Specific Connection Oriented


Protocol (SSCOP)

ITU-T I.363.2

Type 2 AAL

ITU-T I.363.5

Type 5 AAL

ITU-T I.732

B-ISDN equipment aspects - Functional


characteristics of ATM equipment

3GPP TS 25.426

UTRAN Iur and Iub Interface Data


Transport & Transport Signalling for DCH
Data Streams v.3.4.0

EMC standards

Table 81.

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EMC recommendations

Standard

Description

EN 50081-1

Electromagnetic compatibility - Generic


emission standard. Part 1: Residential,
commercial and light industry.

EN 50082-1

Electromagnetic compatibility - Generic


immunity standard. Part 1: Residential,
commercial and light industry.

EN 55022

Limits and methods of measurement of


radio disturbance characteristics of
information technology equipment.

EN 61000-4-2

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4: Testing and measurement


techniques; Section 2: Electrostatic
discharge immunity test, Basic EMC
Publication.

EN 61000-4-3

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4: Testing and measurement


techniques; Section 3: Radiated, Radiofrequency electromagnetic field immunity
test.

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Product Overview

Table 81.

118 (126)

EMC recommendations (cont.)

Standard

Description

EN 61000-4-4

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4: Testing and measurement


techniques; Section 4: Electrical fast
transient/burst immunity test, Basic EMC
Publication.

EN 61000-4-5

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4: Testing and measurement


techniques; Section 5: Surge immunity
tests.

EN 61000-4-6

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4: Testing and measurement


techniques; Section 6: Immunity to
conducted disturbances induced by radiofrequency fields.

IEC 1000-4-8

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4: Testing and measurement


techniques; Section 8: Power frequency
magnetic field immunity test, Basic EMC
Publication.

IEC 1000-4-9

Pulse magnetic field immunity test.

ITU-T K.20

Resistibility of telecommunication
switching equipment installed in a
telecommunications centre to
overvoltages and overcurrents

ITU-T K.41

Resistibility of internal interfaces of


telecommunication centres to surge
overvoltages

CISPR Publication No. 16-1

Specification for radio disturbance and


immunity measuring apparatus and
methods.

ETS 300 132-2

Equipment Engineering (EE); Power


supply interface at the input to
telecommunications equipment; Part 2:
Operated by direct current

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Technical specifications

7.15.4

Environmental standards

Table 82.

Environmental recommendations

Standard

Description

ETS 300 019-1-1

Equipment Engineering (EE);


Environmental conditions and
environmental tests for
telecommunications equipment; Storage.

Class 1.3E

ETS 300 019-1-2


Class 2.3

ETS 300 019-1-3


Class 3.2
ETS 300 019-1-3A1

ETS 300 019-1-4


Class 4.1
ETS 300 019-1-4A1

Bellcore GR-63-Core, Zone 4

7.15.5

Equipment Engineering (EE);


Environmental conditions and
environmental tests for
telecommunications equipment;
Stationary use at weatherprotected
locations.
Equipment Engineering (EE);
Environmental conditions and
environmental tests for
telecommunications equipment;
Stationary use at non-weatherprotected
locations.
Network Equipment-Building System
(NEBS) Requirements: Physical
Protection

Safety recommendations

Table 83.

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Equipment Engineering (EE);


Environmental conditions and
environmental tests for
telecommunications equipment;
Transportation.

Safety recommendations

Standard

Description

EN 60825-1

Safety of laser products - Part 1:


Equipment classification, requirements
and users guide

EN 60825-2

Safety of laser products - Part 2: Safety of


optical communication systems

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Product Overview

Table 83.

120 (126)

Safety recommendations (cont.)

Standard

Description

EN 41003

Particular safety requirements to be


connected to telecommunications
network

EN 60950

Safety of IT equipment

UL 60950, 3rd edition

Safety of Information Technology


Equipment

Bellcore GR-1089-Core

Electromagnetic Compatibility and


Electrical Safety - Generic Criteria for
Network Telecommunications Equipment

Bellcore SR-3580-Core

Network Equipment-Building System


(NEBS) Criteria Levels, Level 3

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Glossary

Appendix A Glossary

A.1

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Glossary for AXC


2G

2nd generation mobile communications

3G

3rd generation mobile communications

3GPP

3rd Generation Partnership Project

AAL1

ATM adaptation layer type 1

AAL2

ATM adaptation layer type 2

AAL5

ATM adaptation layer type 5

AAM

ATM adaptation module

Abis

base station controller (BSC) to base transceiver station (BTS)


interface

AIS

alarm indication signal

ARP

address resolution protocol

ATM

asynchronous transfer mode

AXC

ATM cross-connect

AXCC

AXC Compact

AXU

ATM cross-connect unit

BER

bit error ratio

BSC

base station controller

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BSS

base station subsystem

BTS

base transceiver station

CAC

connection admission control

CBR

constant bit rate

CDV

cell delay variation

CDVT

cell delay variation tolerance

CES

circuit emulation service

CLP

cell loss priority

CORBA

common object request broker architecture

CS

capability set

CTD

cell transfer delay

DC

direct current

DC-PIU

DC power interface unit

DCN

data communication network

DHCP

dynamic host configuration protocol

DLD

differential link delay

DSCH

downlink shared channel

E1

European Digital Signal 1

EDGE

enhanced data rates for GSM evolution

EMC

electromagnetic compatibility

EOC

embedded operations channel

EPD

early packet discard

ERC

external reference clock

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Glossary

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ETSI

European Telecommunications Standards Institute

FB

flexbus

GFC

generic flow control

GSM

Global System for Mobile Communications

HEC

header error control

IFU

interface unit

IMA

inverse multiplexing for ATM

inATMARP

inverse ATM address resolution protocol

IP

Internet protocol

ITU-T

ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector

Iu

interface between the radio network controller (RNC) and the


core network

Iub

interface between the radio network controller (RNC) and the


base transceiver station

Iur

logical interface for the interconnection of two radio network


controller (RNC) components of the UMTS terrestrial radio
access network (UTRAN) system

JT1

Japanese system based on the US T1-interface that carries 24


channels in a 193-bit frame transmitted at 1.544 Mbit/s basic
multiplex rate

LED

light-emitting diode

LMP

local management port

LMT

local management tool

LOF

loss of frame

LOS

loss of signal

MLM

multi-longitudinal mode laser

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Product Overview

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MSC

mobile services switching centre

MSP

multiplex section protection

MTBF

mean time between failures

NE

network element

NMS

network management system

NND

neighbour node discovery

NNI

network-network interface

NOLS

Nokia Online Services

NPC

network parameter control

OAM

Operations, Administrations and Maintenance

OC-1

optical carrier of the lowest optical transmission rate in the


synchronous optical network (SONET) standard at 51.48
Mbit/s, resulting from an optical conversion of a synchronous
transport signal level 1 (STS-1)

OC-3

optical carrier for three synchronous transport signal level 1


(STS-1) signals at 155.52 Mbit/s

OSPF

open shortest path first

PCM

pulse code modulation

PCR

peak cell rate

PDC

Personal Digital Communication (Japan)

PDH

plesiochronous digital hierarchy

PM

performance monitoring

PPD

partial packet discard

Q1

serial protocol used in transferring management information


to and from a network element. Q1 is Nokia's proprietary
management protocol.

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Glossary

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Q1SF

Q1 support function

QoS

quality of service

RAN

radio access network

RDI

remote defect indication

RNC

radio network controller

rt-VBR

real time variable bit rate

RX

receiver

S-AXC

stand-alone AXC

SCR

sustainable cell rate

SCU

synchronisation and clock unit (BTS)

SDH

synchronous digital hierarchy

SGSN

serving GPRS support node

Sonet

synchronous optical network, ANSI standard

SSM

synchronisation status message

STM

synchronous transfer mode

STM-0

synchronous transport module 0

STM-1

synchronous transport module 1

T1

American PCM system that carries 24 channels in a 193-bit


frame transmitted at 1.544 Mbit/s basic multiplex rate

TDM

time division multiplexing

TNC

threaded Neill Concelman connector, threaded RF coaxial


connector

TQ

threaded 4-pin connector

TX

transmitter

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UBR

unspecified bit rate

UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

UNI

user-network interface

UPC

usage parameter control

VC

virtual channel

VC-3

virtual container 3

VC-4

virtual container 4

VCC

virtual channel connection

VCI

virtual channel identifier

VP

virtual path

VPC

virtual path connection

VPI

virtual path identifier

WAM

wideband application manager (BTS)

WCDMA

wideband code division multiple access

WSC

BTS clock unit

XML

extended markup language

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