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Dr.

Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Electronic Circuits
Chapter 5: Op-Amp
Dr. Dung Trinh

Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Content
Introduction
Inverting & Non-Inverting Amplifier
Current-to-Voltage Converter
Instrumentation Amplifier
Integrator and Differentiator

Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Introduction
The integrated circuit operational amplifier evolved soon after development of the
first bipolar integrated circuit.
The A-709 was introduced by Fairchild Semiconductor in 1965 and was one of the
first widely used general-purpose op-amps. The now classic A-741, also by
Fairchild, was introduced in the late 1960s.
In the ideal op-amp:
The open-loop gain
approaches infinity
Circuit symbol of Op-Amp

Aod

The common-mode output


signal is zero.
Input resistance Ri is infinite.
Output resistance Ro is zero.

Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Inverting Amplifier
One of the most widely used op-amp circuits is the inverting amplifier

The closed-loop gain:


=
Inverting op-amp circuit

2
=

The input resistance:


= 1

Inverting op-amp equivalent circuit

Example 1: Using the inverting Op-amp amplifier


to design the circuit such that the voltage gain is
Av = 5. Assume the op-amp is driven by an ideal
sinusoidal source, = 0.1sin (), that can
supply a maximum current of 5.
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Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Inverting Amplifier Finite Gain


We have:

We obtain:
Then:

1 =

1
=
1

1
1 =
1


2 =
2

The output voltage is:

= 1

= 2 =

2
1
=
=

1 1 + 1 1 + 2

Example 2: Consider an inverting op-amp with 1 = 10 and 2 = 100. Determine


the closed-loop gain for: Aod = 102, 103, 104, 105, and 106. Calculate the percent deviation
from the ideal gain.
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Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Summing Amplifier

Using superposition theorem to analysis the


summing amplifier, we obtain:
=

1 +
2 +

1
2
3 3

If 1 = 2 = 3, then:

+ 2 + 3
1 1

Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Non-Inverting Amplifier
We have:

2 =
2

0
1 =
1
Because 1 = 2, then:

2
=
= 1+

Non-inverting op-amp circuit


In voltage follower circuit: 2 = 0
= 1

Voltage follower op-amp

= 0

Example 3: Derive the closed-loop gain of noninverting amplifier which has a finite differential
gain of Aod.
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Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Current-to-Voltage Converter
In some situations, the output of a device or
circuit is a current. An example is the output of a
photodiode or photo-detector. We may need to
convert this output current to an output voltage.
= 2 =
Current-to-voltage converter

Voltage-to-current converter:

2 = 1 =

Current i2 is independent of the load impedance


or resistance R2.
Simple voltage-to-current converter

NOT practical as the load need to be at ground


potential.
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Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Voltage-to-Current Converter
At the inverting terminal:


=
1



At the non-inverting terminal:
= +
3
2

From these two equations, we obtain:




= +
1
3
2

Voltage-to-current converter
Then:

1
=
1 3
2
1 3

1
If
:
=
1 3 2

=
1 3
2
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Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Voltage-to-Current Converter
Example 4: Let = 100 , 1 = 10, 2 = 1, 3 = 1, and = 10.
If = 5, determine the load current iL and the output voltage vO.

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Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Difference Amplifier
An ideal difference amplifier amplifies only the
difference between two signals. It rejects any
common signals to the two input terminals.
For example, a microphone system amplifies an
audio signal applied to one terminal of a
difference amplifier, and rejects any 60 Hz noise
signal or hum existing on both terminals
Op-amp difference amplifier

The output voltage:

If

2 4
:
=
1 3

If

2 4
:

1 3

2
= 1 +
1
=

4
2
3

1
4 2

1
1+
3

2
1
1 2

1
= 2 + 1
2

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Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Difference Amplifier
Example 5: Consider the difference amplifier. Let 2/1 = 10 and 4/3 = 11.
Determine CMRR(dB).

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Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Instrumentation Amplifier
Obtain a high input impedance and a high
gain in a difference amplifier with
reasonable resistor values: DIFFICULT.

SOLUTION: insert a voltage follower


Problem: GAIN is not easily to change.

Instrumentation amplifier

INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER allows us to


change the gain by changing only a single
resistance value.

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Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Instrumentation Amplifier
The current in resistor R1 and R2 is
1 =

1 2
1

The output voltages of op-amps are:

Voltages and currents in instrumentation amplifier

2
2
= 1 + 1 2 = 1 +

1 1 1 2

2
2
= 2 1 2 = 1 +

1 2 1 1

The output of difference amplifier is:


4
4
2
=
1 =
1+2
3 2
3
1

2 1

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Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Instrumentation Amplifier
Example 6: Consider the instrumentation amplifier circuit. Assume that 4 = 23
so that the difference amplifier gain is 2. Determine the range required for resistor
R1 to realize a differential gain adjustable from 5 to 500.

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Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Integrator and Differentiator

Generalized inverting amplifier

Op-amp integrator
Op-amp integrator:

=
1 2

Op-amp differentiator:

= 2 1

Op-amp differentiator

Reading: Microelectronics, Circuit Analysis and Design, D.A. Neamen, 4th edition, p621-670
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Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Q&A

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