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-1PROCEDUREINDIFFERENCETYPESOFCRIMINALTRIALS

TheCodeofCriminalProcedure1973(inshort Cr.P.C.)
isaprocedurallawprovidingthemechanisminwhichmannerthe
criminal trial is to be conducted on the basis of substantive
criminallawi.e.I.P.C. andothercriminalstatute. Theprimary
objectofthecriminaljusticesystemistoensurethatthetrialmust
be fair. The Presiding Officer is supposed to treat the accused
innocenttillchargeisprovedagainsthimbutatthesametimethe
guiltypersonshouldnotbeescapedfromthepunishment.
The word trial is not defined anywhere in the
Criminal Procedure Code, however, it means an commonly
understoodthestageoftrialbegan afterframing thecharge and
end with the conviction or acquittal. The criminal procedure for
judicialadjudicationsisdividedin37chapterandclassifiedintwo
schedules(i)theoffencesclassifiedunderI.P.C.and(ii)theoffences
classifiedotherthanI.P.C. Thenatureoftrialaredividedonthe
basisofseriousnessofoffences,itsgravityandjurisdictionandon
thebasisofthegravity,seriousnessoftheoffencesthesubstantive
law i.e. I.P.C. is divided into 37 parts by granting separate
nomenclature particularly the nature of offences like the offence
against State, human body, property, public tranquility,
documents,marriageetc.
1}

ProcedureinSessionsTrial

a)Policecase225to237Cr.P.C.

Chapter XVIII of Cr.P.C. starting with Sec.225 and

endingwithsection237dealswithprovisionsgoverningthetrial

-2beforeaCourtofSession.Sec.225Cr.P.C.enjoinsthatineverytrial
beforeaCourtofSessiontheprosecutionshallbeconductedbya
PublicProsecutor.

Whentheaccusedappearsorisbroughtbeforecourt

pursuant to the commitment of the case, the Public Prosecutor


shouldopenthecasebydescribingthechargebroughtagainstthe
accusedandstatingbywhatevidenceheproposestoprovetheguilt
oftheaccused.

After considering the record of the case and the

documentssubmittedalongwithsuchrecordandafterhearingthe
submissions of the accused and the prosecution, if the judge
considers that there are no
sufficient grounds for proceeding
againsttheaccused,heshalldischargetheaccusedgivingreasons
fordoingso.

If, however, the judge is of the opinion that there is

groundforpresumingthattheaccusedhascommittedtheoffence
hemay frame thechargeagainst the accused in writing. At this
stagetheSessionsJudgeisentitledtoconsideronlythedocuments
produced by the prosecution along with the charge sheet. The
accused is not entitled to produce or cause production of any
documentatthisstagefortheconsiderationoftheSessionsJudge.
Afterframingthechargesameshallbereadoverandexplainedto
accusedinvernacularmanner. Andthanheshallbeaskedasto
whether he pleads guilty of the offence charged or whether he
claimstobetriedforthecharge.

If the judge is of opinion that the offence that is

actually made out is not one exclusively triable by a court of


Sessions then he shall frame a charge against the accused and

-3transferthecasefortrialtotheChiefJudicialMagistratewhoshall
try the case as if it were a warrant case instituted on a police
report.

Section 229 of Cr.P.C. provides that if the accused

pleads guilty the Judge shall record the plea and may, in his
discretion,convicthimthereon.EventhoughSec.229Cr.P.C.gives
discretiontothejudgetoconvicttheaccused,incasehepleads
guilty,thechargeinasessionscasebeingforgraveoffences,itis
desirable that the accused is not straightaway convicted. The
propercoursewouldbetocallupontheprosecutiontoproveits
casebyadducingevidence.

Wheretheaccuseddoesnotpleadguiltythecourtshall

callupontheprosecutiontoadduceevidenceinsupportofitscase.
Aftertheconclusionoftheprosecutionevidence,theaccusedisto
be examined under Sec.313 (1) (b) Cr.P.C. with regard to the
incriminatingcircumstancesappearingagainsthimintheevidence
fortheprosecution.Aftertheexaminationoftheaccusedthecourt
has to post the case for hearing under Sec.232 Cr.P.C. if after
hearingtheprosecutionandthedefencethejudgeconsidersthat
thereisno evidence

toindicatethattheaccusedcommittedthe
offence withwhichheischargedthejudgecanrecordan orderof
acquittalunderSec.232Cr.P.C.

After hearing under Sec.232 if the accused is not

acquittedthereunder,theaccusedshallbecalledupontoenteron
hisdefenceandtoadduceanyevidencewhichhemighthavein
supportthereof.Aftertheconclusionofthedefenceevidence,ifany,
thecasehastobetakenupforarguments.

-4

Afterhearingthearguments,thecourthastopassthe

judgmentinaccordancewithSecs.235Cr.P.C.Ifthejudgmentis
one of conviction and the judge does not proceed to invoke the
beneficialprovisionoftheProbationofOffendersAct,1958,heshall
hear the accused on the question of sentence and then pass a
sentenceinaccordancewithlaw.
b)

Complaintcase:S.190to210ofCr.P.C.
Ch. XIV of Cr.P.C lays down provisions containing

conditions required for initiation of proceedings and specially


regardingcognizanceofcomplaint case. Sec.190to204 deals
with'cognizance'ofcasesandSec.190(1)laysthat,Magistratecan
takecognizanceofoffence
a)uponcomplaint;
b)uponpolicereport;or
c)uponhisownknowledge,oruponinformationreceivedfrom
anyotherperson,otherthanapoliceofficer.
Sec.193 Cr.P.C. provides that except as otherwise
expressly provided by the Cr.P.C. or any other law, no Court of
Sessionshalltakecognizanceofanyoffenceasacourtoforiginal
jurisdiction unless the case has been committed to it by a
MagistrateundertheCr.P.C.exceptinspecialenactments.
SCOPEOFSEC.200AND202:
Ch. XV of Cr.P.C. lays down the procedure which a
Magistratehastofollowwhenacomplaintismadetohim.Thevery
objectoflawistogiveapersonanaccesstojusticeotherthanupon
policereport.Afterabovereferredexamination,questionof
issuance ofsummons comes in. Magistrate can either
issuethesummonsororderinquiryunderSec.202.
Ifevidencecollectedaboveisfoundinsufficient

-5to takedecision,Magistratemayeitherinquirehimselfordirect
investigationbypolice officer underSec.202(1)of Code. Such
investigationisonlyforhelpingtheMagistratetodecidewhetheror
notthereissufficientgroundtoproceedfurther.
After receiving the report of investigation under
Sec.202,theCourtwillconsiderwhetherthereissufficientground
toproceed. Ifthereisnosufficientgroundtoproceed,theCourt
shalldismissthecomplaintunderSec.203. Ifthereissufficient
ground to proceed, then the Magistrate will issue summons or
warrant,asthecasemaybe.
OPTIONSAVAILABLE:
Options which are available to the Magistrate after
receipt of complaint could be summarized thus. Following five
optionsareavailabletotheJudicialMagistratewhoiscompetentto
takecognizanceofthecase.
a. Rejectionofthecomplaint, b. OrderofinvestigationunderSec.
156(3),c.Takingcognizanceoftheoffence,d.Issuanceofprocess,
e.Dismissalofthecomplaint.
Committalofcase:
The provisions regarding committal of case are
prescribedinSec.209ofCr.P.C.andPara9to12of
Chapter 3 ofCriminalManual.InallcasesinstitutedonPolice
Reportsorotherwise,whenevertheaccusedappearsorisbrought
before the Magistrate, and it appears to the Magistrate that the
offence is triable exclusively by the Court of Sessions, he shall
committhecasetotheCourtofSessions,sendtothatCourtthe
recordofthecaseandthedocumentsandarticles,ifany,whichare
tobeproducedinevidenceandnotifytothePublicProsecutorofthe

-6commitmentofthecasetotheCourtofSessionsunderSection209
oftheCodeofCriminalProcedure,1973.
Sec.210ofCr.P.C.providetheproceduretobefollowed
whenthereiscomplaintcaseandpoliceinvestigationin
respectofthesameoffenceandifMagistrateissatisfiedthat
sameareinrespectofsameoffenceheshallclubbedtogetherboth
proceeding.
3}

ProcedureinWarrantTrial
There are two types of cases provided in Cr.P.C. i.e.

Summonscases and Warrantcase. Warrantcase case means a


caserelatingtoanoffencepunishablewithdeath,orimprisonment
for life, or imprisonment for a term exceeding two years while
summonscasesmeansancaserelatingtoanoffence,andnotbeing
awarrantcase.Thus,thetrialsarenormallydividedintowarrant
trialandasummonstrial.FortrialofwarrantscasesbyMagistrate
two procedures are prescribed. One is adopted by Magistrate in
casesinstitutedonpolicereports(Sections238to 243Cr.P.C.and
248to250 ofCr.P.C.)andotheris forcasesinstitutedotherwise
thanpolicereports.(Sections244to247ofCr.P.C.and248to250,
275Cr.P.C.)
(a)Policecase
Under Section 238 Cr.P.C. when in a warrant case,
instituted on a police report, the accused appear or is brought
beforetheMagistrate,theMagistratehastosatisfyhimselfthathe
has been supplied the all necessary documents submitted with
chargesheet.
Section239CrPC providesthatiftheMagistrateafter

-7considering the chargesheet filed u/s. 173 CrPC and hearing,


considers the charge to be groundless, he would discharge the
accusedandrecordhisreasonforsodoing. If,onexaminationof
aforementioneddocuments,hecomestotheprimafacieconclusion
thatthereisagroundforproceedingwiththetrail,heproceedsto
framethecharge.
After framing a charge under Section 240 CrPC, the
MagistratehastoproceedunderSection242CrPCandundersub
section(3)ofthatSectiontheMagistrateisboundtoproceedtotake
allsuchevidenceasmaybeproducedinsupportoftheprosecution.
Thisprovisionandtheprovisionsinsubsection(1)and(2)ofthe
Section243,CrPCaremandatory.
The provisions of s. 243 apply equally to cases
instituted on police report or on private complaint. After the
examinationandcrossexaminationofallprosecutionwitnesses,i.e.
afterthecompletionoftheprosecutioncasetheaccusedshallbe
calledupontoenteruponhisdefenceandanywrittenstatement
putinshallbefiledwiththerecord.
(b)Privatecase:Section244to250ofCodeofCriminalProcedure
arepertainingtocasesinstitutedotherwisethenonpolicereport.
Undersection244ofCr.P.Cwheninanywarrantcaseinstituted
otherwisethanonapolicereport,theaccusedappearsorisbrought
before the Magistrate, the Magistrate shall proceed to hear the
prosecutionandshalltakeallsuchevidenceasmaybeproducedin
supportoftheprosecution.
Aftertakingallevidenceundersection244(1)ofCr.P.C
the Magistrate reached at the conclusion that no case against
accusedhasbeenmadeout,theMagistrateshalldischargeaccused

-8forthereasonsrecorded.Ifthereisastrongsuspicionaboutthe
commissionoftheoffenceandtheinvolvementofaccusedthecourt
shallproceedtoframechargeinsteadofdischargingtheaccused.
Iftheaccusedisnotdischargedundersection245of
Cr.P.CtheMagistrateshallproceedtoframechargeundersection
246ofCr.P.C.againsttheaccused.Chargeshallthenbereadand
explainedtotheaccusedandthenhehastobeaskedwhetherhe
pleadsguiltyorhasanydefencetomake.Iftheaccusedrefusesto
pleadordoesnotpleadorclaimstobetriedheshallberequiredto
state whether he wanted to cross examine any witnesses for the
prosecutionwhoseevidencehasbeentaken.Iftheaccusedisready
to cross examine the witnesses, they shall be recalled for cross
examination and re examination if any. The witnesses shall be
discharged after crossexamination or reexamination. Under
section247ofCr.P.C.theaccusedshallbecalledupontoenter
uponhisdefenceandtoproducehisdefenceifany.
Conclusion of Warrant trial ( Common to Police case and
otherwisePoliceCase):
Section248:AcquittalorConviction.
The section means that in a warrant case both
institutedonpolicereportandprivatecomplainttheonlyorderthat
canbepassedafterchargesiseithera)acquittalorb)conviction.
Compensationforaccusationwithoutreasonablecause
Aspersection250ofCr.P.C.ifinanycasethe
accused is discharged or acquitted and the person upon whose
complaintorinformationtheaccusationwasmadeis present,the
Magistratemaycalluponhimtoshowcausewhyheshouldnotpay

-9compensationtosuchaccusedortoeachoranyofsuchaccused
whentherearemorethanone.Ifthecomplainantisabsentthenthe
summonsmaybeissuedtohimtoappear. Undersection250[1]
the accusation must be proved to have been made without
reasonablecause.Theprovisionsofsection250ofCr.P.C.applyto
summonscasesaswellaswarrantcases.
Record in Warrant cases :As per section 275 of
Cr.P.C.inallwarrantcasestriedbeforeaMagistrate,theevidenceof
eachwitnessshallbetakendowninwritingbyeitherbyMagistrate
himselforbydictationinopencourt.Suchevidenceshallordinarily
betakendownintheformofanarratingbytheMagistrate.The
Magistratemayinhisdiscretiontakendownorcausetobetaken
anypartofsuchevidenceintheformofquestionandanswer.
5}

SummonTrial:
Asummonscasemeansacaserelatingtoanoffence

not being a warrant case, implying all cases relating to offences


punishablewithimprisonmentnotexceedingtwoyears.Inrespect
ofsummonscases,thereisnoneedtoframeacharge.Thecourt
givessubstanceoftheaccusation,whichiscallednotice,tothe
accusedwhenthepersonappearsinpursuancetothesummons.
In view of Section 251 of Cr.P.C. the Magistrate is
required to explain the particulars of the offence of which the
accused is prosecuted. As per section 252 if the accused pleads
guilty,theMagistrateshallrecordhispleaasnearlyaspossiblein
thewordsusedbytheaccusedandmayinhisdiscretion,convict
himthereon.Section253ofCr.P.C.isanexceptiontogeneralrule
which provides a simple procedure for disposing of petty cases
withoutthe presenceof accusedincourtby postand messenger

-10also. By this provision discretion is given to the Magistrate to


convicttheaccused.Italsoenablesthepleaderauthorisedbythe
accused to plead guilty on behalf of his client when offence is
punishableonlywithfine.However,asperSection254ofCr.P.C.if
theaccusedisnotconvictedunderSection252or253thecourt
shallhearprosecutionandtakeevidenceleadbytheprosecution
and also hear the accused and take all such evidence as he
produces in his defence. Section 255 of Cr.P.C. deals with the
acquittal or conviction. Section 256 of Cr.P.C. deals with the
circumstances of non appearance or death of the complainant.
Section 257 of Cr.P.C. deals with the withdrawal of complaint
subjecttothesatisfactionoftheMagistrate.Apparentlythissection
appliestosummonscases. Section258 ofCr.P.C.dealswiththe
powerstostopproceedingincertaincases.Section259ofCr.P.C.
empowerstheMagistratetoconvertasummonscaseintowarrant
case (1) if the offence is punishable with imprisonment for more
thansixmonths,&(2)ifheisoftheopinionthatitwouldbeinthe
interestofjusticetrysuchcaseinaccordancewiththeprocedurefor
thetrialofwarrantcases.
Section 274 of Cr.P.C. deals with the record in summons
cases and inquires. The Magistrate shall, as the examination of
eachwitnessproceeds,makeamemorandumofthesubstanceof
hisevidenceinthelanguageoftheCourt.However,ifthemagistrate
is unable to make such memorandum himself, he shall, after
recordingthereasonofhisinability,causesuchmemorandumtobe
madeinwritingorfromhisdictationinopenCourt.

-116}

SummaryTrial(Section260to265and326(3)

of Cri.P.C.) :The object of summary trial is to disposal of cases


speedily.Procedureprescribedfortrialofsummonscasesshould
befollowed(S.262).Thereisnoappealinsuchatrialifasentence
of fine only not exceeding two hundred rupees has been
awarded.TherecanbeanapplicationforrevisiontotheHighCourt.
ProcedureforSummaryTrials:
The provisions of section 262 are imperative and a
breachthereofamountstoanillegalityandnotanirregularity.
JudgmentincasesTriedSummarily:
Section 264 lays down that in every case tried
summarily the Magistrate must record the substance of the
evidence and the judgment that is delivered must also contain a
briefstatementofthereasonforcominginaparticularfinding.
LanguageofRecordandJudgment:
Section265emphasizesthateverysuchrecordi.e.the
particularsmentionedins.263andthesubstanceofevidenceand
judgmentmustberecordedinthelanguageoftheCourt.

Section 326(3): The provision of Section 326 (3),

Cr.PC, bars the use of prerecorded evidence by successor Judge


onlywhenthetrialhastobeconductedaccordingtotheprovisions
ofSections262and265,Cr.P.C.(i.e.summarytrial). Whenina
summary trial, the evidence has been recorded partly be one
Magistratewhohastakennotesofevidenceandmadethempartof
therecordofthecaseandthatMagistrateissucceededbyanother
Magistrate,thesuccessorcandecidethecaseontheevidencepartly
recordedbyhispredecessorandpartlyrecordedbyhimself.Itisnot

-12required that in every case where the case is sent to another


Magistrate, the evidence must bereheard. It dependsuponthe
particular case and the manner in which the evidence has been
recorded.
In Shivaji Sampat Jagtap v. Rajan Hiralal Arora
2007 CriLJ 122, the Hon'ble Bombay High Court observed that,
The succeeding Magistrate, however, in a case, where the
procedurecontemplatedundersection263and264oftheCodein
particularhasnotbeenfollowed,heneednotholdatrialdenovo.
andtheviewisupheldinJ.V.Baharuni..Vs..StateofGujrat2015
ALLMR(Cri)357(SC).
7}

Common toall S. 272,273,277,278to290,302to

319 :Chapter XXIIIA of Cr.P.C. provides mode of taking and


recordingevidence.
i]

Section272:Aspernotificationdated21stJuly1998

of Govt. of Maharashtra, Marathi shall be the language of all


CriminalCourtsintheStatesubordinatetoHighCourt.
ii]

Section273 makesitobligatorythatevidenceforthe

prosecutionanddefenceshouldbe takeninthepresenceofthe
accused. However, where personal attendance of accused is
dispensewith,evidence shallbetakeninpresenceofhispleader
(exceptionareS.205,206,299&317).
Therecordingofevidencebyvideoconferencingisalso
permissible.(TheStateofMaharashtraVs

Dr.PrafulB.Desai &
Anr.,AIR2003SC2053).
iii]

Section 281 deals with the mode of recording

examination of the accused. The Metropolitan Magistrate is

-13required to make a memorandum of the substance of the


examination of the accused and any other Magistrate or the
PresidingJudgeoftheSessionsCourtisrequiredtorecordinfull
thewholeofsuchexaminationincludingeveryquestionputtohim
andtheanswergivenbyhim. Section 282 casts duty upon the
interpretertointerprettruthfully.
ChapterXXIIIBofCr.P.C.dealswithcommissionforexaminationof
the witnesses : Sections 284 to 290 deals with examination of
witnesses on commissions. In cases where the attendance of a
witnesscannotbeprocuredwithoutanamountofdelay,expenseor
inconvenience, the Court could consider issuing a commission to
recordtheevidenceorbywayofvideoconferencing.
Section291allows theexaminationofaCivilSurgeon
or any other Medical Witness taken and duly attested by a
Magistrate,to begiveninevidence inanyinquiry,trialorother
proceedingbeforeaCourt.
Section291Aisbeinginsertedwithaviewtomaking
memorandum of identification prepared by the Magistrate
admissibleinevidencewithoutformalproofoffactsstatedtherein.
Section 292 deals with admissibility and use of any
document purporting to be a report of the officers of the Mint
withouttheexaminationinCourtoftheofficeconcerned.
Section293dealswithadmissibilityofreportmadeby
certainGovernmentScientificExpertsasevidence.TheCourtmayif
itthinksfit,mayalsosummonandexamineanysuchexpertabout
thisreport.
Section 294 provides the mode or manner in which the
documents relied upon by the prosecution and defence can be

-14provedwithoutanyformalproofthereof.Theproviso,however,gives
discretiontotheCourttocallfortheproofofthesignatureonthe
documents.
Section296providesoffilingofanaffidavitofawitness
whoseevidenceisofaformalcharacter.Theobjectofthissectionis
toachievespeedydisposalofthecase.
Section 298 provides a special mode in which a
previousacquittalorapreviousconvictionmaybeproved.
Section299dealswithrecordingofevidenceinabsence
ofaccused(1)whereaccusedisabsentandthereisnoimmediate
prospectofhisarrest,and(2)wheretheoffenderisunknown.Inthe
first case, the Court can record depositions of prosecution
witnesses.Thesecanbeofferedatthetrialinthreecases;(1)ifthe
witnessisdead;(2)ifheisincapableofgivingevidence;or(3)ifhis
attendance would cause unreasonable delay, expense or
inconvenience.Secondly,wheretheoffenderis unknownandthe
offencecommittedispunishablewithdeathor imprisonmentfor
life,theHighCourtortheSessionsJudgemaydirectafirstclass
Magistratetorecordprosecutionevidence.Depositionssorecorded
maybeusedatthetrial(1)ifthewitnessisdead,or(2)isincapable
ofgivingevidence,or(3)isbeyondthelimitsofIndia.NirmalSingh
Vs.StateofHaryana,AIR2000SC1416,
Chapter XXIV of Cr.P.C. deals with the general
provisionsastoinquiriesandtrials

:
i]

Section 303 provides that any person accused of an

offencebeforeaCriminalCourt,oragainstwhomproceedingsare
institutedunderthisCode,mayofrightbedefendedbyapleaderof

-15hischoice.
Section304(Freelegalaid)enablestheSessionsCourt
toassignapleaderforthedefenceoftheaccusedattheexpenseof
theStateprovidedheisunrepresentedandtheCourtissatisfied
thathehasnosufficientmeanstoengageapleader.Provisionsis
madeinSubsec.3ofsec.304toextendthesamefacilitiestoany
classoftrialsbeforeotherCourtsbytheStateGovernment.
Section 305 lays down the procedure to be followed
whenacorporationoraregisteredSocietyisanaccused.
Section306(TenderofPardon)dealswiththesubject
oftenderofpardontoanaccomplice withaviewtoobtainingthe
evidenceofhim . Itisapplicable onlywhentheoffenceisone
which is (i) punishable with imprisonment of seven years or
upwards;or (ii)triableexclusivelybytheCourtofSession;or(iii)
triablebyaSpecialJudgeundertheCriminalLawAmendmentAct,
1952.ThepardonmaybegrantedbytheChiefJudicialMagistrate
or the Metropolitan Magistrate; it can also be granted by any
Magistrate of the first class inquiring into or trying the offence.
Once a case has been committed, the power to grant pardon
thereafter lies only with the Court to which the case has been
committed. Thepersonacceptingthetenderofpardonisrequired
tobeexaminedaswitnessintheCourtandistobedetainedinthe
custodyuntiltheconclusionofthetrialunlesshehasbeenalready
releasedonbail.
Section307:Theprecedingsectiondealswithtenderof
pardonbyMagistrates.Thissectionappliestotenderofpardonby
the Court of Sessions, the Special Judge or the Chief Judicial
Magistrate. Pardon under this Section can be tendered not only

-16duringatrial,butalsobeforetrial.Wherepardonisgrantedbythe
Courttowhomthecasehasbeencommittedfortrial,compliance
withtheprovisionsofaS.306(4)isnotnecessary.
Section 308 : Under this section a certificate of the
PublicProsecutorisaconditionprecedenttotheprosecutionofan
approvetowhomatenderofpardonhasbeenmadebutwhohas
failed to comply with the conditions of the tender. The approver
breaks the condition of pardon if he willfully conceals anything
essentialorgivesfalseevidence.Aspersubsection(2) wherean
approver has been tendered a pardon and he has accepted the
tender, his statement recorded by a Magistrate u/s.164 or by a
Courtu/subs.(4)ofs.306willbeadmissibleinevidenceagainst
him at a subsequent trial, after forfeiture of the pardon, for an
offenceinrespectofwhichapardonwassotendered.
Subsections(4)and(5)laydown thatwhenaperson
to whom a pardon is tendered is being tried, he shall at the
commencementoftheproceedingsbeaskedastowhetherheraises
a plea that he has complied with the conditions on which the
pardonwasgranted,and,ifhedoessoplead,theCourtshallrecord
itsfindingonthepointandifitfindsthattheconditionshavebeen
compliedwith,shallacquittheaccused.
Section 309 authorizes a Magistrate, after taking
cognizanceoftheoffenceorcommencementoftrial,forreasonable
cause, to remand an accused person to jail. It relates to
adjournment of proceedings in inquiries and trials. Thana Singh
.Vs.CentralBureauofNarcotics,(2013)2SCC590.
Section 313 empowers the Court to examine the
accusedaftertheevidencefortheprosecutionhasbeentaken.The

-17objectofempoweringtheCourttoexaminetheaccusedistogive
him an opportunity of explaining any circumstances which may
tends toincriminatehimand thustoenabletheCourt,in case
wheretheaccusedisundefended,toexaminethewitnessesinhis
interest.
Inasummonscase,discretionlieswiththeMagistrate,
whethertodispencewiththeexaminationoftheaccusedu/s313
(BasavrajR.PatilVsState ofKarnataka,(2000)8SCC740).
Nooathcanbeadministeredtoanaccusedperson.
Anaccusedpersoncannotbeprosecutedforperjuryby
reasonofanyfalseanswersthathemaygive.
Section 314 enables the parties to a proceeding to
addressoralargumentsandwrittennotesofargument.

Section 315 lays down that an accused person is a


competentwitnessforthedefenceandlikeanyotherwitnessheis
entitledtogiveevidenceonoathindisproofofthecaselaidagainst
himbyprosecution.
Section317providesforenquiriesandtrialsbeingheld
intheabsenceoftheaccusedpersonincertaincases.Itisonlyif
theJudgeorMagistrateissatisfiedthat(1)thepersonalattendance
oftheaccusedbeforehimisnotnecessaryintheinterestsofjustice
or(2)theaccusedpersistentlydisturbstheproceedings,thenwhere
he is represented by a pleader, his personal attendance may be
dispensedwith.
Section318providesthatiftheaccused(thoughnot
ofunsoundmind)cannotbemadetounderstandtheproceedings,
theCourtmayproceedwiththeinquiryortrial;andinthecaseofa
Court other than a High Court if such proceedings result in a

-18conviction, the proceedingsshall beforwarded to theHighCourt


withareportofthecircumstancesofthecase,andtheHighCourt
shallpassthereonsuchorderasitthinksfit.
Section 319 empowers the Court to proceed against any
person not shown or mentioned as accused if it appears from
evidencethatsuchpersonhascommittedanoffenceforwhichhe
could be tried together with the main accused against whom an
enquiryortrialisbeingheld.
8}

ProcedureinSpecialtypeofcases(POCSO,138of

NIActJuvenile)
PROCEDUREFORTRIALOFTHEOFFENCESUNDER
PREVENTIONOFCHILDFROMSEXUALOFFENCESACT.
(Chapter8Section33laiddowntheprocedureandpowerof
SpecialCourt)
1]

It deals the procedure followed for session trial. A special

courtmaytakecognizanceofanyoffencewithouttheaccusedbeing
committedtoitforthetrialuponreceivingofthecomplaintofthe
factswhichconstitutessuchoffenceoruponthepolicereport.
2]

Special public prosecutor is appointed and defence counsel

while recording the evidence, examinationinchief, cross


examination and reexamination is to be followed but the public
prosecution cannot directly ask the question to the child witness
but he has to form the question and communicate the same to
presiding Officer i.e. special Court which shall in turn put up
questionstothechild.
3]

Similarprocedureisfollowedinrespectofthedefencecounsel

withfurtherdirectionnottoaskthequestioninaggravatedform

-19whichdisturbthechild.
4]

Specialcourtmaypermitfrequentbreaktothechildwitness

duringthecourseoftrial.
5]

The special court shall create child friendly atmosphere by

allowingparents,guardianonwhomchildhastrustatthetimeof
recordingofhisevidence.
6]

The special court shall ensure that child shall not called

repeatedlytotestifyandhisevidenceshallbecompletedwithin30
daysandcaseshouldbedisposedofwithinoneyear.
7]

The aggravated question which affect the character of the

childandhisdignityshouldnotbeallowed.
8]

Theidentityofthechildisnotdisclosedduringthecaseof

investigationortrialsubjecttothesatisfactionofthecourt.
9]

In appropriate cases, special court may direct the

compensationtothechildwhichsufferingphysicalmentaltrauma
becauseofsexualassaultandimmediaterehabilitationofthechild.
Thespecialcourttakeprecautionthatchildisnotexposedinany
waytotheaccusedatthetimeofrecordingofevidencebutatthe
sametime,accusedmustbeentitledtohearthestatementofchild
andalsotocommunicatehisadvocate.Thespecialcourtmayalso
record the statement of child through video conferencing or by
utilizingthesinglevisibilityresultorcurtainoranyotherdevices.
10]

The trial of child shall be conducted in camera and in the

presence of parents or any other person in the child trust or


confidence and if the child is not comfortable in court then his
evidenceshallberecordedanyotherplaceincludingchamberofthe
presidingofficer.
11]

Ifchildisnotinapositiontounderstandthelanguagethen

-20he can simply help or assistance with interpreter for recording


evidenceandalsoseekthehelpofexpert.
12]

Uniquefeatureisthatprovisionofsec.3to13ofthePOSCO

Actnotapplicableincaseofmedicalexaminationortreatmentwhen
childexaminationortreatmentisundertakenwithconsentofhis
guardianorparentsortrustworthyperson.Theprovisionsofthis
Actthathavingoverridingeffects.
Juvenile: TheJJBisbestowedwiththepowersoftheMagistrate
under Cr.P.C. Sec.4 (2) .The metropolitan Magistrate or JMFC is
designatedasaPrincipalMagistrateofJJB.Allcriminalcasesofa
Juvenileinconflictwithlawwhohasnotcompleted18yearsofage
aretobedealtwithbyJJBandnottheregularcourts.
Apprehension&InformationtoParentsguardianorprobation
officer.

As soon as the juvenile is arrested, the officer in

chargeofpolicestationorthe SpecialJuvenilePoliceUnit hasto


informed about the arrest tohis parent or guardianand to the
Probation officer of such arrest to enable him to obtained
informationregardingtheantecedentandthefamilybackground
ofthejuvenileetc.Achildmaybeproducedbeforeanindividual
memberoftheboard,whentheboardisnotsitting(Sec.5ofJ.J.
Act2000).ThejuvenileistobeproducedbeforeJJBwithin24hrs
ofhisarrest.Thejuvenileshouldnotbelodgedinpolicelockupor
jail.
Production,BailandInquiryprocedureBeforeJJB. :When
JICL producebeforeJJB,theboardeitherreleasehimonbailin
bailable or nonbailable offence (sec12) or may send him to

-21observationhome pendinginquiry(sec33).Theinquirybeforethe
boardshallbecompletedwithinaperiodoffourmonthsfromthe
dateofitscommencement.Theperiodcanbeextendedforspecial
reason.IfthejuvenileisnotreleasedonbailtheJJBshouldgive
shortdatesandinnocaseshouldthenextdateextendbeyond15
daysofthepreviousdate.
Illtreatment to Juvenile: On the first production of the
juvenile,iftheboardfoundilltreatmenttothechild,JJBcansent
thechildformedicalinvestigationandprovidetreatment. Ifthe
JGB board found illtreatment, physical or sexual abused, than
save the communicated to the District & Sessions Judge for
furtherproceedingandthechildbesentfortraumacounseling.
Submission of chargesheet: On thecharge sheet being filed,
the JGB has to seek the report of probation officer or a social
investigationreport. TheJJBisrequiredtoconsiderthisreport
priortopassinganyorderwithregardtorehabilitationofjuvenile
aspersection15(2)ofJ.J.Act.
Recording of Plea. : While recording theplea of Juvenile, the
juvenileisaskedwhetherhehascommittedornottheoffence,the
sumandsubstancesofaccusationmustbereadovertohim. If
thejuvenileadmitstohavingcommittedtheoffence,theJJBhas
to pass appropriate order as prescribed u/s.15 of J.J.Act 2000.
Evenifthejuvenilepleadsguilty,theJJBwillcontinuetheinquiry
after passing a reason order as to why chose not to accept the
juvenileplea.
Recordingofevidence: Whenthejuvenilepleadsnotguiltyor
hispleaofguiltisnotacceptedbytheJJB,theJJBhastorecord

-22the evidence by examining witnesses. While conducting an


inquiry, JJB should follow the procedure laid down in Cr.P.C.
pertainingtrialofsummonscases.

Onthebasisofevidenceandargumentsadvanced,

theJJBhastopassorderu/s.15ofJ.J.Act,2000.Theatmosphere
during the inquiry should be child friendly and that too in
presence of parents if any or any other person who is in near
relationswiththejuvenile.
Procedure to be followed by the Magistrate not empowered
under the Act. : When any Magistrate not empowered to
exercisedpowersofboard,isoftheopinionthatapersonbrought
beforehimisjuvenileorchildheshallwithoutanydelayrecord
such opinion and shall forward him along with the record of
proceedingtothecompetentauthorityhavingjurisdictionoverthe
proceeding.

Aspersection7&7AofJ.J.Act,2000,whenever,a

claimofjuvenileisraisedbeforeanycourt,isoftheopinionthat
anaccusedpersonwasajuvenileonthedateofcommissionofan
offence,thecourtshallmakeaninquiry,takesuchevidenceas
maybebenecessarytodeterminetheageofsuchpersonandshall
recordfindingstothateffect. Ifthecourtfindsapersontobe
juvenileonthedateofcommissionoftheoffence,itshallforward
thejuveniletotheboardforpassingappropriateorder.

The J.J.Board required to pass order u/s.15 of the

saidActinsteadofsentencinghim.InnocaseJ.J.Boardcanpass
sentence. There is no disqualification attached to conviction
passedundersection15ofsaidAct(sec19).

Thereisabarof Jointproceedingof a juvenileand

-23personwhoisnotajuvenilebyvirtueofsec18ofJ.J.Act,2000.
Appeal : Any order passed by JGB under J.J.Act 2000 is
challengablebefore SessionsCourtwithin30days ofpassingof
saidorder.

Procedure for trial under section 138 of Negotiable


InstrumentsAct..:Jurisdiction:

A reading of section 138 in conjunction with s177

Cr.P.Cleavesnodoubtthatthereturnofthechequebythedrawee
bankaloneconstitutesthecommissionoftheoffenceandindicate
theplacewheretheoffenceiscommitted.thereforetheplace,sits
orvenueofjudicialinquiryandtrialoftheoffencemustlogically
berestrictedtowherethedraweebank,islocated.
InDashrathRathodvsstateofMaharashtra,AIR2014SC
3519itheldthatplaceofissuanceordeliveryofstatuarynotice
or where complainant presents cheque for encashment was
relevantforthepurposeofterritorialjurisdiction.

ByvirtueofSection143ofN.I.Actwhichwasinserted

videamendmentAct,2002whichempoweredJ.M.F.C.orM.M.to
trycasessummarilyinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofsections
262,265ofCr.P.C.Butifthenatureofoffenceofthecaseappears
that asentence of imprisonment for a term exceeding one year
may have to be passed or that it is for any other reasons
undesirable to try the case summarily, the Magistrate after
hearingapartiesandrecordanordertothateffectshallproceed
toexamine,rehearthecaseinthemannerprovidedbythesaid
CodebyinvokingprovisionsofSection262to265ofCr.P.C.

The trial of caserequired to be concluded withinSix

-24monthsfromthedateoffilingofcomplaint.Onfilingofcomplaint
themattermustbekeptforhearingandissuanceofprocess.After
issueprocessiftheaccusedappearedbailshouldbegrantedtohim
and thereafter plea of accused should be recorded, when the
accused plead not guilty, evidence on affidavit shall be taken by
invoking of Section 145of N.I.Act. After completion of evidence
statement of accused u/s.313 came to be recorded, thereafter
defencewitnessifanybeexaminedonoath.Thereafterarguments
andjudgment.

In Indian Bank Association Vs. Union of India

reportedin 2014Cri.L.J.3119,Hon'bleSupremeCourtissued
following directions for speedy and expeditious disposal of cases
under138ofN.IAct.
(1)
M.M/J.M.onthedaywhenthecomplaintispresented,shall
scrutinizethecomplaintandifthecomplaintisaccompaniedbythe
affidavit and the documents and are found to be in order take
cognizanceanddirectissuanceofsummons.
(2) M.M./J.M.shouldadoptapragmaticandrealisticapproach
whileissuing summons. Summonsmust beproperly addressed
and sent by post as well as by email address got from the
complainant. Court, in appropriate cases, may take the
assistanceofthepoliceorthenearbyCourttoservenoticetothe
accused. Fornoticeofappearance,a shortdatebefixed. Ifthe
summonsisreceivedbackunserved,immediatefollowingaction
betaken.
(3)
Court may indicate in the summon that if the accused
makes an application for compounding of offences at the first
hearingofthecaseand,ifsuchanapplicationismade. Court
maypassappropriateordersattheearliest.
(4)
Court should direct the accused, when he appears to
furnishabailbond,toensurehisappearanceduringtrialandask
himtotakenoticeunderSection251ofCr.P.C.toenablehimto
enter his plea of defence and fix the case for defence evidence,
unlessanapplicationismadebytheaccusedunderSection145(2)

-25forrecallingawitnessforcrossexamination.
(5)
TheCourtconcernedmustensurethatexaminationinchief,
crossexaminationandreexaminationofthecomplainantmustbe
conductedwithinthreemonthsofassigningthecase.TheCourt
has option of accepting affidavits of the witnesses, instead of
examiningtheminCourt.Thecomplainantandaccusedmustbe
availableforcrossexaminationasandwhenthereisdirectionto
thiseffectbytheCourt.
9}
Proceduresinoffencesaffectingadministrationof
Justice.(340to346,348,349and350)
Chapter 26 of Cr. P. C deals with the procedures
relatingtotheoffencesaffectingtheadministrationofjustice.These
provisionsspecificallydealwithoffencesofgivingfalseevidencein
thejudicialproceedingsaswellastheproceedingsbeforethecourt.
The term court under section 195(4) of Cr. P.C. may be civil,
criminal,revenueorTribunalhavingempoweredtorecordevidence.
Sec 340 provides the procedure for offence enumerated in Sec.
195(1)(b).
The court can act on application made to it or suo
motu. It may be moved by a person who is not party to the
proceedinginrelationtowhichtheoffenceiscommitted.
TheappealagainsttheorderofMagistrateorcourtof
sessionisprovidedundersec.341.

Sec.344providethesummaryproceduretodealwith

theoffencesforgivingorfabricatingfalseevidence.Summarytrialis
providedinrespectofcommissionofoffencesundersection193to
196,199,200,205to211andsec228ofIndianPenalCode.
10}FramingofChargeS.211to224
(A)FramingofChargesandparticulars:

-26The very object of framing of charge is to accused person


mustknowinpreciouslyandconcisely aspossibleofthematter
withwhichheischarged.Thechargecontainparticularsastothe
time,place,oftheallegedoffences,thepersonagainstwhomorthe
thing in respect of which and in which manner offence was
committed.
Effectoferror:
Section215ofCr.P.C.,saysthatnoerrorinstatingeitherthe
offenceortheparticularsshallberegardedatanystageofthecase
asmaterial,unless,theaccusedwasinfactmisledbysucherroror
omissionandithasoccasionedafailureofjustice.
Alterationofcharge:
Aspersection216ofCr.P.C.anycourtmayalteroraddtoany
charge at any time before judgment is pronounced. However, if
court is of the opinion that because of addition or alteration of
chargeaccusedwillbeprejudice,Courtmaydirectthenewtrialor
adjourn the trial for such period as may be necessary. If after
additionoralterationofcharge,chargeisonefortheprosecutionof
which previous sanction is necessary, the case shall not be
proceededwithuntilsuchsanctionisobtained. (JasvinderSaini
andothers..Vrs..StatereportedinAIR2014SC841)
(B)JoinderofCharges:
Section 218 to 224 deals with joinder of charges.
Section218(1)ofCr.P.C.saysthatforeverydistinctoffenceofwhich
anypersonisaccusedthereshallbeaseparatecharge,andevery
suchchargeshellbetriedseparately.However,ontheapplicationof
theaccusedandifcourtisoftheopinionthatsuchpersonisnot

-27likely to be prejudiced, magistrate may try together all or any


numberofchargesframedagainstsuchperson.
Threeoffencesofsamekind219(1)withinaspaceof12months.
Tiralofmorethanoneoffence:section220if,inoneseriesof
actssoconnectedtogetherastoformthesametransaction.
Whereitisdoubfulwhatoffencehasbeencommitted:
Section219and221aretheexceptiontosection218.Cardinal
principleofsection218isthatforeverydistinctoffencetheremust
beseparatechargeandsuchchargemustbetriedseparately.
Whenoffenceprovedincludedintheoffencecharged:
Whenoffenceprovedincludedinoffencechargedhemaybe
convictedoftheminoroffence,thoughhewasnotchargedwithit
Jointtrialofthepersonsmorethanone:
Section223isdealswiththejointtrialofthepersonsmore
thanone.
11}Applicationsfordischarge:
Section227,239and245Cri.P.Caredealtwithdischargeof
accused. TheCodecontemplatesdischarge of theaccusedbythe
court of Session under section227in a case triable by it; cases
instituteduponapolicereportarecoveredbysection239andcases
institutedotherwisethanonpolicereportaredealtwithinsection
245.

Fromareadingoftheaforesaidsectionsitisevidentthatthey

containsomewhatdifferentprovisionswithregardtodischargeofan
accused.Undersection227oftheCode,thetrialcourtisrequired
todischargetheaccusedifitconsidersthatthereisnotsufficient
ground for proceeding against the accused. However, discharge

-28undersection239canbeorderedwhenthemagistrateconsiders
the charge against the accused to be groundless. The power to
dischargeisexercisableundersection245(1)when,themagistrate
considers, for reasons to be recorded that no case against the
accused has been made out which, if not repudiated, would
warrantshisconviction.Section227and239providefordischarge
beforetherecordingofevidenceonthebasisofthepolicereport,the
documentssentalongwithitandexaminationoftheaccusedafter
givinganopportunitytothepartiestobeheard.However,thestage
ofdischargeundersection245,ontheotherhand,isreachedonly
after the evidence referred in section 244 has been taken. Thus,
there is difference in the language employed in these differences,
andwhicheverprovisionmaybeapplicable,thecourtisrequiredat
this stage to see that there is a prima facie case for proceeding
againsttheaccused.

Theworddischargedisdistinguishablefromacquittal.

Theaccusedmaybedischargedifsufficientevidenceisnotthereto
proceedagainsthim.Magistratehastoapplyhisjudicialmindto
thefactsofthecaseinordertodeterminewhetheracasefortrial
hasbeenmadeoutbytheprosecution.Thecourtisrequiredtostate
reasonfordischargingtheaccused.
Itis asettledpropositionoflawthatevenwhenthere
arematerialsraisingstrongsuspicionagainstanaccused,thecourt
willbejustifiedinrejectingaprayerfordischargeandingrantingan
opportunity to the prosecution to bring on record the entire
evidenceinaccordancewithlawsothatcaseofboththesidesmay
beconsideredappropriatelyonconclusionoftrial.(SonuGuptaVs.
DeepakGuptaMANU/SC/0127/2015)

-2912}

Misc. provision regarding trial, adjournment,

dismissals,recallofwitness,Courtwitness,stopproceedings.
Adjournment:

Section309of

theCr.P.C.

reflects

the

constitutional guarantee of speedy trial. Section309ofCriminal


ProcedureCode1973conferspowerontheTrialCourtforgranting
adjournment incriminalproceeding. There is a proviso to Sub
section (2) of Section309ofCriminalProcedure Code which says
that when the witnesses are in attendance, noadjournmentor
postponementshallbegrantedwithoutexaminingthem,exceptfor
specialreasonstoberecordedinwriting.InthecaseofStateofU.P.
v.Shambhu Nath Singh

and Ors., 2001CriLJ1740


theSupreme
Court has specially dealt with in elaborate manner the power of
theTrialCourtforgrantingadjournmentsincriminalproceeding.

Proviso of S.309(1)& (2) mandate that the inquiry or

trialrelatestoanoffenceundersections376to376DoftheIndian
PenalCode(45of1860),asfaraspossible, becompletedwithina
period of two months from the date of commencement of the
examinationofwitnesses,noadjournmentshallbegrantedatthe
requestofaparty,exceptwherethe circumstancesarebeyondthe
controlofthatparty,thefactthatthepleaderofapartyisengaged
in another Court, shall not be a ground for adjournment, if
party/counsel are absent or is not ready to examine or cross
examine the witness, the Court may, if thinks fit, record the
statement of the witness and pass such orders as it thinks fit
dispensing with the examinationinchief or crossexamination of
thewitness,asthecasemaybe.

Recentlyinacirculatedjudgmentinthecaseof Vinod

-30KumarVs.StateofPunjab1Hon'bleApexCourtobservedthat,The
trial courts are expected in law to follow the command of the
procedurerelatingtotrialandnotyieldtotherequestofthecounsel
tograntadjournmentfornonacceptablereasons.
2}

Dismissals(Sec.203,249&256(1))
Section 203: Under Section203Magistrate may

dismiss the complaint; if, after taking the statement of the


complainantandhiswitnessesandtheresultoftheinvestigation,if
any, under Section202there is in his judgment "no sufficient
groundforproceeding.
Section 249 of Cr.P.C : UnderSection249of the
Code of Criminal Procedure, the Magistrate is empowered to
dischargetheaccusedintheabsenceofthecomplainant,buthe
can do so only in case where the offence may be lawfully
compounded or isnotacognizableoffence.Innoothercase,the
Magistrateempoweredtodischargetheaccused.
Section 256(1) of Cr.P.C: In a summons case,
institutedonacomplaint,ifthecomplainantisabsentonthedate
ofhearing,theMagistratehastofolloweitherofthethreecourses,
namely;Acquittheaccused;toadjournthecaseandtodispensewith
theattendanceofthecomplainantandtoproceedwiththecase.
Restorationofa

complaint: Asecondcomplaintispermissible
in law if it could be brought within the limitations. However,
theCriminalP.C. does not contain any provision enabling
thecriminalCourttoreviveitsorderandrestorethecomplaint.1
1 Criminal Appeal No.554 of 2012
1 Maj Genl. A. S. Gauraya v.S. N. Thakur, 1986CriLJ1074

-313}

Recallofwitness:Section311ofCr.P.C.:

Discovery of

thetruthistheessentialpurposeofanytrialorenquiry. Section
311 ismanifestlyintwoparts.Whereasthewordusedinthefirst
partis"may",thesecondpartuses"shall".Inconsequence,thefirst
part gives purely discretionary authority to a criminal court and
enablesitatanystageofanenquiry,trialorproceedingunderthe
Code (a) to summon anyone as awitness, or (b) to examine any
person present in the court, or (c) torecalland reexamine any
person whose evidence has already been recorded. On the other
hand, the second part is mandatory and compels the court to take
any of the aforementioned steps if the new evidence appears to it
essential to the just decision of the case.uponthecourttoarrive
atthetruthbyalllawfulmeans.[

Mohan Lal Shamlal Soni vs

Union Of India And Another,AIR1991SC1346.]


4]

CourtWitness(awitnesscalledbyCourt):

The object of the Section311is to bring on record

evidence not only from the point of viewof the accused and the
prosecutionbutalsofromthepointofviewoftheorderlysociety.
TherighttocrossexamineawitnesswhoiscalledbyaCourtarises
notundertheprovisionofSection311,butundertheEvidenceAct
whichgivesapartytherighttocrossexamineawitnesswhoisnot
hisownwitness.
5}

Stopproceeding:Summonscasesaregenerallyoftwo

categories; instituted upon complaints and otherwise than upon


complaints.Thelattercategorywouldincludecasesbasedonpolice
reports. Section258oftheCodeisintendedtocoverthosecases
belonging to one category alone i.e. "summons cases instituted
otherwisethanuponcomplaints".Thesectionpermitsthecourtto

-32acquit the accused prematurely only in those summons cases


instituted otherwise than on complaints wherein the evidence of
material witnesses was recorded. But the power of court to
dischargeanaccusedatmidwaystageisrestrictedtothosecases
instituted otherwise than on complaints wherein no material
witnesswasexaminedatall.
Deathofthecomplainant:

It is now wellsettled that on the death of the

complainant, underSection 256(2)Cr.P.C. cannot ipso facto bring


abouttheterminationofthecriminalproceedingandinthatcase
the Magistrate is authorised to exercise his power
underSection302Cr.P.C. by allowing any person or prosecution
agencyforconductingofthecriminalcasemerelyonthedeathof
the complainant,the complaintfiledby himcannotbedismissed
nor the accused acquitted or discharged underSection256or
258Cr.P.C.[ JimmyJahangirMadanv.BollyCariyappaHindley
(Dead)byLrs.,MANU/SC/0946/200

4
2004(12)SCC509

]
Submittedwithduerespect.

(O.P.Jaiswal)

(V.D.Shukla)

DistrictJudge1 DistrictJudge3
Amti.

(L.S.Padhen)

(S.S.Oza)
Jt.C.J.S.D.,Amti.

Amti.

(Ms.P.B.Yerlekar)

Jt.C.J.J.D.,Jt.C.J.J.D.,
Amti.

Amti.

-33-