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CENTRE FOR DIPLOMA STUDIES

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


GEOMATICS LABORATORY
Subject Code
Practical Name
Course Code
Practical Date
Group
Group Leader
Group Member

Levelling
DAC20503
07.10.2015
2

Lecturer name
Marks

Comments

Introduction
Objective
Theory
Instrument
Procedure
Data/ Table
Data Analysis
Discussion
Presentation/
Plotting
Conclusion/
Recommendation
Reference
Total mark
Accepted Seal

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CONTENTS

No.
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.
0

Content
Introduction
Objective
Theory
Instrument
Procedure
Data / Table
Data Analysis
Discussion
Conclusion / Recommendation
Reference

Page
1-3
4
4
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1.0

INTRODUCTON

Leveling may be the art of determining the relative heights or elevations of points are objects
on the earths surface. It deals with measurements in a vertical plane.
Definitions of terms used in Leveling:
1. A level surface:
It is any surface parallel to the mean spheroidal surface of the earth e.g. surface of a still lake.
Since the earth is a oblate spheroid, a level surface may be regarded as a curved surface,
every point on which is equidistant from the center of the earth. It is normal to the plumb line
at all points.
2. A level line:
It is line lying in a level surface. It is therefore, normal to the plumb line at all points.
3. A horizontal plane:
It is a plane tangential to the level surface at that point. It is perpendicular to direction of
gravity (plumb line).
4. A horizontal line:
It is any line lying in the horizontal plane. It is a straight line tangential to a level line.
5. A vertical line:
It is a line normal to the level surface through that point e. g. a plumb line.
6. A vertical plane:
It is a plane containing a vertical line.
7. A vertical angle:
Angle between two intersecting lines in a vertical plane, one of the two lines is commonly
taken as horizontal in surveying.
8. A datum surface or line:
It is any arbitrarily assumed level surface or line from which vertical distances are measured
in India the datum adopted for G.T.S. bench marks is the mean sea level at Karachi now in
Pakistan.

9. The elevation:
It is vertical distance of a point above or below the datum. It is also known as the reduced
level (R.L.) The elevation of a point is plus or minus according as the point is above or below
the datum.
10. The difference in elevation (H):
It is the vertical distance between the level surfaces passing through the two different points.
11. A bench mark (B.M.):
It is fixed reference point of known elevation.
12. The line of collimation:
It is the line joining the intersection of cross hairs of the optical center of the object glass. It is
also called the line of sight.
13. An axis of the telescope:
It is a line joining the optical center of the object glass to the center of the eye piece.
14. Foresight:
(Also called a foresight reading) It is a staff (or rod) reading on a point whose elevation is to
be determined or on a change point. It is also termed as minus sight. It is the last staff reading
denoting the shifting of the instrument.
15. An Intermediate sight (I. S.):
It is any other staff reading taken on appoint of unknown elevation from the same set up of
the level. All sights taken between the back sight and the fore sight and the foresight are
intermediate sights.
16. A change point (C. P):
It is appoint denoting the shifting of the level. It is a point on which is the fore and back
sights are taken. Any stable and well defined object such as a boundary stone, curb stone rail,
rock etc. is used as a change point. A bench mark may also be taken as a changer point. It is
also called a turning point (T. P).

17. A Station:
It is a point whose elevation is to be determined. It may be noted that it is a point where the
staff is held not the point where they leveled is set up.
18. The height of instrument (H. L):
It is the elevation (or the R.L.) of the plane of collimation (or plane of sight) when the
instrument is correctly leveled. It is also called the height of plane of the collimation.
To determine elevation of points two instruments are required, viz.
1. A level
2. A leveling staff or rod.
The level:
Level consists of essentially
1. Leveling head
2. The limb
3. Telescope
4. bubble tube
Types of level:
1. Dumpy level
2. y level

2.0

OBJECTIVE

1. To get the perfect reading on the instrument


2. Recalibrate levelling instrument and staff so, the reading levelling is suitable to the
height of the earth surface
3. Diffrentiate the damage instrument on value reading for send to the supplier
4. The first procedure to prevent the error in the process of leveling gone wrong.

3.0

THEORY
The purpose of the test is to know the accurancy of the leveling instrument. It also can

find the error and the damages on the instrument. Other than that, before doing the test, we
must make sure the calibration of the instrument is perfect. So, the real distance does not have
big difference than the distance that taken during the test.
Distance from the front view to the leveling instrument must not be too far to reduce the error
on collimation. Besides, this test will be succeed and granted if the real distance smaller than
the limit distance allowed. The minimum distance after the front view staff is 6m and the
maximum is 66m.
Front view staff is the last before tranfering the instrument from the CP to the next CP.
BM which is Benchmark is the fixed station on the earth surface.

4.0

INSTRUMENTS

There were several instruments that used for running Two Peg Test and
Levelling.
Two Peg Test :1. Level and Tripod
( 1 set )
A level is required to define the reading of vertical distances
on the staff.
2. Staff
( 2 set )
A levelling staff is needed to measure vertical distances.
3. Staff bubble ( 2 set )
Staff bubble is fitted to the staff to make sure the staff stable
to the ground.
4. Measuring Tape
A tape is used to measure distances between the level and
staff.

Levelling :1. Level and Tripod

( 1 set )

A level is required to define the reading of vertical distances


on the staff.

2. Staff
( 2 set )
A levelling staff is needed to measure vertical distances.
3. Staff bubble ( 2 set )
Staff bubble is fitted to the staff to make sure the staff stable
to the ground.
4. For measuring distances for levelling, not using tape but using
foot step.
5. Hammer
6. Nail / Thumbtack

Level and Tripod

Staff

Staff bubble

Measuring
tape

5.0

PROCEDURE

Two Peg Test procedure :1. Measure out 3 points (Point A, B and C) which is 30m apart, and
mark them on the ground. Point A as back sight and point C as
foresight.
2. Set up the level instrument at point B, the centre and put the
staff at point A and point C.
3. To set up the level, first set up the tripod. Ensure the top is level.
Push legs firmly into the ground. Then, attach level. Use the foot
screws to centralise the circular bubble. Test to see if the
compensator is working and the remove the parallax to see
clearly.
4. Make sure the stuff bubble is at centre of the circle to get the
right readings.

B
30

30

6m

5. Read the staff vertical distance at point A, record the data and
read again.
6. Rotate the level to point C, read the staff reading at point C,
record the data and read again.
7. Move the level instrument to 6m beyond point C on the line point
A,B and C.
8. Set up the level, read the staff at point A and record the data.
Then, read the staff at point C and also record the data.

9. Calculate height difference.

Levelling procedure.
Observing procedure :1. Levelling depends on area given. For group 2, the area involve are
K4, K5, K6, K7 and K8.

(Practical Area)
2. Start at TBM 1 area K4, put the staff at TBM 1. Using footsteps, 39
steps as 30m. From TBM 1, measure 39 steps and set up the level
instrument at the point. Measure another 39 steps and it will be the
change point, (Point A). Put another staff at Point A.
3. Read the first staff at TBM 1, it is a back sight reading and record
the data in the Levelling Observation form. Rotate the level to Point
A, it will be foresight reading. Read the staff at Point A and record
the data.
4. Next, move the level instrument 39 steps from Point A and measure
Point B. Put the staff from TBM 1 at Point B. The staff at point A will

stay. Set up the level, read the staff at point A and record the data
as back sight reading. Rotate the level towards Point B, read the
staff and record the data.
5. Move the level instrument with the same distance from Point B. Set
up the level and measure Point C. Put the staff from Point A to Point
C. Read the staff at Point B, record the data. Rotate the level to Point
C, read the staff and record the data.
6. Move again the level instrument with the same distance from Point
C. Set up the level and measure Point D. Point D is the TBM point.
Mark the Point D using the hammer and nails given. Put the staff
from point B to Point D. Read the staff at Point C, record the data.
Rotate the level to Point D, read the staff and record the data.
7. Move the level instrument with the same distance from Point D. Set
up the level and measure Point E. Put the staff from Point C to Point
D. Read the staff at Point D, record the data. Rotate the level to
Point E, read the staff and record the data.
8. Next, move the level instrument with the same distance from Point
E. Set up the level and measure Point F. Put the staff from Point D to
Point F. Read the staff at Point E, record the data. Rotate the level to
Point F, read the staff and record the data.
9. Move the level instrument with the same distance from Point E. Set
up the level and measure Point F. Put the staff from Point D to Point
F. Read the staff at Point E, record the data. Rotate the level to Point
F, read the staff and record the data.
10.
Next, move the level instrument with the same distance from
Point E. Set up the level and measure Point F. Put the staff from Point
D to Point F. Read the staff at Point E, record the data. Rotate the
level to Point F, read the staff and record the data.
11.
Move the level instrument with the same distance from Point F.
Set up the level and measure Point G. Put the staff from Point E to
Point G. Read the staff at Point F, record the data. Rotate the level to
Point G, read the staff and record the data.
12.
Lastly, move the level instrument with the same distance from
Point G. Set up the level and the other Point H is back to the TBM 1.
Put the staff from Point F to TBM 1. Read the staff at Point G, record

the data. Rotate the level towards Point H (TBM 1), read the staff
and record the data.

Booking procedures :1. The Rise and Fall Method


The terms that are commonly used in the Rise and Fall Method are:

BS = Back sight,
FS = Foresight,
IS = Intermediate Sight, and
RL = Reduced Level.

2. Height of Collimation
Height of Collimation (HOC) = Reduce Level (RL) + Back sight

(BS)
Height of Collimation (HOC) Foresight (FS) = Reduce Level
(RL)

Calculation procedures :1. Checks survey accuracy, and should be within tolerances given
below.
2. The following check the arithmetic of your level reductions and must
be exact:
BS - FS = Rise - Fall
(Back sight) (Foresight) = (RL) (last BM) RL (start BM)

3. Misclosure should be:


(20 D) mm, where D is the length of the traverse in

km.

7.0

DATA ANALYSIS

BS Back sight
FS Foresight
RL Reduced Level
h = BS FS
(+h) @ (-h)
Reduced Level B = Reduced Level A + h (Rise)
Reduced Level C = Reduced Level B - h (Fall)
Difference = Back sight - Front sight = Rise - Fall = Final RL Initial RL
Ht. Col = RL A + BS reading
CENTRE FOR DIPLOMA STUDIES
GEOMATIC LABORATORY
(LEVELLING)

Correction = Difference / Total Number of Foresight


Data: TBM 1 = 2.782 m
Distance = 480 m = 0.48 km
TBM 1
= 2.782 m (Initial RL)
BS = 1.221
Ht. Col = TBM 1 + BS reading, TBM 1
= 2.782 + 1.221
= 4.003
TBM 1 to A
BS, TBM 1= 1.221
FS, A= 1.248
BS FS = h
h, A = 1.221 1.248
= -0.027
= 0.027 (fall)
RL A = RL TBM 1 - h, A
= 2.782 0.027
= 2.755

6.0DATA / TABLE

Ht. Col A = RL A + BS reading, A


= 2.755 + 1.252
= 4.007

A to B
BS, A = 1.252
FS, B = 1.285
BS FS = h
h, B = 1.252 1.285
= -0.033
= 0.033 (fall)
RL B = RL A - h, B
= 2.755 0.033
= 2.722
Ht. Col B = RL B + BS reading, B
= 2.722 + 1.324
= 4.046
B to C
BS, B = 1.324
FS, C = 1.390
BS FS = h
h, C = 1.324 1.390
= -0.066
= 0.066 (fall)
RL C = RL B - h, C
= 2.722 0.066
= 2.656
Ht. Col C = RL C + BS reading, C
= 2.656 + 1.481
= 4.137
C to D, TBM K2
BS, C = 1.481
FS, D, TBM K2 = 1.345
BS FS = h
h, D TBM K2 = 1.481 1.345
= +0.136
= 0.136 (rise)

RL D, TBM K2 = RL C + h, D
= 2.656 + 0.136
= 2.792

Ht. Col D, TBM K2 = RL D, TBM K2 + BS reading, D, TBM K2


= 2.792 + 1.136
= 3.928
D, TBM K2 to E
BS, D TBM K2 = 1.136
FS, E = 1.220
BS FS = h
h, E = 1.136 1.220
= -0.084
= 0.084 (fall)
RL E = RL D, TBM K2 - h, E
= 2.792 0.084
= 2.708
Ht. Col E = RL E + BS reading, E
= 2.708 + 1.242
= 3.950
E to F
BS, E = 1.242
FS, F = 1.254
BS FS = h
h, F = 1.242 1.254
= -0.012
= 0.012 (fall)
RL F = RL E - h, F
= 2.708 0.012
= 2.696
Ht. Col F = RL F + BS reading, F
= 2.696 + 1.450
= 4.146

F to G
BS, F = 1.450
FS, G = 1.420
BS FS = h
h, G = 1.450 1.420
= +0.030
= 0.030 (rise)

RL G = RL F + h, G
= 2.696 + 0.030
= 2.726
Ht. Col G = RL G + BS reading, G
= 2.726 + 1.460
= 4.186
G to H, TBM 1
BS, G = 1.460
FS, H, TBM 1 = 1.411
BS FS = h
h, H, TBM 1 = 1.460 1.411
= +0.049
= 0.049 (rise)
RL H, TBM 1 = RL G + h H, TBM 1
= 2.726 + 0.049
= 2.775
Ht. Col H, TBM 1 = 2.775 (Final RL)

Back sight, BS
Front sight, FS

= 1.221 + 1.252 + 1.324 + 1.481 + 1.136 + 1.242 + 1.450 + 1.460


= 10.566
= 1.248 + 1.285 + 1.390 + 1.345 + 1.220 + 1.254 + 1.420 + 1.411
= 10.573

Difference

= Back sight, BS - Front sight, FS


= 10.566 - 10.573
= -0.007

Rise

= 0.136 + 0.030 + 0.049


= 0.215
= 0.027 + 0.033 + 0.066 + 0.084 + 0.012
= 0.222

Fall

Difference

= Rise - Fall
= 0.215 0.222
= -0.007

Final RL = 2.775
Initial RL = 2.782
Final RL Initial RL = 2.775 2.782
= -0.007
Difference = Back sight - Front sight = Rise - Fall = Final RL Initial RL
= -0.007
Correction = Difference / Number of Foresight
= 0.007 / 8
= 0.0009
Explanation:
First (FS) correction
= 1 value of correction
Second (FS) correction
= 2 value of correction
Third (FS) correction
= 3 value of correction
And so on.
Misclosure Limits

D mm
= 20 0.48
= 20

= 13.86 mm
The Difference value is less than the Misclosure Limit.
Difference < Misclosure Limit
So, the Levelling work is accepted.

GEOMATIC LABORATORY
(LEVELLING)
Back
sight

Intermediate
sight

Foresight

Rise (+VE)

Fall (-VE)

1.221
1.252

1.248

1.324

1.285

1.481

1.390

1.136

1.345

1.242

1.220

1.450

1.254

1.460

1.420
1.411

1.221-1.248
= 0.027
1.252-1.248
= 0.033
1.324-1.390
= 0.066
1.481-1.345
= 0.136
1.136-1.220
= 0.084
1.242-1.254
= 0.012
1.450-1.420
= 0.030
1.460-1.411
= 0.049

Ht. col
2.782+1.221
= 4.003
2.755+1.252
= 4.007
2.722+1.324
= 4.046
2.656+1.481
= 4.137
2.792+1.136
= 3.928
2.708+1.242
= 3.950
2.696+1.450
= 4.146
2.726+1.460
= 4.186

Reduced
Level

Correction

2.782

2.782-0.027
= 2.755
2.755-0.033
= 2.722
2.722-0.066
= 2.656
2.656+0.136
= 2.792
2.792-0.084
= 2.708
2.708-0.012
= 2.696
2.696+0.030
= 2.726
2.726+0.049
= 2.775

0.0009 1
= 0.0009
0.0009 2
= 0.0018
0.0009 3
= 0.0027
0.0009 4
= 0.0036
0.0009 5
= 0.0045
0.0009 6
= 0.0054
0.0009 7
= 0.0063
0.0009 8
= 0.0072

BS =
10.566

10.566
-10.573
= -0.007

FS =
10.573

Rise =
0.215

Fall =
0.222

Final RL
=2.775
Initial RL
= 2.782
0.215
2.775
-0.222
-2.782
= -0.007
= -0.007
Difference = BS - FS = Rise - Fall = Final RL - Initial RL = -0.007
Correction = 0.007 / 8
= 0.0009
Misclosure Limit = 20 D mm
= 20 0.48 mm
= 13.85 mm
*Difference < Misclosure Limit. So, the Levelling work is accepted.

8.0

DISCUSSION
Before the levelling activity is carry out, our group carried out Two

peg test to determine whether levelling bubble and telescope line-of-sight


are parallel. The height difference for the first set up and the second set
up are 0.010m and 0.013m respectively. The difference between the
height difference for the first set up and the second set up is 3mm, and
the value is less or within the acceptable error which is 5mm.
The route we used for the levelling was from TBM1 to Area 8 and
then back to TBM 1. We had marked down the spot we set up the levelling
equipment and also the stuffs to make sure that the reading obtained are
more accurate.
Our group had done the levelling activity twice. We failed the first
levelling. The formula of misclosure limit was given by

(20 D)mm ,

where D= length of traverse in km. The length of traverse of our first set
up was 0.476km. The misclosure allowed is 13.80mm. The reading is not
acceptable because our group get the misclosure more than allowed
which is 27mm. This happened because of several factors:
1 The tripod is not in the stable state and the bubble at the level is not
in the centre.
2 Reading is taken, while the crosshair are not visible.
3 Observer is inexperienced in handling the equipment
4 The weather are too hot making the observer less motivated during
the levelling process.
5 No cooperation between the group members.
The second levelling or second set up was successful. The
misclosure for the second set up was 7mm. The length of traverse of our
second set up was 0.480km and by using the formula of misclosure limit,
the misclosure allowed is 14.00mm. 7mm is within the misclosure
allowed. The second set up was successful because our group have
overcome the factor-factor stated above.
During the process of levelling, precaution that needs to be
considered while carrying out the levelling includes:

1 The tripod must be in the stable state and the bubble at the level
must be in the centre.
2 While reading the measurements, make sure that the crosshair are
visible.
3 Put a nail below the staff for more precise readings.
4 Put the level in its case before move to the next point.

9.0

CONCLUSION / RECOMMENDATION
In conclusion, our study did have achieved the intended objectives. For the two peg

test, the allowable different that is accepted due to the set up is 5 mm. Hence, our difference
value is 3mm. So the instrument was in good condition. For the levelling, the important thing
that we must follow is the distance between two points that must be accurate in order to
prevent from getting error that can be occur. The differences that we have obtained is 0.007.
Besides, the correction are 0.0009 for a total distance of 480 m. Therefore, the value of
allowed are significant differences between the values obtained of not more than 13.86 mm.
Since the difference value is less than the allowed reduced level, the levelling work is
accepted.
For the recommendation, student must know how to conduct the basic and manual
operations of this equipment. Then, make sure the distance between the staff and tripod is
same. Besides, carefully consider where to set up the level, first set up the tripod. Ensure the
top is level and attach level. Use the foot screws to centralise the circular bubble. Test to see
if the compensator is working and the remove the parallax to see clearly. Lastly, we must
check the staff bubble is at centre of the circle to get the right readings.

10.0 REFERENCE
1 Kejuruteraan Geomatik 1, Hj. Masiiri Kaamin, Abd. Shukor Sarif.
Panel Kejuruteraan Geomatik, Jabatan Kejuruteraan
Pengangkutan, Geoteknik dan Geomatik, Fakulti Kejuruteraan
Awam dan Alam Sekitar, UTHM.
2 Lab sheet Levelling, Geomatics Laboratory. Centre for Diploma
Studies.
3 https://www.scribd.com/doc/261201512/Geomatic-LevellingReport#
4 http://www.boeingconsult.com/tafe/ss&so/survey1/level/notessur1.htm