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The Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS)

[The Law and Policy Department]


BA-LL.B

CRIMINAL LAW
BARRISTER SALMAN SAFDAR
COURSE OUTLINE

OVERVIEW:
The purpose of this course is to inculcate in students the philosophical aspects
relating to the inception of criminal law in our society and its basic conceptions
before students start studying substantive provisions of PPC.
The system of criminal law may be justified as a mechanism for the preservation
of social order. There was no criminal law in uncivilized society, and the prevalent
law was the principle of might is right. The system was entirely retributive, a
tooth for a tooth, an eye for an eye, a life for a life. Gradually, however the
system of retribution was overtaken by rehabilitation and reformation. An
understanding, therefore, of the ingredients of crime, case law developed over the
years by the judiciary in Pakistan, together with comparative study of the English
common-law will be the primary focus of learning to acquire conceptual clarity of
the nature, ingredients and mental element(s) required for various criminal
offences.
The criminal law of Pakistan has mainly been codified in the Pakistan Penal Code,
1860 (PPC) and the Criminal Procedure Code, 1898 (CRPC). The PPC deals
primarily with various types of criminal offences and states what matters will
afford an excuse or a defence to a charge of an offence. The aim of this course is
also to introduce some of the common criminal offences under Pakistani law and
to apprise the students of the relevant defences that may be available to each
offence.

LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this course students must have understood, the definition, nature and
scope of crime, criminal behavior, theories of punishment and efficacy of various

punishment mechanisms and the comparison between Western and Islamic


concept of punishment. Furthermore, students must have understood the physical
element of crime, the all important distinction between act and omission, the
mental element of crime as well as the distinction between various levels of
culpability. Also the students would be expected to understand general defences to
criminal liability and more specifically the right to private defence of self and
property.
In the substantive study of PPC students by the end of the course must have
understood criminal prosecution in Pakistan, concepts relating to burden and
standard of proof and the shifting of burden in certain circumstances, non-fatal
offences against the person, different types of Murder and the debate on abolition
of capital punishment, concepts relating to sexual offences; issues of consent and
the problem of evidence in such matters, crimes against property and white collar
crime, specifically criminal fraud and dishonoured cheques. Students must also
have understood reasons leading to the enactment of Women Protection Act, the
substantive content of the act and its effect. Finally students must have grasped the
new law on cyber crime, the act of 2008 as well as the Legislation relating to
Juvenile Justice in Pakistan.

Lecture
1

Areas/Topic
Introduction
Definition of Crime
Theories of Punishment
Islamic Law of
Punishment

Research
Texts
Smith & Hogan, 10th Ed. Definition of Crime, pp. 15-21
Criminal Law by C.M.V Clarkson and H.M. Keating 4th Ed., pp. 325
Criminal Law by C.M.V Clarkson and H.M. Keating 4th Ed,
Punishment, pp. 26-71
Articles & Extracts
Gusfield, On legislating Morals: The Symbolic Process of
Designating Deviance 1968) 56 Cal.L.Rev 54 at 55-56
L. Farmer, The Obsession with Definition (1996) Social and Legal
Studies, pp. 64-66
Scott Alan Kugle, Framed, Blamed and Renamed: The Recasting of
Islamic Jurisprudence in Colonial South Asia, Modern Asian Studies
35, 2 (2001), pp. 257-313.
Elizabeth Kolsky, Codification and the Rule of Colonial Difference:
Criminal Procedure in British India, (2005) 23 Law & Hist. Rev.
631.
Sources and Fundamental Principles, Pillai pp. 5-6
2

David Garland, Punishment in Modern Society (OUP, 1990) pp. 252253


Theories of Punishment, Nyazee pp. 35-54, 28-34
Crime and the Punishment of Crime The Role of the Legal
Profession, K.O. Shatwell, PLD 1965
What is Punishment? Why Punish? Kadish & Schulhofer pp. 95135
Islamic Punishments: A fresh insight, by Shezad Saleem
Distinction Between Offence and Crime, Nyazee pp. 13-28

Cases
PLD 1958 SC (Ind.) 115; PLD 1957 (W.P.) Lah 31; 1991 SCMR 1622;
2001 YLR 715; 2002 MLD 1193; 1999 MLD 556
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Theories of Criminal
Law

Text
Australian Criminal Justice by Mark Findlay, Stephen Odgers &
Stanley Yeo, Aims and Functions of Criminal Law, pp. 1-7
Criminal Law, by Joel Samaha, The Nature, Origins and Purposes
of Criminal Law, pp. 3-36
Articles & Extracts
Packer, The Limits of the Criminal Sanction (1969)
Gusfield, On Legislating Morals: The Symbolic Process of
Designating Deviance (1968) 56 Cal.L.Rev 54 at 55-56
Islamisation of Law in Pakistan, Nasim Hasan Shah, PLD 1995
Constitutional Vacuum in the Law Relating to Offences Against
Human Body, Asif Saeed Khosa, PLD 1994
Concept of Law, HLA Hart, Chap 1-3

Burden & Standard of


Proof

Texts
The Criminal Major Acts 2009, by Rifaqat Ali Sohal, Qanon-eShahadat, Chap IX, Of the Burden of Proof, pp. 1689-1701
Law of Crimes, The Major Acts 2009, by M. Mahmood, Qanon-eShahadat, Chap IX, Of the Burden of Proof pp. 1057-1064
Articles & Extracts
Criminal Law Revision Committee (1972), Eleventh Report
Evidence (General), (London: HMSO) Cmnd 4991
Ashworth and Blake (1996) The Presumption of Innocence in
English Criminal Law [1996] Crim LR 306.
Cases

Actus Reus
Nature and Analysis
Insane and non-insane
automatism
Involuntariness not
arising from automatism

Sheldrake v DPP [2003] EWHC 273 (Admin); Salabiaku v France


(1988) 13 EHRR 379; R v Lambert [2001] 2 Cr App R 511, HL; R v
Whyte (1988) 51 DLR (4th) 481; R v Drummond, [2002] EWCA Crim
527, [2002] RTR 21; 2006 P.Cr.L.J 34; 2006 P.Cr.L.J 338; 2006 YLR
1775
Texts
Smith & Hogan, 10th Ed. Actus Reus pp. 28-37
Criminal Law by C.M.V Clarkson and H.M. Keating 4th Ed, Actus
Reus, pp. 93-106
Australian Criminal Justice by Mark Findlay, Stephen Odgers &
Stanley Yeo, Elements of a Crime, pp. 13-15
Criminal Law, by Joel Samaha, The General Principles of Criminal
Liability, Actus Reus, pp. 88-109
Articles & Extractss
Smith & Wilson, Impaired Voluntariness and Criminal
Responsibility: Reworking Harts Theroy of ExcusesThe English
Judicial Response (1993) 13 O.J.L.S. 69 at 74
Automatism as a Defence in Criminal Law, Dr. Ch. M. Hanif
Cases
R v Deller (1952) 36 Cr App 184, CCA; R v Dadson (1850) 2 Den 35,
SHC 7; Ryan v R (1967) 121 CLR 205, [1967] ALR 577; R v Hennessy
[1989] 2 All ER 9; R v Burgess [1991] 2 All ER 769, [1991] 2 QB 92;
1989 PCrLJ 1445; PLD 1988 SC 186

5&6

Actus Reus
Omissions
Causation

Texts
Smith & Hogan 10th Ed. Omissions pp. 60-68
Criminal Law by C.M.V Clarkson and H.M. Keating 4th Ed,
Omissions pp. 99-125
Smith & Hogan 10th Ed. Causation, pp. 42-57
Criminal Law by C.M.V Clarkson and H.M. Keating 4th Ed,
Causation, pp. 437-463
Articles
The scope of criminal liability for omissions by Andrew Ashworth,
Law Quarterly Review Vol. 105 (1989), pp. 424-425
Lord Lanes judgment in R v Stone; R v Dobinson [1977] QB 354,
[1977] 2 All ER 341; [1977] 2 WLR 169, 64 Cr App Rep 186, 141
JP 354 Court of Appeal, Criminal Division
Padfield, Clean Water and Muddy Causation: Is Causation a
Question of Law or Fact, or Just a way of Allocating Blame?
[1995] Crim.L.R. 683 at 692-693
A Critique of Criminal Causation (1991) 54 M.L.R. 685 at 692

Cases
PLD 1956 SC (Ind) 249; R v Shama [1990] 2 All ER 602; R v Firth
(1989) 91 Cr App Rep 217; PLD 1963 Dacca 413; 1980 PCrLJ 429; Om
Prakash v State of Punjab; R v Miller [1983] 2 AC 161; R v Church
[1966] 1 QB 59; R v Le Brun [1992] QB 61; AGs Ref (No. 4 of 1980);
PLD 2003 Khi 618; R v Dalloway (1847) 2 Cox CC 273; R v Cheshire
[1991] 3 All ER 670; R v Blaue [1975] 3 All ER 446 at 450; PLD 1966
Dacca 491; PLD 1957 (W.P.) Lah 332; 1981 SCMR 663
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Mens Rea
Blame and
Responsibility
Blame and Mens Rea
Ignorance of Law and
Mens Rea
Intention

Texts
Smith & Hogan, 10th Ed. Mens Rea pp. 69-70
Smith & Hogan, 10th Ed. Intention, pp. 70-77
Criminal Law by C.M.V Clarkson and H.M. Keating 4th Ed. pp.
126-129
Criminal Law by C.M.V Clarkson and H.M. Keating 4th Ed. p. 131154
Australian Criminal Justice by Mark Findlay, Stephen Odgers &
Stanley Yeo, Elements of a Crime, pp. 15-18
Criminal Law, by Joel Samaha, The General Principles of Criminal
Liability, Mens Rea, pp. 110-127
Articles & Extracts
Cambridge Law Journal p. 212 Stonchouse and Another v. Mason
[1921] 2 K.B. 818; 37 T.L.R. 621
Lacey, State Punishment: Political Principles and Community Values
(1988), p. 66
Jacobs, Criminal Responsibility (1971), p. 13
Islamic Law and Mens Rea, Nyazee
Cases
United States v Currens, 290 F.2d 751 (3rd Cir. 1961) (United States
Court of Appeal); Hyam v DPP [1975] AC 55; R v Moloney [1985] A.C.
905 (House of Lords); R v Hancock and Shankland [1986] A.C. 455
(House of Lords); R v Nedrick [1986] 1 W.L.R. 1025 (Court of Appeal,
Criminal Division); R v Woollin [1990] 1 Cr.App.R.97 (Court of Appeal,
Criminal Division); R v Steane [1947] K.B. 997 (Court of Criminal
Appeal); 1981 SCMR 663; 1991 SCMR 2339; 2002 YLR 234

Mens Rea
Subjective Recklessness
Objective Recklessness

Texts
Smith & Hogan, 10th Ed. Recklessness pp. 77-84
Criminal Law by C.M.V Clarkson and H.M. Keating 4th Ed,
Recklessness, pp. 154-183
Smith & Hogan, 10th Ed. Negligence pp. 85

Negligence
Knowledge

Criminal Law by C.M.V Clarkson and H.M. Keating 4th Ed,


Negligence, pp. 184-189

Articles & Extracts


Law Commission, Report on the Mental Element in Crime (Law
Com. No. 89), 1978, paras 20, 21
Norrie, Subjectivism, Objectivism and the Limits of Criminal
Recklessness (1992) 12 O.J.L.S 45
Williams, Recklessness Redefined [1981] C.L.J 252 at 278-281
Negligence and Mens Rea, Nyazee
Law Commission, Working Paper No. 31, p. 57
Hart, Negligence, Mens Rea and Criminal Responsibility, Oxford
Essays in Jurisprudence, 29
Cases
Cunningham [1957] 2 QB 396; Caldwell [1982] A.C. 341 (House of
Lords); R v G and another; 1984 PCrLJ 2599; 1986 PCrLJ 330; PLD
2001 Lah 113; 1992 MLD 262; PLD 1973 Khi 427; City of Sault Ste
Marie (1978) 40 CCC (2d) 353; Sweet v Parsley [1969] 1 All ER 347 at
351; Gammon (Hong Kong) Ltd v A-G of Hong Kong [1985] AC 1,
[1984] 2 All ER 503 at 509
Texts

Mens Rea and Motive


Evolution of Motive in
Pakistani Criminal Law

Law of Crime, The Major Acts 2009 by M. Mahmood p. 26-27


Law of Crimes, by Justice V.V Raghavan, pp. 795 & 884
Pakistan Penal Code, by Shaukat Mehmood 7th Ed., Motive pp. 11281144

Articles & Extracts

Requirement in cases of circumstantial evidence (Batuklal, The


Law of Evidence, Sixteenth Edition, Reprinted 2007, Central Law
Agency, Allahabad)

Motive not an Element of Offence, Smith & Hogan pp. 95-96

Cases
[AIR 1997 SC 318]; 2005 S C M R 1110; Woolmingtin's case 1935 AC
462; Talib Hussain v. State 1995 SCMR 1776; 2005 S C M R 1568;
Nanavatis case AIR 1962 SC 605
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Crimes of Strict

Texts
Criminal Law by C.M.V Clarkson and H.M. Keating 4th Ed, Strict

Liability

Liability, pp.192-227
Smith & Hogan, 10th Ed, Crimes of Strict Liability, pp. 115-137

Articles & Extracts


Nemerson, Criminal Liability without Fault: A Philosophical
Perspective (1975) 75 Col. L.R. 1517
Brady, Strict Liability Offences: A Justification (1972) 8
Crim.L.Bull 217
Cases
R v Lemon [1979] A.C. 617 (House of Lords; Sweet v Parsley [1970]
A.C. 132 (House of Lords); Staples v United States 511 U.S. 600 (1994)
Supreme Court of United States
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12 & 13

Quiz
Murder
Qatl-e-Amd; Qatl shibhi-amd
Qatl-i-khata; Qatl-bissabab

Texts
Pakistan Penal Code Vol II, by Shaukat Mahmood & Nadeem
Shaukat, S. 300 PPC Qatl-e-Amd, pp. 862-907
Law of Crime, 5th Ed. by Justice V.V. Raghavan, S. 300 IPC Murder,
pp. 798-922
Criminal Law by C.M.V Clarkson and H.M. Keating 4th Ed,
Homicide pp. 627-723

Cases
Comparative analysis of 2007 MLD 935; 2005 P.Cr.L.J 182; 1999 P.Cr.L.J 9; 1995 SCMR 1765;
common law concept of PLD 1976 SC 377; PLD 2001 SC 333; 2001 P.Cr.L.J 1548; PLD 1997
murder/manslaughter
Lah 110; PLD 1994 SC 885; PLD 2007 Lah 121; PLD 1994 Lah 442;
PLD FSC 1; 1992 P.Cr.L.J 1993; PLD 1997 SC 377
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International Law &


Domestic Law

Articles & Extracts


JSTOR: The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (1973 -) Vol.
74. No. 3 Autumn, 1983), pp. 1033-1065.
The High Cost of the Death Penalty. Death Penalty Focus.
History of Capital Punishment
Article from the Connecticut Courant (December 1, 1803)
www.amnesty.org/en/death-penalty.com

Offences Affecting the


Human Body

Texts
Law of Crime, 5th Ed. by Justice V.V. Raghavan, pp. 231-293
Law of Crimes, The Major Acts 2009, by M. Mahmood, pp. 223-237

Death Penalty Debate

Injuries and Assaults

Cases
1973 SCMR 108; PLD 1963 SC 152; 1979 SCMR 193; 1972 SCMR
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Section 332 (Hurt) to


338-G of PPC
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17 & 18

401; 1970 SCMR 667; PLD 1964 SC 177; PLD 1996 Lah 126; 1999
P.Cr.L.J 230

Movie (Any Court


Room Drama from a
select list)
General Defences:
Justification and Excuse
Insanity
Diminished
Responsibility
Duress
Mistake
Infancy

Texts
Criminal Law by C.M.V Clarkson and H.M. Keating 4th Ed,
General Defences-Justification and Excuse, pp. 276-287
Smith & Hogan, General Defences, pp. 210-289
Australian Criminal Justice by Mark Findlay, Stephen Odgers &
Stanley Yeo, Elements of a Crime, Defence, pp 21-15
Articles & Extracts
Rethinking Criminal Law, p 759-Reconstructing Criminal Law, by
Lacey, Wells & Quick, 3rd Ed. pp 62-66
Williams, The Theory of Excuses [1982] Crim.L.R 732 at 735
Infancy and Islamic Law, Nyazee
Coercion and Duress in Islamic Law, Nyazee
Mistake in Islamic Law, Nyazee
Cases
PLD 2002 Khi 152; 1993 SCMR 633; PLD 1979 Lah 711; PLJ 2001
CrC (Lahore) 953 (DB); PLD 1988 SC 25; Vishwanath v State of UP;
PLD 2001 Lah 219; PLD 1960 SC 344; PLD 2002 SC 92; 1994 SCMR
1517; PLD 1962 SC 472; PLD 2003 Lah 60; 1974 SCMR 295; Basdev v
State of Pepsu; State of Orissa v Ram Bahadur Thapa; Pappu v
Damodaran; PLD 1988 Lah 581; PLD 2000 Lah 425; PLD 1964 SC
266; 2003 YLR 2234; 1981 PCrLJ 100; PLD 1981 Lah 651; PLD 1959
(WP) Lah 38; 1992 PCrLJ 1766; 1986 PCrLJ 626

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Self Defence &


Defence of Sudden and
Grave

Text
Criminal Law, by Joel Samaha, Defences to Criminal Liability, Self
Defence pp. 227-252
Cases
R v Rose (1984) 15 Cox 540; Palmer v R [1971] AC 814; R v Clegg
[1995] 1 All ER 334; R v Scarlett [1994] Crim LR 288; R v Bird [1985]
1 WLR 816; Beckford v R [1988] AC 130; R v Williams (Gladstone)
(1984) 78 Cr App R 276; R v O'Grady [1987] 3 WLR 321; R v
O'Connor [1991] Crim LR 135; 2008 SCMR 922; 2008 SCMR 1565

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Sexual Offences
Social context of sexual
offences
Definition of rape
Sexual Offences Act
2003

Texts
Law of Crimes, The Major Acts 2009, by M. Mahmood, S. 375-377
PPC Rape, pp. 256-258
Law of Crime, 5th Ed. by Justice V.V. Raghavan, S. 375-376 IPC
Rape, pp. 384-429
Criminal Law by C.M.V Clarkson and H.M. Keating 4th Ed, Sexual
Offences, pp. 606-626
Reconstructing Criminal Law, LexisNexis Butterworths 3rd Ed,
Construction of sexuality and bodily autonomy: trust and integrity,
pp. 454-515
Criminal Law, by Joel Samaha, Criminal Sexual Conduct, pp. 406432
Cases
1992 P.C.L.J 42; 1990 MLD 138; 1990 MLD 1389; 1989 MLD 464;
AIR 1958 Punj. 133; 1990 Cr.L.J. 650 at 652 (Cal); AIR 1934 Lah 797;
(1931) 3 State Trials 401 (HL); (1974) Cr.L.J. 1098 (Goa) (Menezes
J.C)

21 & 22

Texts
Women Protection Act, Law of Crimes The Major Acts 2009 Offence of Zina (Enforcement
Hudood Ordinance and
of Hudood) Ordinance, 1979, pp. 1339-1370
Reforms in the area
Pakistan Law Site, Statutes, Women Protection Act
Pakistan Law Site, Statutes, Offence of Zina (Enforcement of
Hudood) Ordinance, 1979
Articles & Extracts
Pakistan despite Womens Protection Act (www.global-sisterhoodnetwork.org)
In Pakistan, Rape Victims Are the 'Criminals' By SETH MYDANS,
New York Times, May 17, 2002
http://www.pakistani.org/pakistan/legislation/2006/wpb.html
http://www.pakistani.org/pakistan/legislation/zia_po_1979/ord7_197
9.html

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Offences against
Property & White
Collar Crime
Cheating, Fraud &
Forgery
Criminal breach of trust

Texts
Law of Crimes The Major Acts 2009, by M. Mahmood, S. 378-462
PPC Of Offences against Property. pp 259-294
Law of Crime, 5th Ed. by Justice V.V. Raghavan, S. 378-462 IPC Of
Offences against Property, pp. 436-691
Cases
PLD 1957 SC 257; 1980 SCMR 356; 2003 YLR 1471; 2005 P.Cr.L.J
882; 1998 P.Cr.L.J 347; 2000 P.Cr.L.J 1230; PLD 2002 Lah 164; PLD

Dishonouring of
Cheques

2003 Lah 1; 2003 P.Cr.L.J 1545; 2004 YLR 2867; PLJ 2004 Lah 1577;
2008 MLD 159; 2007 P.Cr.L.J 997; 2004 SCMR 1755; 2005 P.Cr.L.J
1330; 208 YLR 2695
Texts
Law of Crimes The Major Acts 2009Prevention of Electronic
Crimes Ordinance 2008, pp. 1823-1836
Pakistan Law Site, Statutes, Prevention of Electronic Crimes
Ordinance 2008
Pakistan Law Site, Statutes, Electronic Transaction Ordinance
2002

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Electronic & Cyber


Crime

26

Quiz

27

Texts
Juvenile Justice System Law of Crimes, The Major Acts 2009, by M. Mahmood, Juvenile
Justice System Ordinance 2000 pp. 1629-1636
Cases
PLD 2002 Kar. 18; 2004 YLR 2879; PLD 2005 Lah 15; PLD 2004
Pesh 70; PLD 2004 Lah 779; PLD 2007 Lah 650; PLD 2008 Lah 26;
PLJ 2004 FSC 72

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Overview/Revision

ESSENTIAL READING TEXT:


Pakistan Penal Code: Commentary, by Shaukat Mahmood.
Criminal Law text and material by C.M.V Clarkson and H.M
Keating.
Criminal Law, by Michael J Allen.
Principles of Criminal Law, by Andrew Ashworth.
Criminal Law by Smith & Hogan.
Elliot & Woods Case Book on Criminal Law, by D.W Elliot &
Michael J Allen.
Criminal Law: Theory and Doctrine, by A.P Simester & G.R
Sullivan.
Law of Crimes, The Major Acts 2009, by M. Mahmood
Law of Crime, by Justice V.V. Raghavan

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Australian Criminal Justice, by Mark Findlay, Stepehn


Odgers & Stanley Yeo
Criminal Law, by Joel Samaha

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