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Chapter 1

Introduction
1: The _______ is the physical path over
which a message travels.
a. Protocol
b. Medium
c. Signal
d. All the above
The correct answer is b
2: The information to be communicated in
a data communications system is the
_______.
a. Medium
b. Protocol
c. Message
d. Transmission
The correct answer is c

c. Bus
d. Ring
The correct answer is c
7: Communication between a computer
and a keyboard involves
______________ transmission.
a. simplex
b. half-duplex
c. full-duplex
d. automatic
The correct answer is a
8: A television broadcast is an example of
_______ transmission.
a. simplex
b. half-duplex
c. full-duplex
d. automatic
The correct answer is a

3: Frequency of failure and network


recovery time after a failure are measures
of the _______ of a network.
a. Performance
b. Reliability
c. Security
d. Feasibility
The correct answer is b

9: A _______ connection provides a


dedicated link between two devices.
a. point-to-point
b. multipoint
c. primary
d. secondary
The correct answer is a

4: An unauthorized user is a network


_______ issue.
a. Performance
b. Reliability
c. Security
d. All the above
The correct answer is c

10: In a _______ connection, more than


two devices can share a single link.
a. point-to-point
b. multipoint
c. primary
d. secondary
The correct answer is b

5: Which topology requires a central


controller or hub?
a. Mesh
b. Star
c. Bus
d. Ring
The correct answer is b

11: In _______ transmission, the channel


capacity is shared by both communicating
devices at all times.
a. simplex
b. half-duplex
c. full-duplex
d. half-simplex
The correct answer is c

6: Which topology requires a multipoint


connection?
a. Mesh
b. Star

12: In the original ARPANET, _______


were directly connected together.
a. IMPs

b. host computers
c. networks
d. routers
The correct answer is a
13: This was the first network.
a. CSNET
b. NSFNET
c. ANSNET
d. ARPANET
The correct answer is d
14: Which organization has authority over
interstate and international commerce in
the communications field?
a. ITU-T
b. IEEE
c. FCC
d. ISOC
The correct answer is c
15: _______ are special-interest groups
that quickly test, evaluate, and
standardize new technologies.
a. Forums
b. Regulatory agencies
c. Standards organizations
d. All of the above
The correct answer is a
16: Which agency developed standards
for physical connection interfaces and
electronic signaling specifications?
a. EIA
b. ITU-T
c. ANSI
d. ISO
The correct answer is a
17: _______ is the protocol suite for the
current Internet.
a. TCP/IP
b. NCP
c. UNIX
d. ACM
The correct answer is a
18: _______ refers to the structure or
format of the data, meaning the order in

which they are presented.


a. Semantics
b. Syntax
c. Timing
d. All of the above
The correct answer is b
19: ________ defines how a particular
pattern to be interpreted, and what action
is to be taken based on that interpretation.
a. Semantics
b. Syntax
c. Timing
d. None of the above
The correct answer is a
20: _______ refers to two characteristics:
when data should be sent and how fast it
can be sent.
a. Semantics
b. Syntax
c. Timing
d. none of the above
The correct answer is c
21: Data flow between two devices can
occur in a _______ way.
a. simplex
b. half-duplex
c. full-duplex
d. all of the above
The correct answer is d
22: In a ______ connection, two and only
two devices are connected by a dedicated
link.
a. multipoint
b. point-to-point
c. (a) and (b)
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
23: In a ________ connection, three or
more devices share a link.
a. multipoint
b. point-to-point
c. (a) and (b)
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a

24: ______ refers to the physical or logical


arrangement of a network.
a. Data flow
b. Mode of operation
c. Topology
d. None of the above
The correct answer is c
25: Devices may be arranged in a _____
topology.
a. mesh
b. ring
c. bus
d. all of the above
The correct answer is d
26: A _______ is a data communication
system within a building, plant, or campus,
or between nearby buildings.
a. MAN
b. LAN
c. WAN
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
27: A ______ is a data communication
system spanning states, countries, or the
whole world.
a. MAN
b. LAN
c. WAN
d. none of the above
The correct answer is c
28: ________ is a collection of many
separate networks.
a. A WAN
b. An internet
c. a LAN
d. None of the above
The correct answer is b
29: There are ______________ Internet
service providers.
a. local
b. regional
c. national and international

d. all of the above


The correct answer is d
30: A ________ is a set of rules that
governs data communication.
a. forum
b. protocol
c. standard
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
31: ________ is an idea or concept that is
a precursor to an Internet standard.
a. RCF
b. RFC
c. ID
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
Chapter 2
Network Models
1: The Internet model consists of _______
layers.
a. Three
b. Five
c. Seven
d. Eight
The correct answer is b
2: The process-to-process delivery of the
entire message is the responsibility of the
_______ layer.
a. Network
b. Transport
c. Application
d. Physical
The correct answer is b
3: The _______ layer is the layer closest
to the transmission medium.
a. Physical
b. Data link
c. Network
d. Transport
The correct answer is a
4: Mail services are available to network
users through the _______ layer.

a. Data link
b. Physical
c. Transport
d. Application
The correct answer is d
5: As the data packet moves from the
upper to the lower layers, headers are
_______.
a. Added
b. Removed
c. Rearranged
d. Modified
The correct answer is a
6: The _______ layer lies between the
network layer and the application layer.
a. Physical
b. Data link
c. Transport
d. None of the above
The correct answer is c
7: Layer 2 lies between the physical layer
and the _______ layer.
a. Network
b. Data link
c. Transport
d. None of the above
The correct answer is a
8: When data are transmitted from device
A to device B, the header from A's layer 4
is read by B's _______ layer.
a. Physical
b. Transport
c. Application
d. None of the above
The correct answer is b
9: The _______ layer changes bits into
electromagnetic signals.
a. Physical
b. Data link
c. Transport
d. None of the above
The correct answer is a
10: Which of the following is an

application layer service?


a. Remote log-in
b. File transfer and access
c. Mail service
d. All the above
The correct answer is d
11: Why was the OSI model developed?
a. Manufacturers disliked the TCP/IP
protocol suite.
b. The rate of data transfer was
increasing exponentially
c. Standards were needed to allow any
two systems to communicate
d. None of the above
The correct answer is c
12: The _______ model shows how the
network functions of a computer ought to
be organized.
a. CCITT
b. OSI
c. ISO
d. ANSI
The correct answer is b
13: The physical layer is concerned with
the movement of _______ over the
physical medium.
a. programs
b. dialogs
c. protocols
d. bits
The correct answer is d
14: The OSI model consists of _______
layers.
a. three
b. five
c. seven
d. eight
The correct answer is c
15: In the OSI model, as a data packet
moves from the lower to the upper layers,
headers are _______.
a. added
b. removed
c. rearranged

d. modified
The correct answer is b
16: In the OSI model, when data is
transmitted from device A to device B, the
header from A's layer 5 is read by B's
_______ layer.
a. physical
b. transport
c. session
d. presentation
The correct answer is c
17: In the OSI model, what is the main
function of the transport layer?
a. node-to-node delivery
b. process-to-process message
delivery
c. synchronization
d. updating and maintenance of routing
tables
The correct answer is b
18: In the OSI model, encryption and
decryption are functions of the ________
layer.
a. transport
b. session
c. presentation
d. application
The correct answer is c
19: When a host on network A sends a
message to a host on network B, which
address does the router look at?
a. port
b. logical
c. physical
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
20: To deliver a message to the correct
application program running on a host, the
_______ address must be consulted.
a. port
b. IP
c. physical
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a

21: IPv6 has _______ -bit addresses.


a. 32
b. 64
c. 128
d. variable
The correct answer is c
Your answer is c
22: ICMPv6 includes _______.
a. IGMP
b. ARP
c. RARP
d. a and b
The correct answer is d
23: The ______ layer is responsible for
moving frames from one hop (node) to the
next.
a. physical
b. data link
c. transport
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
24: The ______ layer adds a header to
the packet coming from the upper layer
that includes the logical addresses of the
sender and receiver.
a. physical
b. data link
c. network
d. none of the above
The correct answer is c
25: The_________ layer is responsible for
the delivery of a message from one
process to another.
a. physical
b. transport
c. network
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
26: The Internetworking Protocol (IP) is a
________ protocol.
a. reliable
b. connection-oriented
c. both a and b
d. none of the above

The correct answer is d


27: _______ is a process-to-process
protocol that adds only port addresses,
checksum error control, and length
information to the data from the upper
layer.
a. TCP
b. UDP
c. IP
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
28: __________ provides full transport
layer services to applications.
a. TCP
b. UDP
c. ARP
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a
29: The ________ address, also known
as the link address, is the address of a
node as defined by its LAN or WAN.
a. port
b. physical
c. logical
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
30: Ethernet uses a ______ physical
address that is imprinted on the network
interface card (NIC).
a. 32-bit
b. 64-bit
c. 6-byte
d. none of the above
The correct answer is c
31: A port address in TCP/IP is ______
bits long.
a. 32
b. 48
c. 16
d. none of the above
The correct answer is c
32: The ____ created a model called the
Open Systems Interconnection, which

allows diverse systems to communicate.


a. OSI
b. ISO
c. IEEE
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
33: The seven-layer _____ model
provides guidelines for the development of
universally compatible networking
protocols.
a. OSI
b. ISO
c. IEEE
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a
34: The physical, data link, and network
layers are the ______ support layers.
a. user
b. network
c. both (a) and (b)
d. neither (a) nor (b)
The correct answer is b
35: The session, presentation, and
application layers are the ____ support
layers.
a. user
b. network
c. both (a) and (b)
d. neither (a) nor (b)
The correct answer is a
36: The _______ layer links the network
support layers and the user support
layers.
a. transport
b. network
c. data link
d. session
The correct answer is a
37: The _______ layer coordinates the
functions required to transmit a bit stream
over a physical medium.
a. transport
b. network
c. data link

d. physical
The correct answer is d
38: The _______ layer is responsible for
delivering data units from one station to
the next without errors.
a. transport
b. network
c. data link
d. physical
The correct answer is c
39: The ______ layer is responsible for
the source-to-destination delivery of a
packet across multiple network links.
a. transport
b. network
c. data link
d. physical
The correct answer is b
40: The ________ layer is responsible for
the process-to-process delivery of the
entire message.
a. transport
b. network
c. data link
d. physical
The correct answer is a
41: The ______ layer establishes,
maintains, and synchronizes the
interactions between communicating
devices.
a. transport
b. network
c. session
d. physical
The correct answer is c
42: The _______ layer ensures
interoperability between communicating
devices through transformation of data
into a mutually agreed upon format.
a. transport
b. network
c. data link
d. presentation
The correct answer is d

43: The _________ layer enables the


users to access the network.
a. transport
b. application
c. data link
d. physical
The correct answer is b
44: TCP/IP is a ______ hierarchical
protocol suite developed ____ the OSI
model.
a. seven-layer; before
b. five-layer; before
c. six-layer; before
d. five-layer; after
The correct answer is b
45: The TCP/IP _______ layer is
equivalent to the combined session,
presentation, and application layers of the
OSI model.
a. application
b. network
c. data link
d. physical
The correct answer is a
46: The ________ address, also known
as the link address, is the address of a
node as defined by its LAN or WAN.
a. physical
b. IP
c. port
d. specific
The correct answer is a
47: The ____ address uniquely defines a
host on the Internet.
a. physical
b. IP
c. port
d. specific
The correct answer is b
48: The_____ address identifies a
process on a host.
a. physical
b. IP
c. port

d. specific
The correct answer is c
Chapter 3
Data and Signals

a. 4 MHz
b. 1 KHz
c. 3 MHz
d. none of the above
The correct answer is c

1: Before data can be transmitted, they


must be transformed to ________.
a. periodic signals
b. electromagnetic signals
c. aperiodic signals
d. low-frequency sine waves
The correct answer is b

7: As frequency increases, the period


________.
a. decreases
b. increases
c. remains the same
d. doubles
The correct answer is a

2: A periodic signal completes one cycle


in 0.001 s. What is the frequency?
a. 1 Hz
b. 100 Hz
c. 1 KHz
d. 1 MHz
The correct answer is c

8: Given two sine waves <i>A</i> and


<i>B</i>, if the frequency of <i>A</i> is
twice that of <i>B</i>, then the period of
<i>B</i> is ________ that of <i>A</i>.
a. one-half
b. twice
c. the same as
d. indeterminate from
The correct answer is b

3: In a frequency-domain plot, the


horizontal axis measures the ________.
a. peak amplitude
b. frequency
c. phase
d. slope
The correct answer is b
4: In a time-domain plot, the horizontal
axis is a measure of ________.
a. signal amplitude
b. frequency
c. phase
d. time
The correct answer is d
5: If the bandwidth of a signal is 5 KHz
and the lowest frequency is 52 KHz, what
is the highest frequency?
a. 5 KHz
b. 10 KHz
c. 47 KHz
d. 57 KHz
The correct answer is d
6: What is the bandwidth of a signal that
ranges from 1 MHz to 4 MHz?

9: A sine wave is ________.


a. periodic and continuous
b. aperiodic and continuous
c. periodic and discrete
d. aperiodic and discrete
The correct answer is a
10: If the maximum amplitude of a sine
wave is 2 V, the minimum amplitude is
________ V.
a. 2
b. 1
c. -2
d. between -2 and 2
The correct answer is c
11: A signal is measured at two different
points. The power is
<i>P</i><sub>1</sub> at the first point
and <i>P</i><sub>2</sub> at the second
point. The dB is 0. This means ________.
a. <i>P</i><sub>2</sub> is zero
b. <i>P</i><sub>2</sub> equals
<i>P</i><sub>1</sub>
c. <i>P</i><sub>2</sub> is much

larger than <i>P</i><sub>1</sub>


d. <i>P</i><sub>2</sub> is much
smaller than <i>P</i><sub>1</sub>
The correct answer is b
12: ________ is a type of transmission
impairment in which the signal loses
strength due to the resistance of the
transmission medium.
a. Attenuation
b. Distortion
c. Noise
d. Decibel
The correct answer is a
13: ________ is a type of transmission
impairment in which the signal loses
strength due to the different propagation
speeds of each frequency that makes up
the signal.
a. Attenuation
b. Distortion
c. Noise
d. Decibel
The correct answer is b
14: ________ is a type of transmission
impairment in which an outside source
such as crosstalk corrupts a signal.
a. Attenuation
b. Distortion
c. Noise
d. Decibel
The correct answer is c
15: When propagation speed is multiplied
by propagation time, we get the
________.
a. throughput
b. wavelength of the signal
c. distortion factor
d. distance a signal or bit has traveled
The correct answer is d
16: Data can be ________.
a. analog
b. digital
c. (a) or (b)
d. none of the above

The correct answer is c


17: _______ data are continuous and take
continuous values.
a. analog
b. digital
c. (a) or (b)
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a
18: _______ data have discrete states
and take discrete values.
a. Analog
b. Digital
c. (a) or (b)
d. None of the above
The correct answer is b
19: Signals can be ________.
a. analog
b. digital
c. either (a) or (b)
d. neither (a) nor (b)
The correct answer is c
20: _____ signals can have an infinite
number of values in a range.
a. Analog
b. Digital
c. (a) or (b)
d. None of the above
The correct answer is a
21: _______ signals can have only a
limited number of values.
a. Analog
b. Digital
c. (a) or (b)
d. None of the above
The correct answer is b
22: Frequency and period are ______.
a. inverse of each other
b. proportional to each other
c. the same
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a
23: ________is the rate of change with

respect to time.
a. Amplitude
b. Time
c. Frequency
d. Voltage
The correct answer is c
24: _______ describes the position of the
waveform relative to time 0.
a. Frequency
b. Phase
c. Amplitude
d. Voltage
The correct answer is b
25: A sine wave in the ______ domain
can be represented by one single spike in
the _____ domain.
a. time; frequency
b. frequency; time
c. time; phase
d. phase; time
The correct answer is a
26: A _________ sine wave is not useful
in data communications; we need to send
a _______ signal.
a. composite; single-frequency
b. single-frequency; composite
c. single-frequency; double-frequency
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
27: The _____ of a composite signal is the
difference between the highest and the
lowest frequencies contained in that
signal.
a. frequency
b. period
c. bandwidth
d. amplitude
The correct answer is c
28: A(n)_________ signal is a composite
analog signal with an infinite bandwidth.
a. digital
b. analog
c. either (a) or (b)
d. neither (a) nor (b)

The correct answer is a


29: Baseband transmission of a digital
signal is possible only if we have a ____
channel.
a. low-pass
b. bandpass
c. low rate
d. high rate
The correct answer is a
30: If the available channel is a ____
channel, we cannot send a digital signal
directly to the channel.
a. low-pass
b. bandpass
c. low rate
d. high rate
The correct answer is b
31: For a ______ channel, the Nyquist bit
rate formula defines the theoretical
maximum bit rate.
a. noisy
b. noiseless
c. bandpass
d. low-pass
The correct answer is b
32: For a ______ channel, we need to use
the Shannon capacity to find the
maximum bit rate.
a. noisy
b. noiseless
c. bandpass
d. low-pass
The correct answer is a
33: _________ can impair a signal.
a. Attenuation
b. Distortion
c. Noise
d. All of the above
The correct answer is d
34: The _________ product defines the
number of bits that can fill the link.
a. bandwidth-period
b. frequency-amplitude

c. bandwidth-delay
d. delay-amplitude
The correct answer is c

Chapter 4
Digital Transmission
1: Unipolar, bipolar, and polar
encoding are types of _______
encoding.
a. line
b. block
c. NRZ
d. Manchester
The correct answer is a
2: _______ encoding has a transition
at the middle of each bit.
a. RZ
b. Manchester
c. Differential Manchester
d. All the above
The correct answer is d
3: _______ encoding has a transition
at the beginning of each 0 bit.
a. RZ
b. Manchester
c. Differential Manchester
d. All the above
The correct answer is c
4: PCM is an example of _______
conversion.
a. digital-to-digital
b. digital-to-analog
c. analog-to-analog
d. analog-to-digital
The correct answer is d
5: If the frequency spectrum of a
signal has a bandwidth of 500 Hz with
the highest frequency at 600 Hz, what
should be the sampling rate,
according to the Nyquist theorem?

a. 200 samples/s
b. 500 samples/s
c. 1000 samples/s
d. 1200 samples/s
The correct answer is d
6: The Nyquist theorem specifies the
minimum sampling rate to
be_______.
a. equal to the lowest frequency of
a signal
b. equal to the highest frequency
of a signal
c. twice the bandwidth of a signal
d. twice the highest frequency of a
signal
The correct answer is d
7: Which of the following encoding
methods does not provide for
synchronization?
a. NRZ-L
b. RZ
c. NRZ-I
d. Manchester
The correct answer is a
8: Which encoding method uses
alternating positive and negative
values for 1s?
a. NRZ-I
b. RZ
c. Manchester
d. AMI
The correct answer is d
9: Which quantization level results in
a more faithful reproduction of the
signal?
a. 2
b. 8
c. 16
d. 32
The correct answer is d

10: Block coding can help in _______


at the receiver.
a. Synchronization
b. Error detection
c. Attenuation
d. (a) and (b)
The correct answer is d

three techniques: line coding, block


coding, and scrambling.
a. Analog-to-digital
b. Digital-to-analog
c. Analog-to-analog
d. Digital-to-digital
The correct answer is d

11: In _______ transmission, bits are


transmitted simultaneously, each
across its own wire.
a. Asynchronous serial
b. Synchronous serial
c. Parallel
d. (a) and (b)
The correct answer is c

16: ________ is the process of


converting digital data to a digital
signal.
a. Block coding
b. Line coding
c. Scrambling
d. None of the above
The correct answer is b

12: In _______ transmission, bits are


transmitted over a single wire, one at
a time.
a. asynchronous serial
b. synchronous serial
c. parallel
d. (a) and (b)
The correct answer is d

17: _______ provides redundancy to


ensure synchronization and inherent
error detection.
a. Block coding
b. Line coding
c. Scrambling
d. None of the above
The correct answer is a

13: In _______ transmission, a start


bit and a stop bit frame a character
byte.
a. asynchronous serial
b. synchronous serial
c. parallel
d. (a) and (b)
The correct answer is a

18: ________ is normally referred to


as <i>mB/nB</i> coding; it replaces
each <i>m</i>-bit group with an
<i>n</i>-bit group.
a. Block coding
b. Line coding
c. Scrambling
d. None of the above
The correct answer is a

14: In asynchronous transmission, the


gap time between bytes is _______.
a. fixed
b. variable
c. a function of the data rate
d. zero
The correct answer is b
15: ___________ conversion involves

19: ________ provides


synchronization without increasing the
number of bits.
a. Scrambling
b. Line coding
c. Block coding
d. None of the above
The correct answer is a

Your answer is c

The correct answer is b

20: Two common scrambling


techniques are ________.
a. NRZ and RZ
b. AMI and NRZ
c. B8ZS and HDB3
d. Manchester and differential
Manchester
The correct answer is c

25: While there is (are) only _____


way(s) to send parallel data, there is
(are) three subclass(es) of serial
transmission.
a. one; two
b. two; three
c. one; three
d. none of the above
The correct answer is c

21: The most common technique to


change an analog signal to digital
data is called __________.
a. PAL
b. PCM
c. sampling
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
22: The first step in PCM is
________.
a. quantization
b. modulation
c. sampling
d. none of the above
The correct answer is c
23: There are three sampling
methods: __________.
a. quantized, sampled, and ideal
b. ideal, sampled, and flat-top
c. ideal, natural, and flat-top
d. none of the above
The correct answer is c
T
24: ______ finds the value of the
signal amplitude for each sample;
____ finds the change from the
previous sample.
a. DM; PCM
b. PCM; DM
c. DM; CM
d. none of the above

26: In ______ transmission, we send


1 start bit (0) at the beginning and 1
or more stop bits (1s) at the end of
each byte.
a. synchronous
b. asynchronous
c. isochronous
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
27: In _________ transmission, we
send bits one after another without
start or stop bits or gaps. It is the
responsibility of the receiver to group
the bits.
a. synchronous
b. asynchronous
c. isochronous
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a
28: The ________ mode provides
synchronization for the entire stream
of bits must. In other words, it
guarantees that the data arrive at a
fixed rate.
a. synchronous
b. asynchronous
c. isochronous
d. none of the above
The correct answer is c

29: A _________ digital signal


includes timing information in the data
being transmitted.
a. self-synchronizing
b. self-modulated
c. self-transmitted
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a

34: In a _____ scheme, all the signal


levels are on one side of the time
axis, either above or below.
a. polar
b. bipolar
c. unipolar
d. all of the above
The correct answer is c

30: In decoding a digital signal, the


receiver calculates a running average
of the received signal power, called
the _______.
a. baseline
b. base
c. line
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a

35: In ______ schemes, the voltages


are on the both sides of the time axis.
For example, the voltage level for 0
can be positive and the voltage level
for 1 can be negative.
a. polar
b. bipolar
c. unipolar
d. all of the above
The correct answer is a

31: The ________ rate defines the


number of data elements sent in 1s;
the ______ rate is the number of
signal elements sent in 1s.
a. data; signal
b. signal; data
c. baud; bit
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a

36: In _____, the level of the voltage


determines the value of the bit.
a. NRZ-I
b. NRZ-L
c. both (a) and (b)
d. neither (a) nor (b)
The correct answer is b

32: The signal rate is sometimes


called the ____ rate.
a. baud
b. bit
c. signal
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a

37: In ______, the change or lack of


change in the level of the voltage
determines the value of the bit.
a. NRZ-I
b. NRZ-L
c. both (a) and (b)
d. neither (a) nor (b)
The correct answer is a

33: The data rate is sometimes called


the ___ rate.
a. baud
b. bit
c. signal
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b

38: The idea of RZ and the idea of


NRZ-L are combined into the
________ scheme.
a. Manchester
b. differential Manchester
c. both (a) and (b)
d. neither (a) nor (b)

The correct answer is a


Your answer is a

d. none of the above


The correct answer is c

39: The idea of RZ and the idea of


NRZ-I are combined into the
________ scheme.
a. Manchester
b. differential Manchester
c. both (a) and (b)
d. neither (a) nor (b)
The correct answer is b

43: The minimum bandwidth of


Manchester and differential
Manchester is ____ that of NRZ.
a. the same as
b. twice
c. thrice
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b

40: In _______ encoding, the duration


of the bit is divided into two halves.
The voltage remains at one level
during the first half and moves to the
other level in the second half. The
transition at the middle of the bit
provides synchronization.
a. Manchester
b. differential Manchester
c. both (a) and (b)
d. neither (a) nor (b)
The correct answer is c

44: In _______encoding, we use


three levels: positive, zero, and
negative.
a. unipolar
b. bipolar
c. polar
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b

41: In ___________ there is always a


transition at the middle of the bit, but
the bit values are determined at the
beginning of the bit. If the next bit is 0,
there is a transition; if the next bit is 1,
there is none.
a. Manchester
b. differential Manchester
c. both (a) and (b)
d. neither (a) nor (b)
The correct answer is b
42: In Manchester and differential
Manchester encoding, the transition
at the middle of the bit is used for
__________.
a. bit transfer
b. baud transfer
c. synchronization

45: The _____ scheme uses data


patterns of size 2 and encodes the 2bit patterns as one signal element
belonging to a four-level signal.
a. 4B5B
b. 2B1Q
c. MLT-3
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
46: The ______ scheme uses three
levels (+V, 0, and -V) and three
transition rules to move between the
levels.
a. 4B5B
b. 2B1Q
c. MLT-3
d. none of the above
The correct answer is c
47: ______ substitutes eight
consecutive zeros with 000VB0VB.
a. B4B8

b. HDB3
c. B8ZS
d. none of the above
The correct answer is c
48: ______ substitutes four
consecutive zeros with 000V or B00V
a. B4B8
b. HDB3
c. B8ZSf
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
Chapter 5
Analog Transmission
1: ASK, PSK, FSK, and QAM are
examples of ________ conversion.
a. digital-to-digital
b. digital-to-analog
c. analog-to-analog
d. analog-to-digital
The correct answer is b
2: AM and FM are examples of
________ conversion.
a. digital-to-digital
b. digital-to-analog
c. analog-to-analog
d. analog-to-digital
The correct answer is c
3: In QAM, both ________ of a carrier
frequency are varied.
a. frequency and amplitude
b. phase and frequency
c. amplitude and phase
d. none of the above
The correct answer is c
4: If the baud rate is 400 for a QPSK
signal, the bit rate is ________ bps.
a. 100
b. 400

c. 800
d. 1600
The correct answer is c
5: If the bit rate for an ASK signal is
1200 bps, the baud rate is ________.
a. 300
b. 400
c. 600
d. 1200
The correct answer is d
6: If the bit rate for an FSK signal is
1200 bps, the baud rate is ________.
a. 300
b. 400
c. 600
d. 1200
The correct answer is d
7: If the bit rate for a 16-QAM signal is
4000 bps, what is the baud rate?
a. 300
b. 400
c. 1000
d. 1200
The correct answer is c
8: If the baud rate for a 64-QAM
signal is 2000, what is the bit rate?
a. 300
b. 400
c. 1000
d. 12000
The correct answer is d
9: Given an AM radio signal with a
bandwidth of 10 KHz and the highestfrequency component at 705 KHz,
what is the frequency of the carrier
signal?
a. 700 KHz
b. 705 KHz
c. 710 KHz

d. Cannot be determined from


given information
The correct answer is a
10: _______ conversion is the
process of changing one of the
characteristics of an analog signal
based on the information in the digital
data.
a. Digital-to-analog
b. Analog-to-analog
c. Analog-to-digital
d. Digital-to-digital
The correct answer is a
11: Which of the following is not a
digital-to-analog conversion?
a. ASK
b. PSK
c. FSK
d. AM
The correct answer is d
12: In ________, the amplitude of the
carrier signal is varied to create signal
elements. Both frequency and phase
remain constant.
a. ASK
b. PSK
c. FSK
d. QAM
The correct answer is a
13: In _________, the frequency of
the carrier signal is varied to
represent data. Both peak amplitude
and phase remain constant.
a. ASK
b. PSK
c. FSK
d. QAM
The correct answer is c
14: In ________, the phase of the

carrier is varied to represent two or


more different signal elements. Both
peak amplitude and frequency remain
constant.
a. ASK
b. PSK
c. FSK
d. QAM
The correct answer is b
15: A constellation diagram shows us
the __________ of a signal element,
particularly when we are using two
carriers (one in-phase and one
quadrature).
a. amplitude and phase
b. amplitude and frequency
c. frequency and phase
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a
16: Quadrature amplitude modulation
(QAM) is a combination of
___________.
a. ASK and FSK
b. ASK and PSK
c. PSK and FSK
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
17: ________ uses two carriers, one
in-phase and the other quadrature.
a. ASK
b. PSK
c. FSK
d. QAM
The correct answer is d
18: _________ conversion is the
representation of analog information
by an analog signal.
a. Digital-to-analog
b. Analog-to-analog
c. Analog-to-digital

d. Digital-to-digital
The correct answer is b
19: Analog-to-analog conversion is
needed if the available bandwidth is
_______.
a. low-pass
b. band-pass
c. either (a) or (b)
d. neither (a) nor (b)
The correct answer is b
20: Which of the following is not an
analog-to-analog conversion?
a. AM
b. PM
c. FM
d. QAM
The correct answer is d
21: In _____ transmission, the carrier
signal is modulated so that its
amplitude varies with the changing
amplitudes of the modulating signal.
a. AM
b. PM
c. FM
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a
22: In _____ transmission, the
frequency of the carrier signal is
modulated to follow the changing
voltage level (amplitude) of the
modulating signal. The peak
amplitude and phase of the carrier
signal remain constant, but as the
amplitude of the information signal
changes, the frequency of the carrier
changes correspondingly.
a. AM
b. PM
c. FM
d. none of the above

The correct answer is c


23: In _____ transmission, the phase
of the carrier signal is modulated to
follow the changing voltage level
(amplitude) of the modulating signal.
a. AM
b. PM
c. FM
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
24: In _______, the peak amplitude of
one signal level is 0; the other is the
same as the amplitude of the carrier
frequency.
a. PSK
b. OOK
c. FSK
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
25: How many carrier frequencies are
used in BASK?
a. 2
b. 1
c. 0
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
26: How many carrier frequencies are
used in BFSK?
a. 2
b. 1
c. 0
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a
27: How many carrier frequencies are
used in BPSK?
a. 2
b. 1
c. 0
d. none of the above

The correct answer is b


28: How many carrier frequencies are
used in QPSK?
a. 2
b. 1
c. 0
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a
29: The constellation diagram of
BASK has ______ dots.
a. 2
b. 1
c. 0
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a

for each AM station.


a. 5
b. 10
c. 20
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
34: The Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) allows ______
kHz for each FM station.
a. 20
b. 100
c. 200
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b

30: The constellation diagram of


BPSK has ______ dots.
a. 2
b. 1
c. 0
d. none of the above
The correct answer is a
31: The constellation diagram of
QPSK has ______ dots.
a. 2
b. 1
c. 4
d. none of the above
The correct answer is c
32: The constellation diagram of 16QAM has ______ dots.
a. 4
b. 16
c. 8
d. none of the above
The correct answer is b
33: The Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) allows ______kHz

10