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Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Electronic Circuits

Chapter 5: Op-Amp

Dr. Dung Trinh

HCMUT / 2015

Content

Introduction

Inverting & Non-Inverting Amplifier

Current-to-Voltage Converter

Instrumentation Amplifier

Integrator and Differentiator

HCMUT / 2015

Introduction

The integrated circuit operational amplifier evolved soon after development of the

first bipolar integrated circuit.

The A-709 was introduced by Fairchild Semiconductor in 1965 and was one of the

first widely used general-purpose op-amps. The now classic A-741, also by

Fairchild, was introduced in the late 1960s.

In the ideal op-amp:

The open-loop gain

approaches infinity

Circuit symbol of Op-Amp

Aod

signal is zero.

Input resistance Ri is infinite.

Output resistance Ro is zero.

HCMUT / 2015

Inverting Amplifier

One of the most widely used op-amp circuits is the inverting amplifier

=

Inverting op-amp circuit

2

=

= 1

to design the circuit such that the voltage gain is

Av = 5. Assume the op-amp is driven by an ideal

sinusoidal source, = 0.1sin (), that can

supply a maximum current of 5.

4

HCMUT / 2015

We have:

We obtain:

Then:

1 =

1

=

1

1

1 =

1

2 =

2

= 1

= 2 =

2

1

=

=

1 1 + 1 1 + 2

the closed-loop gain for: Aod = 102, 103, 104, 105, and 106. Calculate the percent deviation

from the ideal gain.

5

HCMUT / 2015

Summing Amplifier

summing amplifier, we obtain:

=

1 +

2 +

1

2

3 3

If 1 = 2 = 3, then:

+ 2 + 3

1 1

HCMUT / 2015

Non-Inverting Amplifier

We have:

2 =

2

0

1 =

1

Because 1 = 2, then:

2

=

= 1+

In voltage follower circuit: 2 = 0

= 1

= 0

Example 3: Derive the closed-loop gain of noninverting amplifier which has a finite differential

gain of Aod.

7

HCMUT / 2015

Current-to-Voltage Converter

In some situations, the output of a device or

circuit is a current. An example is the output of a

photodiode or photo-detector. We may need to

convert this output current to an output voltage.

= 2 =

Current-to-voltage converter

Voltage-to-current converter:

2 = 1 =

or resistance R2.

Simple voltage-to-current converter

potential.

8

HCMUT / 2015

Voltage-to-Current Converter

At the inverting terminal:

=

1

At the non-inverting terminal:

= +

3

2

= +

1

3

2

Voltage-to-current converter

Then:

1

=

1 3

2

1 3

1

If

:

=

1 3 2

=

1 3

2

9

HCMUT / 2015

Voltage-to-Current Converter

Example 4: Let = 100 , 1 = 10, 2 = 1, 3 = 1, and = 10.

If = 5, determine the load current iL and the output voltage vO.

10

HCMUT / 2015

Difference Amplifier

An ideal difference amplifier amplifies only the

difference between two signals. It rejects any

common signals to the two input terminals.

For example, a microphone system amplifies an

audio signal applied to one terminal of a

difference amplifier, and rejects any 60 Hz noise

signal or hum existing on both terminals

Op-amp difference amplifier

If

2 4

:

=

1 3

If

2 4

:

1 3

2

= 1 +

1

=

4

2

3

1

4 2

1

1+

3

2

1

1 2

1

= 2 + 1

2

11

HCMUT / 2015

Difference Amplifier

Example 5: Consider the difference amplifier. Let 2/1 = 10 and 4/3 = 11.

Determine CMRR(dB).

12

HCMUT / 2015

Instrumentation Amplifier

Obtain a high input impedance and a high

gain in a difference amplifier with

reasonable resistor values: DIFFICULT.

Problem: GAIN is not easily to change.

Instrumentation amplifier

change the gain by changing only a single

resistance value.

13

HCMUT / 2015

Instrumentation Amplifier

The current in resistor R1 and R2 is

1 =

1 2

1

2

2

= 1 + 1 2 = 1 +

1 1 1 2

2

2

= 2 1 2 = 1 +

1 2 1 1

4

4

2

=

1 =

1+2

3 2

3

1

2 1

14

HCMUT / 2015

Instrumentation Amplifier

Example 6: Consider the instrumentation amplifier circuit. Assume that 4 = 23

so that the difference amplifier gain is 2. Determine the range required for resistor

R1 to realize a differential gain adjustable from 5 to 500.

15

HCMUT / 2015

Op-amp integrator

Op-amp integrator:

=

1 2

Op-amp differentiator:

= 2 1

Op-amp differentiator

Reading: Microelectronics, Circuit Analysis and Design, D.A. Neamen, 4th edition, p621-670

16

HCMUT / 2015

Q&A

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