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SIMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PV

BASED FLYBACK CONVERTER FED BATTERY


CHARGING SYSTEM
A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

NAVEEN KUMAR S

(311611105033)

RAGHAV K S

(311611105040)

VISHNUVARMAN S

(311611105058)

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree


of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
IN
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

MISRIMAL NAVAJEE MUNOTH JAIN ENGINEERING COLLEGE

ANNA UNIVERSITY : CHENNAI 600 025


APRIL 2015

ANNA UNIVERSITY : CHENNAI 600 025


BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
Certified that this project report SIMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATION
OF PV BASED FLYBACK CONVERTER FED BATTERY CHARGING
SYSTEM is the bonafide work of NAVEEN KUMAR S, RAGHAV K S,
VISHNUVARMAN S who carried out project work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE

SIGNATURE

Mr. N. GNANASEKARAN M.E., (Ph. D.,)

Mrs. K.ANITHA M.E.,

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

SUPERVISOR

Associate Professor

Assistant Professor

Department of Electrical and

Department of Electrical and

Electronics Engineering

Electronics Engineering

Misrimal Navajee Munoth Jain

Misrimal Navajee Munoth Jain

Engineering College,

Engineering College,

Thoraipakkam, Chennai-600 097.

Thoraipakkam, Chennai-600 097.

Submitted for Anna University viva-voce examination held on _____________

INTERNAL EXAMINER

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
At the outset, we would like to express our heartfelt gratitude to our
Chairman Shri. M. LALCHAND MUNOTH, and sincere thanks to our
Secretary (Administration)
(Academic)

Dr. HARISH L METHA and Secretary

Shri. L. JASHWANT MUNOTH

for

providing

us

an

opportunity to pursue this project and for being our source of inspiration.
We

take

this

opportunity

to

thank

our

Principal

Dr. C. CHANDRASEKAR CHRISTOPHER, for creating an atmosphere


conductive for our studies that enabled us to pursue this project.
We would like to extend our sincere thanks to our Vice-Principal
Dr. M. D. K. KUMARASWAMY who has been the moral support for our
project.
We thank our department fraternity for their collective support and we
would like to extend our gratitude to Mr. N. GNANASEKARAN, Associate
Professor and Head Of the Department, Department of Electrical and
Electronics Engineering.
We would also like to thank our guide Mrs. K. ANITHA, Assistant
Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering for her
guidance which helped us to accomplish our project successfully.
We thank all the teaching and non-teaching staff members for their
valuable suggestions and constant support throughout the project.
We also thank our parents who rendered great support to us during
this project tenure.

iii

ABSTRACT
The utilization of solar energy by converting it into electrical energy are
still the focus of attention. Normally, the output of Photovoltaic Cells (PV) are
stored in the batteries . The proposed system incorporates the pulsed charging
methodology rather than a constant voltage-current strategy using fly back
converters in order to charge the batteries connected to PVs. This pulse
charging methodology keeps the energy supply continuous and optimum. The
converters currently used for the battery charging purpose consists of many
number of switches which leads to switching losses. The proposed converter
uses minimum number of switches thereby switching losses are reduced to a
great extent. The charging current to the batteries are given in the form of
current pulses with pulse breaks . The proposed system emphasizes directly
using PV energy supply without using DC bus . In addition, there is another
advantage of sending current pulse trains for charging with pulse breaks which
prolongs the battery life and also benefits the dissolve of sulfating
crystallization formation in batteries.

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO.

1.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

ABSTRACT

iv

LIST OF TABLES

ix

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF ABBREVATIONS

xii

INTRODUCTION

1.1

ORGANISATION OF THE PROJECT

1.2

GENERAL

1.2.1

Problem of Sulfation in batteries

1.3

EXISTING SYSTEM

1.4

PROPOSED SYSTEM

1.5

ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED

SYSTEM
2.

LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1

GENERAL

2.2

REVIEW OF VARIOUS PAPERS

2.2.1

Paper-I

2.2.2

Paper-II

2.2.3
3.

Paper-III

DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT

3.1

GENERAL

3.2

BLOCK DIAGRAM

3.2.1

PV Module

3.2.2

Interleaved Flyback Converter

3.2.3

Battery

10

3.2.4

Motor

11

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

11

3.3.1

Working of Flyback Converter

12

3.3.2

Power Supply Circuit

14

3.3.3

Control Circuit

15

3.3

3.4

COMPONENTS AND ITS

16

FEATURES
3.4.1

PIC Microcontroller

16

3.4.2

MOSFET Driver IC (IR2110)

23

3.4.3

Step down Transformer

24

3.4.4

Bridge Rectifier

24

3.4.5

Voltage Regulator (7805 and

24

7812)

vi

3.4.6

Power MOSFET

25

3.5

SIMULATION

25

3.6

INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB

26

3.7

THE MATLAB SYSTEM

27

3.7.1

27

Desktop tools and development


environment

3.7.2

The MATLAB mathematical

26

function library
3.7.3

MATLAB Language

27

3.7.4

Graphics

28

3.7.5

The MATLAB external

28

Interfaces/API
3.7.6

4.

MATLAB Documentation

28

3.8

ROLE OF SIMULATION IN DESIGN

28

3.9

SIMPOWERSYSTEM LIBRARIES

29

3.10 SIMULATION CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

30

RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

32

4.1

General

32

4.2

ANALYSIS OF THE SIMULATION

32

RESULTS
4.2.1

Output waveform of solar panel

vii

32

4.2.2

Voltage waveform of
converter

Flyback

33

4.2.3

Gate pulses to the MOSFETs

34

4.2.4

Battery waveform and its

34

characteristics
4.2.5

Motor speed and torque

36

characteristics
4.3

ANALYSIS OF THE HARDWARE

37

RESULTS

5.

4.3.1

Flyback voltage

37

4.3.2

Battery Voltage

38

4.3.3

MOSFET gate pulse waveform

38

CONCLUSION

39

5.1

Summary

39

5.2

Future Scope

39

APPENDIX 1

40

APPENDIX 2

42

REFERENCES

43

viii

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE NO.
3.1

TITLE
Data sent through the port for generating

PAGE NO.
22

trigger pulses
3.2

Lead definitions for IR2110

ix

24

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE NO.
1.1

TITLE
Power electronic interface in solar energy

PAGE NO.
2

conversion process
3.1

Block Diagram of the proposed system

3.2

Realization circuit for the proposed system

11

3.3.

Current path and equivalent circuit during

12

mode-1
3.4

Current path and equivalent circuit during

13

mode-2
3.5

Current path and equivalent circuit during

14

mode-3
3.6

Power supply circuit

14

3.7

Control circuit

15

3.8

Block diagram of PIC 16F84A

18

3.9

Pin diagram of PIC 16F84A

20

3.10

Program flow chart of PIC microcontroller

22

3.11

Pin diagram of IR2110

23

3.12

Circuit model in MATLAB

30

3.13

Solar panel model in MATLAB

31

4.1

Output Voltage waveform of Solar panel

32

4.2

Output Voltage waveform of Flyback

33

converter
4.3

Waveform of Switching pulses given to

34

the MOSFET
4.4

Waveform of Output Voltage across the

35

battery
4.5

Waveform of Charging current of battery

35

4.6

Discharge characteristics of battery

36

4.7

Speed characteristics

36

4.8

Torque characteristics

36

4.9

Flyback Primary voltage

37

4.10

Flyback Secondary voltage

37

4.11

Battery voltage

38

4.12

Gate pulse signal

38

xi

LIST OF ABBREVATIONS

PV

Photo Voltaic cell

SOC

State of Charge

LAB

Lead Acid Battery

DC

Direct current

PWM

Pulse width modulation

AC

Alternating Current

VBm

Battery voltage

SFR

Special Function Register

CISC

Complex Instruction Set Computer

PMDC

Permanent Magnet DC

CMOS

Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

MOSFET

Metal

Oxide

Semiconductor

Transistor
PIC

Peripheral Interface Controller

MATLAB

Matrix Laboratory

xii

Field

Effect

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1

ORGANISATION OF THE PROJECT


This project comprises of five chapters, starting with chapter one which

gives a brief synopsis about the purpose, objective and the general working of
the project followed by chapter two which highlights the various research work
done in the field of this project work giving information about the basics of the
technique. Chapter three describes the technical aspects of the project
explaining the various hardware blocks, necessary circuits, components used to
devise the project and the analysis of the working of the project. The chapter
four which illustrates the simulation results obtained using MATLAB and the
hardware results and finally the Chapter five concludes the project giving
outlooks over the accomplishment of the project work and also suggesting
possibilities for future work.
1.2

GENERAL
Recently, renewable energy has been signicantly attractive to our life

facing on the alternative energy sources possibly to replace the fossil energy.
Except for the renewable energy directly converting to grid, green house, and so
on, the applications through indirect conversion are still the focus of attention,
especially for such as standalone system, mobile solar charger, hybrid system,
and so on. One such renewable energy, solar energy is taken as the matter of
consideration. Solar power is arguably the cleanest, most reliable form
of renewable energy available and it can be used in several forms to help power
our home or business. Solar-powered photovoltaic (PV) panels convert the sun's
rays into electricity by exciting electrons in silicon cells using the photons of
light from the sun. This electricity can then be used to supply

renewable

energy to environment. A basic schematic block representing the process of

transformation of solar energy into electrical energy with power electronic


interface is illustrated below.

Figure.1.1 Power electronic interface in solar energy conversion process


Solar photovoltaic cells consist of a positive and a negative film of silicon
placed under a thin slice of glass. As the photons of the sunlight beat down upon
these cells, they knock the electrons off the silicon. The negatively-charged free
electrons are preferentially attracted to one side of the silicon cell, which creates
an electric voltage that can be collected and channeled. This current is gathered
by wiring the individual solar panels together in series to form a solar
photovoltaic array . The electricity produced at this stage is DC (direct current).
The DC voltage obtained will have high voltage ripples and it is not
constant. Hence DC-DC Converters are employed. Employing DC/DC
converters can be offered as a method to attenuate the ripples regardless of
change in the load current or input voltage and also installation of DC-DC
Converters also helps to generate multiple voltage levels from a single DC
supply voltage. The output from the DC-DC converter is either stored in
batteries for future purpose or feeds the different sub-circuits. Maximum power
point tracking (MPPT) is a technique used to get the maximum possible power
from one or more photovoltaic modules. Photovoltaic solar cells have a
complex relationship between solar irradiance , temperature and total resistance
that produces a non-linear output efficiency which can be analyzed based on
the I-V curve. It is the purpose of the MPPT system to sample the output of the
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PV cells and apply the proper resistance (load) to obtain maximum power for
any given environmental conditions
1.2.1 PROBLEM OF SULFATION IN BATTERIES
Even though the Lithium ion and Lithium iron phosphate batteries seem
rapidly becoming major in high power applications, the lead-acid battery (LAB)
is still preferred and popularly used in our life due to its high reliability and low
cost. The composition of the LAB is simply a Pb lead anode, PbO2 lead dioxide
cathode, H2SO4 electrolyte with a 1.2 specic gravity, and a separator between
the electrodes. The lead dioxide (PbO2) and the lead anode (Pb) are the active
materials of positive and negative electrodes, respectively. When the LAB
charging approaches 85 95% of the state-of-charge (SOC), might result in the
battery voltage over the gassing voltage, which may cause the evolution of
gaseous hydrogen at the negative electrode and oxygen at the positive electrode.
This undesired behavior possibly produces heat, increases the charging time,
and shortens the life of battery. Moreover, the pores of positive electrode in
LAB are always crystallized with PbSO4 after multiple discharge processes,
and its crystallized amount is much more than on the negative electrode. As a
result, it is possible to reduce the available electrolysis reaction area, block the
electrolyte penetration, and further decrease the reaction area. However, these
effects are seriously associated with the prolongation of battery life.
Pulsed current charging

is an effective means of delaying the

crystallization process and minimizing the development of the PbO2 layer


during cycling. In other words, pulse charging can offer an effective approach to
enhancing the cycle-life of LAB under recharging conditions. It prevents large
crystal formations on the electrode plates of the batteries. This approach is to
increase the charge acceptance in LABs for improving the charging time and
potentially prolonging the life-cycle time. It also offers lower plate resistance
and less power loss during charge and discharge.
3

1.3

EXISTING SYSTEM
The solar energy conversion system primarily involves a DC- DC

converter for storing the energy from the output of the solar panel to the
batteries. A DC-to-DC converter is an electronic circuit which converts a source
of direct current (DC) from one voltage level to another. It is a class of power
converter. The current system uses the conventional DC-DC converters for
taking the non-linear output characteristic of the solar PV sources which varies
with solar insolation and temperature and convert it into appropriate level of
voltage required and also to produce the current pulse trains and thereby
charging the batteries. The conventional DC-DC converters used in this system
poses some serious disadvantages. The first and foremost disadvantage is the
switching loss. These type of converters uses many power switches for
switching purpose during operation which results in the incremental switching
losses which ultimately affects the efficiency of the converters. Though the
circuit of these converters looks pretty simple , the overall size of the converters
is large than we presume and hence the generation of heat will also be high. So
separate cooling set up of DC-DC converters are needed. Various test report
concludes that the conventional DC-DC converters used produces undesirable
noise. The overall cost is also high.
1.4

PROPOSED SYSTEM
This project focuses on the implementation of flyback converters instead

of the conventional DC-DC converters for the production of the current pulse
trains for charging the batteries. Flyback converter is best suitable for low
output power applications where the output voltage needs to be isolated from
the input main supply. The output power of fly-back type converter circuits
may vary from few watts to less than 100 watts. Input to the circuit is generally
unregulated dc voltage obtained from the solar panel . The circuit can offer

single or multiple isolated output voltages and can operate over wide range of
input voltage variation. The commonly used fly-back converter requires a single
controllable switch like MOSFET and the usual switching frequency is in the
range of 10 kHz. A two- switch topology exists that offers better energy
efficiency and less voltage stress across the switches but costs more and the
circuit complexity also increases slightly.The flyback converters finds
application in the following areas

Low-power switch-mode power supplies (cell phone charger, standby power


supply in PCs)

Low-cost multiple-output power supplies (e.g., main PC supplies <250W)

High voltage supply for the CRT in TVs and monitors (the fly back
converter is often combined with the horizontal deflection drive)

High voltage generation (e.g., for xenon flash lamps, lasers, copiers, etc.)

Isolated gate driver

1.5 ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM


The main advantages of using fly back converters and thereby executing
pulse charging strategy of charging the batteries are discussed here. Fly back
designs are cost effective, small and efficient. This fly back controller serves
10W to 100W isolated applications with high performance, simplicity, small
size, and a minimum component count. Cross regulation is superior to buckderived isolated converters

and

it

is often operated in discontinuous

conduction mode. Since the operation rely on energy stored in the transformer is
given to the secondary. It has wide input voltage range and lower voltage rating
on secondary components.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE SURVEY
2.1

GENERAL
This chapter deals with the research work of various papers related to the

project. The work of the different people in their papers helps in solving out the
points of clarification related to this project.
2.2

REVIEW OF VARIOUS PAPERS


The various works of different people in their papers are discussed below.

2.2.1 PAPER - I
Y. H. Sun, H. L. Jou, and J. C. Wu, Aging estimation method for leadacid battery, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 264271, Mar.
2011.
Due to the improper charging and discharging of the batteries, it subjects to a
serious problems termed as sulfation. Solar cells and wind turbines do not
always provide sufficient charge, and lead acid banks succumb to sulfation due
to which the amorphous lead sulfate converts to a stable crystalline that deposits
on the negative plates. This leads to the development of large crystals, which
reduces the available electrolysis reaction area , block the electrolyte penetration
and further decreases the reaction area which ultimately reduces the batterys
active material that is responsible for high capacity and low resistance. These
effects are seriously associated with the prolongation of battery life
2.2.2 PAPER - II
H. Ikeda, S. Minami, S. J. Hou, Y. Onishi, and A. Kozawa, Nobel
high current pulse charging method for prolongation of batteries, J. Asian
Electric Vehicle, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 681687, 2007.
Conventional buck-boost converters can step up or step down the input voltage.
Their output voltage is negative with respect to the input voltage, which needs
an inverting transformer to make the output voltage positive. Pulsed-current
6

charging, proposed is an effective means of delaying the crystallization process


and minimizing the development of the PbO2 layer during cycling. In other
words, pulse charging can offer an effective approach to enhancing the cyclelife of batteries under recharging conditions. This approach also increases the
charge acceptance in batteries for improving the charging time and potentially
prolonging the life-cycle time. The pulse charging methodology also helps for
smart charge management when used under closed loop system .If constant
charging current is given to batteries , it is difficult to have a control over it but
when it is given as pulses , it is easy to control the charging current fed into
batteries.
2.2.3 PAPER - III

Y. C. Hsieh, M. R. Chen, and H. L. Cheng, An interleaved y back


converter featured with zero voltage transition IEEE Trans. Power
Electron., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 7984, Jan. 2011.
This paper proposes an interleaved fly back converter, which is remarked with
zero-voltage-switched active switches and reduced reverse-recovery loss on the
rectifying diodes. This converter can provide up to 500Wpower with highest
efficiency as high as 91%. Conventional buckboost converters can step-up or
step down the input voltage. However, they are not capable of providing
bidirectional power flow. Moreover, their output voltage is negative with
respect to the input voltage, which needs an inverting transformer to make the
output voltage positive. The adopted boost-fly back converter has a high voltage
conversion ratio to overcome the limit of conventional boost or buck-boost
converter with narrow turn-off period. The proposed converter has wide turn-off
period compared with a conventional boost converter. Thus the higher output
voltage can be achieved in the proposed converter.

CHAPTER 3
DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT
3.1

GENERAL
This chapter deals with detailed explanation of the block diagram and

circuit diagram and also discusses about the various functional aspects in
hardware and software.
3.2

BLOCK DIAGRAM
The block diagram of the PV based flyback converter fed battery

charging system is shown below.

Figure.3.1 Block Diagram


The output of the PV module which is an unregulated DC voltage is given to
the flyback converter which converts the unregulated DC voltage into high
frequency pulses . The pulses on rectification yields a voltage stress less DC
voltage which can be further used to drive the loads like battery , motor etc.
Microcontroller is used to control gate pulses given to the power switches. Two
flyback converters are interleaved together which helps in getting a smoother
output . The description of each block in figure 3.1 is discussed further.

3.2.1 PV MODULE
Basically, solar cell is a semiconductor material. The working principle of
solar cell is the principles of Photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic (PV) cells are
made up of at least two semi-conductor layers. One layer containing a positive
charge, the other a negative charge. Sunlight consists of little particles of solar
energy called photons. As a PV cell is exposed to this sunlight, many of the
photons are reflected, pass right through, or absorbed by the solar cell. When
enough photons are absorbed by the negative layer of the photovoltaic cell,
electrons are freed from the negative semiconductor material. Due to the
manufacturing process of the positive layer, these freed electrons naturally
migrate to the positive layer creating a voltage differential, similar to a
household battery. When the two layers are connected to an external load, the
electrons flow through the circuit creating electricity.

3.2.2 INTERLEAVED FLYBACK CONVERTER


The term "Flyback" means energy goes from the input and stored in the
magnetic field and later it is released from the magnetic field to the load. Input
to the flyback converter is an unregulated dc from the solar panel. The ripple in
dc voltage waveform is generally of low frequency and the overall ripple
voltage waveform repeats at twice the ac mains frequency. Since the converter
circuit is operated at much higher frequency (in the range of 10 kHz) the input
voltage, in spite of being unregulated, may be considered to have a constant
magnitude during any high frequency cycle. A fast switching device like
MOSFET, is used with fast dynamic control over switch duty ratio (ratio of ON
time to switching time-period) to maintain the desired output voltage. Primary
and secondary windings of the transformer are wound to have good coupling so
that they are linked by nearly same magnetic flux. The flyback is way different
from the normal transformer. In a normal transformer, under load, primary and
secondary windings conduct simultaneously such that the ampere turns of
9

primary winding is nearly balanced by the opposing ampere-turns of the


secondary winding (the small difference in ampere-turns is required to establish
flux in the non-ideal core). Secondary windings of the flyback transformer dont
conduct simultaneously they are more like two magnetically coupled inductors
and it may be more appropriate to call the flyback transformer as inductortransformer. Two flyback converters are interleaved in order to produce high
frequency pulse trains and to keep the supply continuous and optimum.

3.2.3 BATTERY
Batteries convert chemical energy directly to electrical energy. A
battery consists of some number of voltaic cells. Each cell consists of two halfcells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing anions and
cations. One half-cell includes electrolyte and the negative electrode, the
electrode to which anions (negatively charged ions) migrate the other half-cell
includes electrolyte and the positive electrode to which cations (positively
charged ions) migrate. Redox reactions power the battery. Cations are reduced
(electrons are added) at the cathode during charging, while anions are oxidized
(electrons are removed) at the anode during discharge. The electrodes do not
touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte. The electrical
driving force or across the terminals of a cell is known as the terminal voltage
(difference) and is measured in volts.
The terminal voltage of a cell that is neither charging nor discharging is
called the open-circuit voltage and equals the emf of the cell. Because of
internal resistance, the terminal voltage of a cell that is discharging is smaller in
magnitude than the open-circuit voltage and the terminal voltage of a cell that is
charging exceeds the open-circuit voltage. The voltage developed across a cell's
terminals depends on the energy release of the chemical reactions of its
electrodes and electrolyte.

10

3.2.4 MOTOR
A small Permanent Magnet DC motor is fixed as an auxiliary load in
order to show the versatility of the flyback converter that it is possible to obtain
multiple isolated output voltage from it. The main advantage of using PMDC
motor is that there is no special arrangement needed for field excitation.

3.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM


The realization circuit for the proposed PV based flyback converter fed
battery charging system is shown below

Figure.3.2 Realization circuit for the proposed system


The output of the PV panel will be an unregulated DC . This unregulated DC
voltage is given to the flyback converter. In this design, a flyback converter
selected as PV converter is because of its flexibility and simple topology for
convenience in describing the proposed conceptual theme especially easy in
describing the impedance match between the PV module, IFC and the battery.
Two flyback converters (IFC) interleave each other to generate high-frequency
tiny pulse train as a charging source from the PV module. The action of the
11

flyback converter is controlled by the Power MOSFET switches QF1 and QF2.
The detailed working of the flyback converter is explained in the next section.
The output of the flyback converter which will be an interleaved high frequency
pulse trains which is fed into the battery through the controlling Power
MOSFET switch QT1 will be acting as the charging pulses of the battery B m.
.The

diodes DFs1 and D Fs2 are employed for rectification purpose and the diodes

DF1 and D F2 are used in order to prevent the action of current flow from load
to source. A small PMDC motor along with a control switch QT2 is fixed as
another load in order to show that the proposed circuit can also offer isolated
multiple voltage output.

3.3.1 WORKING OF FLYBACK CONVERTER

Figure.3.3 Current path and equivalent circuit during mode-1


From the circuit diagram of Figure 3.3, when switch S is on, the primary
winding of the transformer gets connected to the input supply with its dotted
end connected to the positive side. At this time the diode D connected in series
with the secondary winding gets reverse biased due to the induced voltage in the
secondary (dotted end potential being higher). Thus with the turning on of
switch S, primary winding is able to carry current but current in the secondary
winding is blocked due to the reverse biased diode. The flux established in the
transformer core and linking the windings is entirely due to the primary winding
current. This mode of circuit has been described here as Mode-1 of circuit
12

operation. In the equivalent circuit shown, the conducting switch or diode is


taken as a shorted switch and the device that is not conducting is taken as an
open switch. This representation of switch is in line with our assumption where
the switches and diodes are assumed to have ideal nature, having zero voltage
drop during conduction and zero leakage current during off state. Under Mode1, the input supply voltage appears across the primary winding inductance and
the primary current rises linearly.

Figure.3.4 Current path and equivalent circuit during mode-2


Mode-2 of circuit operation starts when switch S is turned off after conducting
for some time. The primary winding current path is broken and according to
laws of magnetic induction, the voltage polarities across the windings reverse.
Reversal of voltage polarities makes the diode in the secondary circuit forward
biased. Figure. 3.4 shows the current path (in bold line) during mode-2 of circuit
operation and also shows the functional equivalent of the circuit during this
mode .In mode-2, though primary winding current is interrupted due to turning
off of the switch S, the secondary winding immediately starts conducting such
that the net mmf produced by the windings do not change abruptly. (mmf is
magneto motive force that is responsible for flux production in the core. Mmf,
in this case, is the algebraic sum of the ampere-turns of the two windings.
Current entering the dotted ends of the windings may be assumed to produce
positive mmf and accordingly current entering the opposite end will produce
negative mmf.) Continuity of mmf, in magnitude and direction, is automatically
ensured as sudden change in mmf is not supported. The steady-state magnitude
13

of output capacitor voltage depends on various factors, like, input dc supply,


fly-back transformer parameters, switching frequency, switch duty ratio and the
load at the output. During discontinuous mode, after complete transfer of the
magnetic field energy to the output, the secondary winding emf as well as
current fall to zero and the diode in series with the winding stops conducting.
The output capacitor however continues to supply uninterrupted voltage to the
load. This part of the circuit operation has been referred to as Mode-3 of the
circuit operation.

Figure.3.5 Current path and equivalent circuit during mode-3


Mode-3 ends with turn ON of switch S and then the circuit again goes to
Mode-1 and the sequence repeats. Figure 3.5 respectively show the current
path and the equivalent circuit during mode-3 of circuit operation. It may be
noted here that even though the two windings of the flyback transformer dont
conduct simultaneously they are still coupled magnetically (linking the same
flux) and hence the induced voltages across the windings are proportional to
their number of turns.

3.3.2 POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT


Single phase 230V AC supply is rectified using a bridge rectifier 1N4007
which has high efficiency than all other methods to get the desired DC supply.
This 15V DC is converted into 12V DC by using 7812 regulator. The capacitor
is used to provide smooth variation in voltage. The positive terminal of the
capacitor is connected to the input pin of the 7812 regulator for voltage
14

regulation. An output voltage of 12V obtained from the output pin of 7812 is
fed as the supply to the pulse amplifier. An output voltage of 5V obtained from
the output pin of 7805 is fed as the supply to the micro controller. For indication
purpose we used LED with 560 ohm resistor to limit current flow to the LED.
The following figure 3.6 shows the regulated power supply.

Figure.3.6 Power supply circuit


3.3.3 CONTROL CIRCUIT
The Control circuit involving the PIC Microcontroller and Driver
amplifier is shown below.

Figure.3.7 Control circuit


The gate pulses given to the Power MOSFET switches are controlled using
PIC16F84A microcontroller. The voltage regulator IC 7805 feeds the
15

microcontroller and the IC 7812 feeds the driver. The driver circuit comprises
of two driver ICs 2110 which are employed to drive two MOSFETs. A crystal
oscillator of 4MHz is used to fix the internal clock frequency of the PIC
microcontroller . Current limiting resistors are used near the gate terminals.
3.4

COMPONENTS AND ITS FEATURES


Components plays a vital role in building up a circuit .The various

components used in the project are listed below.


3.4.1 PIC MICROCONTROLLER
In this project the hardware is implemented using the PIC
Microcontroller PIC16F84A. The advantages of the PIC microcontroller is
that the instruction set of this controller are fewer than the usual
microcontroller. Unlike Conventional processors, which are generally complex,
instruction set computer (CISC) type, PIC microcontroller is a RISC processor.
The advantages of RISC processor against CISC processor are:

RISC instructions are simpler and consequently operate faster.

A RISC processor takes a single cycle for each instruction, while CISC
processor requires multiple clocks per instruction ( typically, at least three
cycles of throughput execution time for the simplest instruction and 12 to
24 clock cycles for more complex instruction), which makes decoding a
tough task.

The control unit in a CISC is always implemented by a micro-code, which is


much slower than the hardware implemented in RISC.

The idea of using the PIC microcontroller is because:

To employ the frequently used instructions as the instruction set while using
a few instructions to achieve the same function performed by a much more
complex instruction in a CISC.
16

The RISC itself has a large number of general purpose registers, largely
reduced the frequency of the most time-consuming memory access.

In terms of clock rate, the RISC with its much simpler circuits can have a
higher clock rate that again increases the performance of a processor.

Overall the RISC processor can provide processing power more than three times
of a CISC processor in a particular field of application.
The main features of PIC-microcontroller PIC16F84A are as follows.
Only 35 single word instructions to learn
All instructions single-cycle except for program branches which are twocycle
Operating speed: DC - 20 MHz clock input DC - 200 ns instruction cycle
1024 words of program memory
68 bytes of Data RAM
64 bytes of Data EEPROM
14-bit wide instruction words
8-bit wide data bytes
Direct, indirect and relative addressing modes
The PIC16F84A belongs to the mid-range family of the PIC microcontroller
devices. The program memory contains 1K words, which translates to 1024
instructions, since each 14-bit program memory word is the same width as each
device instruction. The data memory (RAM) contains 68 bytes. Data EEPROM
is 64 bytes. There are also 13 I/O pins that are user-configured on a pin-to-pin
basis. Some pins are multiplexed with other device functions. These functions
include
External interrupt
Timer0 clock input
17

A block diagram of the PIC microcontroller is shown in figure 3.8.

Figure.3.8 Block Diagram of PIC16F84A


There are two memory blocks in the PIC16F84A. These are the program
memory and the data memory. Each block has its own bus, so that access to
each block can occur during the same oscillator cycle. The data memory can
further be broken down into the general purpose RAM and the Special Function
Registers (SFRs). The operations of the SFRs that control the core are
described here. The SFRs used to control the peripheral modules are described
in the section discussing each individual peripheral module. The data memory
area also contains the data EEPROM memory. This memory is not directly
mapped into the data memory, but is indirectly mapped. That is, an indirect
address pointer specifies the address of the data EEPROM memory to
read/write. The 64 bytes of data EEPROM memory have the address range 0h3Fh. The EEPROM data memory is readable and writable during normal
operation (full VDD range). This memory is not directly mapped in the register
file space. Instead it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function
18

Registers. There are four SFRs used to read and write this memory. These
registers are:
EECON1
EECON2 (not a physically implemented register)
EEDATA
EEADR
EEDATA holds the 8-bit data for read/write, and EEADR holds the address of
the EEPROM location being accessed. PIC16F84A devices have 64 bytes of
data EEPROM with an address range from 0h to 3Fh.The EEPROM data
memory allows bytes read and write. A byte write automatically erases the
location and writes the new data (erase before write). The EEPROM data
memory is rated for high erase/write cycles. The write time is controlled by an
on-chip timer. The write time will vary with voltage and temperature as well as
from chip to chip. Please refer to AC specifications for exact limits. When the
device is code protected, the CPU may continue to read and write the data
EEPROM memory. The device programmer can no longer access this memory.
What sets a microcontroller apart from other processors are special
circuits to deal with the needs of real time applications. The PIC16F84A has a
host of such features intended to maximize system reliability, minimize cost
through elimination of external components, provide power saving operating
modes and offer code protection. These features are:
OSC Selection
RESETPower-on
Reset (POR)
Power-up Timer

(PWRT)Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)

Interrupts
19

Watchdog Timer (WDT)


SLEEP
Code Protection
ID Locations
In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP)

Figure.3.9 Pin Diagram of PIC16F84A


The Pin configuration of PIC16F84A is shown in figure 3.9.The PIC16F84A
has a Watchdog Timer which can be shut-off only through configuration bits. It
runs off its own RC oscillator for added reliability. There are two timers that
offer necessary delays on power-up. One is the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST),
intended to keep the chip in RESET until the crystal oscillator is stable. The
other is the Power-up Timer (PWRT), which provides a fixed delay of 72 ms
(nominal) on power-up only. This design keeps the device in RESET while the
power supply stabilizes. With these two timers on-chip, most applications need
no external RESET circuitry. SLEEP mode offers a very low current powerdown mode. The user can wake-up from SLEEP through external RESET,
Watchdog Timer Time-out or through an interrupt. Several oscillator options
are provided to allow the part to fit the application. The RC oscillator option
saves system cost while the LP crystal option saves power. A set of
configuration bits are used to select the various options. The PIC16F84A can be
operated in four different oscillator modes. The user can program two
configuration bits (FOSC1 and FOSC0) to select one of these four modes:
20

LP Low Power Crystal


XT Crystal/Resonator
HS High Speed Crystal/Resonator
RC Resistor/Capacitor
The PIC16F84A has 4 sources of interrupt:
External interrupt RB0/INT pin
TMR0 overflow interrupt
PORTB change interrupts (pins RB7:RB4)
Data EEPROM write complete interrupt
The interrupt control register (INTCON) records individual interrupt requests in
flag bits. It also contains the individual and global interrupt enable bits. The
global interrupt enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>), enables (if set) all unmasked
interrupts or disables (if cleared) all interrupts. Individual interrupts can be
disabled through their corresponding enable bits in INTCON register. Bit GIE is
cleared on RESET. The return from interrupt instruction, RETFIE, exits
interrupt routine as well as sets the GIE bit, which re-enables interrupts. The
RB0/INT pin interrupt, the RB port change interrupt and the TMR0 overflow
interrupt flags are contained in the INTCON register. When an interrupt is
responded to, the GIE bit is cleared to disable any further interrupt, the return
address is pushed onto the stack and the PC is loaded with 0004h. For external
interrupt events, such as the RB0/INT pin or PORTB change interrupt, the
interrupt latency will be three to four instruction cycles. The exact latency
depends when the interrupt event occurs. The latency is the same for both one
and two cycle instructions. Once in the Interrupt Service Routine, the source(s)
of the interrupt can be determined by polling the interrupt flag bits. The
interrupt flag bit(s) must be cleared in software before re-enabling interrupts to
avoid infinite interrupt requests.
21

The circuit seen in figure 3.1 shows that there are two main power MOSFET
switched employed to control the flyback converter. The triggering pulses to the
MOSFETs are given and controlled by the PIC microcontroller. The following
data as shown in the table 3.1 are sent through port3 for generating triggering
pulse.
S4

S3

S2

S1

HEX CODE

05H

00H

0AH

00H

Table 3.1 Data sent through the port for generating trigger pulses
The flowchart of both the main program and the delay subroutine program for
coded in the microcontroller is as follows.
START

Delay

PORT INITIALIZATION
Move data to
Register R1

MOVE DATA 05H TO PORTB


CALL DELAY

Decrement R1

MOVE DATA 00 H TO
PORTB
MOVE DATA 0A H TO
PORTB
CALL DELAY

Is R1 = 0
N

MOVE DATA 00 H TO
PORTB
SJMP

Y
RET

Figure.3.10 Program flow chart for PIC microcontroller


22

3.4.2 MOSFET Driver IC (IR2110)


The IR2110/IR2113 are high voltage, high speed power MOSFET and
IGBT drivers with independent high and low side referenced output channels.
Proprietary HVIC and latch immune CMOS technologies enable ruggedized
monolithic construction. Logic inputs are compatible with standard CMOS or
LSTTL output, down to 3.3V logic. Propagation delays are matched to simplify
use in high frequency applications. The floating channel can be used to drive an
N-channel power MOSFET or IGBT in the high side configuration which
operates up to 500 or 600 volts. The pin configuration of IR2110 is shown in the
figure 3.10

Figure.3.11 Pin Diagram of IR2110


It has CMOS Schmitt-triggered inputs with pull down and cycle by cycle edgetriggered shutdown logic .Propagation delay for both channels are matched. The
Outputs of the IR2110 will be in phase with inputs. The IR2110 is a high
voltage, high speed power MOSFET driver with independent high and low side
referenced output channels. It is fully operational to +500V or +600V and
tolerant to negative transient voltage dV/dt immune. The IR2110 is a high
voltage, high speed power MOSFET driver with independent high and low side
referenced output channels. It is fully operational to +500V or +600V and
tolerant to negative transient voltage dV/dt immune. The Lead definitions of
IR2110 is shown in the table 3.2.

23

SYMBOL

DESCRIPTION

VDD

Logic Supply

HIN

Logic input for high side gate drive output (HO), in


phase

SD

Logic input for shut down

LIN

Logic input for low side gate driver output (LO), in


phase

VSS

Logic ground

VB

High side floating supply

HO

High side gate drive output

VCC

Low side supply

LO
COM

Low side gate drive output


Low side return
Table 3.2 Lead definitions for IR2110

3.4.3 STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER (0-15V)


The primary is connected to single phase 230V supply and the step down
voltage of 15V AC is obtained from secondary side. The 15V from the
secondary side of the transformer is given to the Voltage regulator.
3.4.4 BRIDGE RECTIFIER (IN4007)
It is used to convert the stepped down 15V AC to 15V DC. Its features
are diffused junction, high current capability and low forward voltage drop,
surge overload rating to 30A peak, low reverse leakage current.
24

3.4.5 VOLTAGE REGULATOR (7805 AND 7812)


7805 and 7812 are voltage regulator integrated circuit. It is a member of
78xx series of fixed linear voltage regulator ICs. The voltage source in a circuit
may have fluctuations and would not give the fixed voltage output. The voltage
regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a constant value. The xx in 78xx
indicates the fixed output voltage it is designed to provide. 7805 and 7812
provides +5V and +12V regulated power supply respectively. Capacitors of
suitable values can be connected at input and output pins depending upon the
respective voltage levels.
3.4.6 POWER MOSFET
The Power MOSFET IRF-840 is used as the switching device which
provides fast switching, ruggedized device design, low on-resistance and cost
effectiveness. The TO-220 package is universally preferred for all commercialindustrial applications at power dissipation levels to approximately 50 watts.
The low thermal resistance and low package cost of the TO-220 contribute to
its wide acceptance throughout the industry.
3.5

SIMULATION
Simulation has become a very powerful tool on the industry application

as well as in academics, nowadays. It is now essential for an electrical engineer


to understand the concept of simulation and learn its use in various applications.
Simulation is one of the best ways to study the system or circuit behaviour
without damaging it .The tools for doing the simulation in various fields are
available in the market for engineering professionals. Many industries are
spending a considerable amount of time and money in doing simulation before
manufacturing their product. In most of the research and development (R&D)
work, the simulation plays a very important role. Without simulation it is quiet
impossible to proceed further. It should be noted that in power electronics,
computer simulation and a proof of concept hardware prototype in the
25

laboratory are complimentary to each other. However computer simulation must


not be considered as a substitute for hardware prototype. The objective of this
chapter is to describe simulation of flyback converter with battery and motor
loads using MATLAB tool.
3.6

INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB
MATLAB is a high-performance language for technical computing. It

integrates computation, visualization, and programming in an easy-to-use


environment where problems and solutions are expressed in familiar
mathematical notation. Typical uses includes
Math and computation
Algorithm development
Data acquisition
Modeling, simulation, and prototyping
Data analysis, exploration, and visualization
Scientific and engineering graphics
Application development, including graphical user interface building
MATLAB is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that
does not require dimensioning. This allows you to solve many technical
computing problems, especially those with matrix and vector formulations, in a
fraction of the time it would take to write a program in a scalar non interactive
language such as C or FORTRAN.
The name MATLAB stands for matrix laboratory. MATLAB was
originally written to provide easy access to matrix software developed by the
LINPACK and EISPACK projects. Today, MATLAB engines incorporate the
LAPACK and BLAS libraries, embedding the state of the art in software for
matrix computation.
MATLAB has evolved over a period of years with input from many
users. In university environments, it is the standard instructional tool for
26

introductory and advanced courses in mathematics, engineering, and science. In


industry, MATLAB is the tool of choice for high-productivity research,
development and analysis.
MATLAB features a family of add-on application-specific solutions
called toolboxes. Very important to most users of MATLAB, toolboxes allow
you to learn and apply specialized technology. Toolboxes are comprehensive
collections of MATLAB functions (M-files) that extend the MATLAB
environment to solve particular classes of problems. Areas in which toolboxes
are available include signal processing, control systems, neural networks, fuzzy
logic, wavelets, simulation, and many others.
3.7 THE MATLAB SYSTEM
The MATLAB system consists of six main parts. These six parts plays a
vital role in constituting the MATLAB system. They are as follows
3.7.1 DESKTOP TOOLS AND DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT
This is the set of tools and facilities that help you use MATLAB
functions and files. Many of these tools are graphical user interfaces. It includes
the MATLAB desktop and Command Window, a command history, an editor
and debugger, a code analyzer and other reports, and browsers for viewing help,
the workspace, files, and the search path.
3.7.2 THE

MATLAB

MATHEMATICAL

FUNCTION

LIBRARY

A vast collection of computational algorithms ranging from elementary


functions, like sum, sine, cosine, and complex arithmetic, to more sophisticated
functions like matrix inverse, matrix eigen values, Bessel functions, and fast
Fourier transforms all together constitutes

the

MATLAB

mathematical

function library.
3.7.3 THE MATLAB LANGUAGE
This is a high-level matrix/array language with control flow statements,
functions, data structures, input/output, and object-oriented programming
27

features. It allows both "programming in the small" to rapidly create quick and
dirty throw-away programs, and "programming in the large" to create large and
complex application programs.
3.7.4 GRAPHICS
MATLAB has extensive facilities for displaying vectors and matrices as
graphs, as well as annotating and printing these graphs. The Successor of the
MATLAB version possess extensive development in graphics section. It
includes high-level functions for two-dimensional and three-dimensional data
visualization, image processing, animation, and presentation graphics. It also
includes low-level functions that allow you to fully customize the appearance of
graphics as well as to build complete graphical user interfaces on your
MATLAB applications.
3.7.5 THE MATLAB EXTERNAL INTERFACES/API
This is a library that allows you to write C and Fortran programs that
interact with MATLAB. It includes facilities for calling routines from
MATLAB (dynamic linking), calling MATLAB as a computational engine, and
for reading and writing MAT-files.
3.7.6 MATLAB DOCUMENTATION
MATLAB provides extensive documentation, in both printed and online
format, to help you learn about and use all of its features. If you are a new user,
start with this Getting Started book. It covers all the primary MATLAB features
at a high level, including many examples. The MATLAB online help provides
task-oriented and reference information about MATLAB features. MATLAB
documentation is also available in printed form and in PDF format.
3.8 THE ROLE OF SIMULATION IN DESIGN
Electrical power systems are combinations of electrical circuits and
electro mechanical devices like motors and generators. Engineers working in
28

this discipline are constantly improving the performance of the systems.


Requirements for drastically increased efficiency have forced power system
designers to use power electronic devices and sophisticated control system
concepts that tax traditional analysis tools and techniques. Further complicating
the analyst's role is the fact that the system is often so nonlinear that the only
way to understand it is through simulation. Land-based power generation from
hydroelectric, steam, or other devices is not the only use of power systems. A
common attribute of these systems is their use of power electronics and control
systems to achieve their performance objectives. SimPower Systems is a
modern design tool that allows scientists and engineers to rapidly and easily
build models that simulate power systems. SimPower Systems uses the
Simulink environment, allowing you to build a model using simple click and
drag procedures. Not only can you draw the circuit topology rapidly, but your
analysis of the circuit can include its interactions with mechanical, thermal,
control and other disciplines. This is possible because all the electrical parts of
the simulation interact with the extensive Simulink modelling library. Since
Simulink uses MATLAB as its computational engine, designers can also use
MATLAB toolboxes and Simulink block sets. SimPower Systems and Sim
Mechanics share a special Physical Modelling block and connection line
interface.

3.9

SIM POWER SYSTEMS LIBRARIES


SimPower Systems can be put to work rapidly. The libraries contain

models of typical power equipment such as transformers, lines, machines, and


power electronics. The SimPower Systems main library, powerlib, organizes its
blocks into libraries according to their behaviour. The powerlib library window
displays the block library icons and names. Double-click a library icon to open
the library and access the blocks. The main SimPower Systems powerlib library

29

window also contains the powergui block that opens a graphical user interface
for the steady-state analysis of electrical circuit.
3.10 SIMULATION CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
The modelling of the circuit of PV based flyback converter fed battery
charging system in the MATLAB is shown in figure 3.12 The simulation is
done with three batteries and motor as load in order to study the behaviour of
the flyback converter with various multiple voltage levels. The corresponding
results of simulation showing the voltage and current behaviour of the
components and the load connected to the system is discussed further.

The

modelling of the solar panel in order to maintain constant power always is also
simulated using MATLAB and is shown in figure 3.12.

Figure.3.12 Circuit model in MATLAB

The realization circuit of the PV based flyback converter fed battery charging
system is modelled in MATLAB. Simulation is done using three different loads
such as battery, motor and resistive load. The voltage and the current magnitude
at different points in the circuit based on the requirement is obtained by
connecting the voltage measurement and current measurement block and the
corresponding waveform is viewed with the help of scope block.
30

The various waveform obtained are discussed in detail in chapter 4. The solar
panel modelling is also done in MATLAB separately as it is necessary to
simulate a maximum power point tracking circuit of solar panel so that a
constant voltage can be given as an input to the flyback circuit. The modelling
of solar panel circuit in MATLAB is shown in the figure 3.13.

Figure.3.13 Solar panel model in MATLAB


The various parameters such as solar insolation , the voltage level at P max and
short circuit current , current level at Pmax , open circuit voltage are entered in
the block parameters box. The PV module is connected to adder block which
will combine both the voltage level and the current level and the maximum
power value can be obtained from the product of these two magnitudes . A
display block is also connected which shows the Vpv, Ipv , and Ppv

values.

This

simulation ensures that the PV array is always operated at its maximum power
point.

31

CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
4.1

GENERAL
The complete analysis of both the simulation results as well as the

hardware results of the project is described in this chapter.


4.2

ANALYSIS OF THE SIMULATION RESULTS


The MATLAB waveform results showing the behavior of the each

components that are incorporated in the circuit are displayed and analyzed as
follows.
4.2.1 OUTPUT WAVEFORM OF SOLAR PANEL
The output DC voltage from the solar panel is given as the input to the
flyback converter which converts the unregulated DC into a regulated one. The

voltage (volts)

output waveform of the solar panel is shown in figure 4.1

Time (sec)
Figure.4.1 Output Voltage waveform of Solar panel
The solar insolation value is fixed as 100 W/m2 and the corresponding Voltage
at Pmax as17.5 V, current at Pmax as 6.3 A , the open circuit voltage as 25V and
the short circuit current as 7.5A. The simulation is done with the above
mentioned parameters and the we obtained the output constant operating voltage
which is to be fed to the flyback converter as 13.8V.

32

4.2.2 VOLTAGE WAVEFORM OF FLYBACK CONVERTER


The Output voltage of 13.8 V (approx) from the solar panel is fed to the
flyback converter. The voltage waveform showing the voltage levels across
both the primary and secondary side of the flyback

obtained from the

VSecodary

VPrimary

simulation is shown in the figure 4.2.

Time (sec)
Figure.4.2 Output Voltage waveform of Flyback
The time period of the above shown waveform purely depends on the operating
frequency of the MOSFET switch. Considering the winding parameters at the
primary side, the magnetization inductance value Lm is fixed as 3mH and the
resistance as 450 Ohms whereas the line resistance and the inductance are
fixed to a negligible value equal to 0.02 Ohms and 0.05mH and the simulation
is done and the resulting waveform is shown in figure 4.2 constitutes the
voltage across the primary winding is approximately equal to 13.8 V and the
voltage across the secondary is found be 5.74 V. The time period of the voltage
curve obtained depends on the operating clock frequency of the PIC
microcontroller.
33

4.2.3 GATE PULSES TO THE MOSFETS


The gate terminal of the two main power MOSFET switches are
triggered in MATLAB using block called pulse generator. The two main
controlling switches of the flyback converter are set to operate at a frequency of
10 KHz. The block parameters for simulating the pulse generator includes the
time period fixed as 100 sec and the pulse width is fixed has 50% of the time
period and a break period of about 10 sec. Similarly operating frequency of the
gate pulse of the MOSFET switch QT1 is 550 Hz. With these value entered as
the block parameters of the pulse generator , simulation is done and the

VQt1

VGs1

waveform shown in the figure 4.3 is obtained.

Time(sec)
Figure.4.3 Waveform of Switching pulses given to the MOSFET
4.2.4 BATTERY WAVEFORM AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS
A battery is included in the model as a load connected at one of the
output terminal of the interleaved flyback converter with the type of the battery
being selected as Lead Acid battery and the nominal voltage is set as 6V and the
rated capacity as 1.5AH and the initial state of charge (SOC) to be 30% so that
we can able to analyze the charging and discharging behavior of it . The
simulation is done and the voltage waveform in figure 4.4 is obtained.
34

voltage (volts)

Time(sec)
Figure.4.4 Waveform of Output Voltage across the battery

The current pulse for charging the battery is fed from the output of the flyback
converter . The waveform of the current pulse trains which is used to charge the

Current(Ampere)

battery is shown in the figure 4.5.

Time(sec)
Figure.4.5 Waveform of Charging current of battery
The current pulse trains entering into the battery accounts for the charging of
the battery and the simulation results of this current pulses yielded an average
value of charging current as 0.45A. The discharge characteristics of the battery
is shown in the figure 4.6. The discharge characteristics obtained from the
MATLAB shows that the total time discharge the battery is about 5 hours with
the discharge current of 0.3A and if the magnitude of the charging current is
increased, then the rate at which the battery gets charged will also increase.
35

Figure.4.6 Discharge characteristics of battery


4.2.5 MOTOR SPEED AND TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS
A small PMDC motor connected as an auxiliary load in PV based
flyback converter fed battery charging is modeled in the MATLAB and the
speed and torque characteristics of the motor is obtained from the simulation

Speed (rpm)

result and is shown in the figure 4.7 and 4.8.

Time(sec)

Torque (rpm)

Figure.4.7 Speed characteristics

Time(sec)
Figure.4.8 Torque characteristics
36

4.3 ANALYSIS OF THE HARDWARE RESULTS


The hardware is fabricated and the output of each part of circuit for
which simulation is done and analyzed is compared with the hardware output.
4.3.1 FLYBACK VOLTAGE
The Primary voltage is maintained around 30Volts and the waveform

VPrimary (volts)

obtained in CRO as shown in figure 4.9.

Time (sec)
Figure. 4.9 Flyback primary voltage
The voltage from the solar panel is converted into high frequency pulses and
then rectified which produces a voltage stress less output . The secondary side
voltage level of the flyback is found to be 20 V (approx). The secondary

VSecondary (volts)

voltage waveform obtained in CRO is shown in the figure 4.10.

Time (sec)
Figure. 4.10 Flyback secondary voltage
More the number of flyback converters are interleaved together more smooth
voltage levels are obtained.
37

4.3.2 BATTERY VOLTAGE


The battery is drained to a voltage level of 2.7 Volts . The drained
voltage level of battery(before charging) is measured using multimeter as shown
in the figure 4.11(a) This battery connected to the circuit and the battery is
charged using the current pulse trains from the flyback converter for charging
and the battery after charging is shown in the figure 4.11(b)

(a)

(b)
Figure. 4.11 Battery voltage level

4.3.3 MOSFET GATE PULSE WAVEFORM


The voltage to the gate of MOSFET is maintained at 10 Volts. The gate

voltage (volts)

pulse signal given to MOSFET is as shown in figure 4.12.

Time (sec)
Figure. 4.12 Gate pulse Signal
For the converter operation to be performed , it is necessary to give the gate
pulse signals to the MOSFET. As menntioned earlier, the gate pulses given to
the MOSFETs are controlled using PIC microcontroller.

38

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION
5.1 SUMMARY
This project presents a detailed study and implementation of flyback
converter that is suitable for charging the batteries wherein the source for
charging the batteries being provided by solar panel. This method of charging
the batteries involves the feeding of charging current in the form of pulses
rather than a constant voltage-current strategy. This pulse charging
methodology prevents the formation of crystallized layer inside the batteries
during the time of charging which ultimately improves the life of batteries to a
great extent. Since the flyback converters are best suitable for low power
application, this methodology finds its application majorly in vehicle charging
station.

5.2 FUTURE SCOPE


This project is done in open loop system. Closed loop system using
Artificial Neural Network(ANN) or using Fuzzy Logic Control(FLC) can be
done so that automatic monitoring of the charging status of the batteries and
smart charge management can be made possible. By doing so, it is possible to
make the energy supply from the solar panel continuous and optimum.

39

APPENDIX 1
PIC MICROCONTROLLER PROGRAMMING

Pulse Generation Program for PIC micro controller


to generate single PWM pulse .

del equ 20h


del1 equ 21h

org 000h
bsf status ,5
movlw 0x00
movwf porta
bcf status,04h
movwf portb
bcf status,5

start:
movlw 05h
movwf portb
call delay1

movlw 00h
movwf portb
call delay2
movlw 0ah
40

movwf portb
call delay1

movlw 00h
movwf portb
call delay2

goto start

delay1: movlw 04h


movwf del
loop: decfsz del,1
goto loop
return
delay2: movlw 02h
movwf del1
loop1:decfsz del1,1
goto loop1
return

41

APPENDIX 2
PICTURE OF THE HARDWARE

42

REFERENCES

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