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ML course, 2015 fall

What you should know:


Week 1: Random events
Concepts/definitions:
event/sample space, random event
probability function
conditional probabilities
independent random events (2 forms);
conditionally independent random events
(2 forms)

Theoretical results/formulas:
elementary probability formula:
# favorable cases
# all possible cases
the multiplication rule; the chain rule
total probability formula (2 forms)
Bayes formula (2 forms)

Exercises illustrating the above concepts/definitions and theoretical results/formulas,


in particular: proofs for certain properties derived from the definition of the probability function
for instance: P () = 0
= 1 P (A)
P (A)
A B P (A) P (B)
Bonferronis inequality: P (A B) P (A) + P (B) 1
Ciortuz et al.s exercise book: ch. 1, ex. 1-5 [6-7], 42-45 [46-48]

Week 2: Random variables


Concepts/definitions:
random variables;
random variables obtained through function composition
cumulative function distribution

Theoretical results/formulas:

discrete random variables;


probability mass function (pmf)
examples: Bernoulli, binomial, geometric,
Poisson distributions

P
for any discrete variable X:
x p(x) = 1, where p is the pmf of X

continuous random variables;


probability density function (pdf)
examples: Gaussian, exponential, Gamma
distributions

E[X + Y ] = E[X] + E[Y ]


E[aX + b] = aE[X] + b
Var[aX] = a2 Var[X]
Var[X] = E[X 2 ] (E[X])2
Cov(X, Y ) = E[XY ] E[X]E[Y ]

expectation (mean), variance, standard


variation; covariance. (See definitions!)
multi-valued random functions;
joint, marginal, conditional distributions
independence of random variables;
conditional independence of random variables
Advanced issues:
vector of random variables;
Covariance matrix for a vector of random
variables;
pozitive [semi-]definite matrices,
negative [semi-]definite matrices

for
R any continuous variable X:
p(x) dx = 1, where p is the pdf of X

X, Y independent variables
Var[X + Y ] = Var[X] + Var[Y ]
X, Y independent variables
Cov(X, Y ) = 0, i.e. E[XY ] = E[X]E[Y ]
Advanced issues:
For any vector of random variables, the
covariance matrix is symmetric and positive semi-definite.

Exercises illustrating the above concepts/definitions and theoretical results/formulas, concentrating especially on:
identifying in a given problems text the underlying probabilistic distribution: either a basic
one (e.g., Bernoulli, binomial, categorial, multinomial etc.), or one derived [by function
composition or] by summation of identically distributed random variables (see for instance
pr. 14, 50, 51);
computing probabilities (see for instance pr. 50, 51a,c);
computing means / expected values of random variables (see for instance pr. 2, 14, 51b,d);
verifying the [conditional] independence of two or more random variables (see for instance
pr. 12, 17, 51, 52).
Ciortuz et al.s exercise book: ch. 1, ex. 8-17 [18-22], 49-54 [55-57]

Week 3:
PART I: The Gaussian distribution (only at the lecture):
the uni-variate case:
pdf, mean and variance, and cdf;
the variable transformation enabling to go from the non-standard case to the standard case;
the Central Limit Theorem the i.i.d. case
[advanced issues: the multi-variate case: pdf, the case of diagonal covariance matrix]
Ciortuz et al.s exercise book: ch. 1, ex. 23, 24, 27; [25, 26]
(During the lecture, we have briefly presented the problems 23, 24 and 27.)
PART II: Elements of Information Theory
Concepts/definitions:
entropy;
specific conditional entropy;
average conditional entropy;
joint entropy;
information gain (mutual information)
Advanced issues:

Theoretical results/formulas:
0 H(X) H(1/n, 1/n, . . . , 1/n)
|
{z
}
n times

IG(X; Y ) 0
H(X, Y ) = H(X) + H(Y |X) = H(Y ) + H(X|Y )
(generalisation: the chain rule)
IG(X; Y ) = H(X)H(X|Y ) = H(Y )H(Y |X)

relative entropy;

H(X, Y ) = H(X) + H(Y ) iff X and Y are indep.

cross-entropy

IG(X; Y ) = 0 iff X and Y are independent

Exercises illustrating the above concepts/definitions and theoretical results/formulas, concentrating especially on:
computing different types of entropies (see ex. 34 and 36);
proof of some basic properties (see ex. 33a, 62), including the functional analysis of the
entropy of the Bernoulli distribution, as a base for drawing its plot;
finding the best IG(Xi ; Y ), given a dataset with X1 , . . . , Xn as input variables and Y as
output variable (see CMU, 2013 fall, E. Xing, W. Cohen, Sample Questions, pr. 4).
Ciortuz et al.s exercise book: ch. 1, ex. 32ab-34, 36, 61-65 [32c-g, 35, 37-40, 66]

Week 4 and 5: Decision Trees


Important Note:
The Overview (Rom.: Privire de ansamblu) of Chapter 2 in Ciortuz et al.s exercise
book is in fact a road map for what we will be doing here. (This note applies also to
all chapters.)
Week 4: application of ID3 algorithm; properties of ID3 and decision trees
Ciortuz et al.s exercise book, ch. 2, ex. 1-7, 20-27
Week 5: extensions to the ID3 algorithm
handling of continuous attributes: Ciortuz et al.s ex. book, ch. 2, ex. 8, 9 [10], 28-29
[30-32]
overfitting: Ciortuz et al.s ex. book, ch. 2, ex. 8, 19bc, 28, 36b
pruning strategies for decision trees: Ciortuz et al.s ex. book, ch. 2, ex. 17, 18, 33, 34
using other impurity neasures as [local] optimality criterion in ID3: Ciortuz et al.s ex.
book, ch. 2, ex. 13
other issues: Ciortuz et al.s ex. book, ch. 2, ex. 11, 12, 14-16, 19ad, 35, 36a
Implementation exercises:
0. CMU, 2012 fall, Zif Bar-Joseph, HW1, pr. 2
given a Matlab/Octave implementation for ID3, work on synthetic, noisy data, and study
the relationship between model complexity, training set size, train and test accuracy;
1. CMU, 2012 spring, Roni Rosenfeld, HW3
complete a given C (incomplete) implementation for ID3; work on a simple example
(Play Tennis from TMs ML book) and on a real dataset (Agaricus-Lepiota Mushrooms);
perform reduced-error (top-down vs bottom-up) pruning to reduce the overfitting;
CMU, 2011 spring, T. Mitchell, A. Singh, HW1, pr. 3
similar to the above one, except that pruning a node is conditioned on getting at least an
increase in accuracy
CMU, 2011 spring, Roni Rosenfeld, HW3
similar to the previous two HWs, except that instead of mushrooms it uses a chess dataset;
2. CMU, 2009 spring, Tom Mitchell, HW1
do an ID3 implementation, including reduced-error prunning and rule post-pruning; work
on a real dataset: predicting the votes in the US House of Representatives
3. CMU, 2011 fall, T. Mitchell, A. Singh, HW1, pr. 2
working with continuous attributes, complete a given a Matlab/Octave implementation for
ID3, perform reduced-error pruning; implement another splitting criterion: the weighted
misclassification rate; work on a real dataset: Breast Cancer
4. CMU, 2008 spring, T. Mitchell, HW1, pr. 2 asked for doing an ID3 implementation,
including reduced-error prunning work on a real dataset: German Credit Approval

Week 6 and 7: Bayesian Classifiers


Week 6: application of Naive Bayes and Joint Bayes algorithms:
Ciortuz et al.s exercise book, ch. 3, ex. 1-4, 11-14
Week 7:
computation of the [training] error rate of Naive Bayes:
Ciortuz et al.s exercise book, ch. 3, ex. 5-7, 15-17;
some properties of Naive Bayes and Joint Bayes algorithms:
Ciortuz et al.s exercise book, ch. 3, ex. 8, 20;
comparisons with other classifiers: Ciortuz et al.s exercise book, ch. 3, ex. 18-19;
Advanced issues:
classes of ML hypotheses: MAP hypotheses vs. ML hypotheses:
Ciortuz et al.s exercise book, ch. 3, ex. 9-10.
Week 8: midterm EXAM
Week 9: Instance-Based Learning
application of the k-NN algorithm:
Ciortuz et al.s exercise book, ch. 4, pr. 1-6; 14-20, 22, [15-21, 23, in the 2016s version]
comparisons with the ID3 algoritm:
Ciortuz et al.s exercise book, ch. 4, pr. 7, 12a, 13.
Shepards algoritm: Ciortuz et al.s exercise book, ch. 4, pr. 8.
Advanced issues:
some theoretical properties of the k-NN algorithm: Ciortuz et al.s exercise book, ch. 4,
pr. 10, 11 [and 14, in the 2016s version]; 21 [22, in the 2016s version].
Implementation exercises:
0. Stanford, 2013 fall, CS106L (Standard C++ Programming Lab) course, Cristian Cibils
Bernardes, HW3:
implementing kd-trees, in C++; use them in conjunction with k-NN;
1. CMU, ? spring, 10-711 (ML) course, HW1, pr. 5
implement k-NN in Matlab; study the evolution of the test error with k, on a dataset
from R2 ;
advanced issues:
compare the performances of k-NN (where k is selected according to the previous task)
and Gaussian Naive Bayes (whose pseudo-code is given in the problem) on the given
dataset;
2. MPI Informatik, Saarbr
ucken (Germany), 2005 spring, Jorg Rahnenf
uhrer and Adrian
Alexa, HW4, pr. 11
use k-NN from R; do training on the Breast Cancer dataset (full and reduced version),
using k-NN (with k selected via corss-validation) preceded by application of a (given)
statistical feature selection filter;make prediction for 3 test probes;

3. CMU, 2004 fall, Carlos Guestrin (?), HW4, pr. 3.2-8


implement k-NN in Matlab; apply it for hand written-character recognition (on the given
dataset); select k based on n-fold cross-vlidation and/or CVLOO;
4. CMU, 2005 spring, Carlos Guestrin (?), HW3, pr. 3.1-4[-7]
implement k-NN in Matlab; apply it for text classification (the dataset is provided), using
the cosine distance (its implementation in Matlab is provided); implement n-fold CV; for
the cosine distance, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosine similarity;
advanced issues:
make comparisons between k-NN and SVM, using the libSVM implementation (Matlab
scripts for train and test with SVM are provided);
5. CMU, 2010 spring, Eric Xing Tom Mitchell, Aarti Singh, HW2, pr. 2.1
implement k-NN in Matlab, using the Euclidian distance; use it for face recognition on
the provided ORL database (perform 10-fold cross-validation);
advanced issues:
CMU, 2011 fall, Eric Xing, HW5, pr. 1.1-2
use 1-NN from Matlab, in conjunction with PCA (Principal Component Analysis) on the
same ORL database of faces.

Weeks 10-14: Clustering


Week 10:
Hierarchical Clustering:
see section B in the overview (Rom.: Privire de ansamblu) of the Clustering chapter in
Ciortuz et al.s exercise book;
pr. 1-6; 23-26, 38
Week 11:
The k-Means Algorithm
see section C1 in the overview of the Clustering chapter in Ciortuz et al.s exercise book;
pr. 7-12, 21 [7-13, in the 2016s version]; 27-32
Week 12:
Estimating the parameters of probabilistic distributions: the MAP and MLE methods;
Ciortuz et al.s exercise book, ch. 1, pr. 28-31; 58-60 [58-63, in the 2016s version]
Week 13:
using the EM algoritm to solve GMMs (Gaussian Mixture Models), the uni-variate case:
see section C2 in the overview of the Clustering chapter in Ciortuz et al.s exercise book;
pr. 13bc, 14, 15, 33 [14bc-17, in the 2016s version];
Week 14:
EM for GMMs (Gaussian Mixture Models), the multi-variate case:
Ciortuz et al.s exercise book, the Clustering chapter: pr. 16-19, [20], 34-37 [18-21, 22,
34-37 in the 2016s version];
The EM Algorithmic Schemata: Tom Mitchell, Machine Learning, sect. 6.12.2.
Ciortuz et al.s exercise book, the EM Algorithm chapter; pr. 2 [3-4
Weeks 15-16: final EXAM

Erat
a la [draftul preliminar pentru] cartea
Exercitii de nv
atare automat
a
de L. Ciortuz, A. Munteanu, E. B
ad
ar
au
Observatie:
Corectiile scrise n albastru au fost facute de catre dl. Dulman, redactor la Editura UAIC - Iasi.
Multumiri
1. pag. 4, r
andul 7 de sus: un un un
2. pag. 4, r
andul 9 de sus: mentuinati mentionati
Cap. 1. Probabilit
ati si statistic
a
1. pag. 5, r
andul 6 de sus: procedeie procedee
2. pag. 5, r
andul 2 de jos: probabilt
ati probabilit
ati
3. pag. 6, r
andul 8 de jos: etropie entropie
4. pag. 7, r
andul 13 de sus: de a anulare de anulare
5. pr. 2, pag. 8, r
andul 2 de jos: a (0, 1] a (0, 1)
6. pr. 3, pag. 10, r
andul 2 (num
ar
and de sus, ns
a far
a a socoti antetul problemei):
vede verde
7. (S
tefan Pantiru)
pr. 4, pag. 11:
r
andul 11: 14 15
ntre r
andul 11 si r
andul 12 trebuie inserata linia: S = 2 : (1, 1)
r
andul 16: 14/36 = 7/18 15/36
2/36
1
2
r
andul 18:
=
14/36
7
15
r
andul 19: 1/7 2/15
8. (std. Grigorit
a Mihai)
pr. 8, pag. 15, r
ndul 11 de sus:
cele dou
a usi r
amase (usa 2 si usa 3) cele dou
a usi r
amase (usa 1 si usa 3)
9. (std. Dobranici Alexandru)
pr.P
10, pag. 19, r
andul 7 de sus:
P
= wVal(W ) P ({ | W () = w}) + zVal(Z) P ({ | Z() = z})
P
P
= wVal(W ) wP ({ | W () = w}) + zVal(Z) zP ({ | Z() = z})

10. pr. 13, pag. 22, r


andul 7 de jos: in n

11. pr. 14, pag. 23


aritelea de-a s
aritelea
r
andul 17 de jos: de-a-n s
r
andurile 10 si 11 de jos:
pozitia medie la care ne astept
am s
a fie iepurasul (adica media tuturor pozitiilor n care
poate ajunge iepurasul) pozitia (medie) la care ne astept
am s
a fie iepurasul

12. pr. 18 pag. 28:


r
andul 12 de jos: W si Z W : R si Z : R
r
andul 5 de jos: X si Y X : R si Y : R
13. pr. 19, pag. 28, r
andul 12 de jos: log ln
14. pr. 22:
pag. 31,
pag. 31,
pag. 32,
pag. 34,
pag. 34,

r
andul
r
andul
r
andul
r
andul
r
andul

11 de jos (except
and formulele): triunghilara triunghiular
a
2 de jos (except
nd nota de subsol): Fie D este Fie D
12 de jos: in sensul n sensul
3 de sus: probabilt
ati probabilit
ati
6 de sus: verosimiltatii verosimilitatii

15. pr. 23
R 2 2
pag. 35, r
andul 3 de jos: fom vom pag. 36, r
andul 4 de jos:
( v + 2v +
2
v2
v2

R 2 2
2
2
( v + 2v + ) e 2 dv
) e 2 dv
2

16. pr. 25, pag. 38, r


andul 12 de jos: defintia definitia

17. pr. 26:


pag. 39, r
andul 8 (num
ar
and de sus, ns
a far
a a socoti antetul problemei):
p(x , ) p(x; , ) pag. 40, r
andul 7 de sus:

1
1

T


0
1 x1 1
1
x1 1
12

exp
p(x; , ) =

1
x

2 1 2
2
2
2
2
2
0
22
 2

T 
 
!
1 x1 1
1
1
2 0
x1 1
exp
=
x2 2
12
2 1 2
2 x2 2
12 22 0

p(x; , )

1
1
exp
2 1 2
2

1
1
exp
2 1 2
2




x1 1
x2 2

T 

x1 1
x2 2

T

pag. 40, r
andul 11 de jos: aletoare aleatoare
18. pr. 27, pag. 41:
r
andul 2: ceasta aceasta
r
andul 11: variatia varianta
r
andul 21: rezulta pentru orice a 0 rezulta
r
andurile 25-27 trebuie sterse
19. pr. 27, pag. 42, r
andul 3: centrale centrala
20. pr. 29, pag. 44
r
andul 7 de sus: indepenedent independent
r
andul 10 de sus: N > 0

1
2
1 22

1
12

22
0

 

x1 1
x2 2



0
x1 1
1 x2 2
22
0
12

!

21. pr. 30:


pag. 46, r
andul 5 de jos, partea dreapt
a a egalitatii respective:

PN
PN 
(xi )2
(xi )2
1

i=1 log 2
i=1 log 2
2 2
2 2
pag. 47, r
andul 1 de jos, partea
a a egalitatii respective:
 dreapt

2
PN
(xi )2
log( 2 ()
i=1 log( 2 + 22
2 2 log C


2
PN 
)2
i=1 log 2 + (xi2
log 2 ()
2
2 2 log C

22. pr. 31, pag. 51, r


andul 4 de jos:
semnul = este suprascris de catre expresia p( | x1 , . . . , xn ); am corectat

23. (S
tefan Pantiru)
pr. 32, pag. 53, r
andul 5 de jos:
1
1
H(1/3, 1/3, 1/6) = H(1/2, 1/2) + H(2/3/1/3)
2
2
1
H(1/2, 1/3, 1/6) = H(1/2, 1/2) + H(2/3, 1/3).
2
24. pr. 32, pag. 56, r
andul 3 de jos:
1
log t
m
1
1
m
log t
1

n
log s
n
n
n
n
log s
n
25. pr. 34, pag. 59
aruncarea unui zar perfect cu 6 fete aruncarea a dou
a zaruri perfecte, cu 6 fete
26. pr. 34, pag. 60
r
andul 6: Informtion Information; Surpise Surprise
r
andul 8: suprins surprins
27. pr. 34, pag. 61:
n r
andul al doilea al tabelului de la punctul d., toate fractiile 1/36 trebuie nlocuite cu
1/6
28. pr. 35, pag. 61, primul r
and de la nota de subsol 8:
a 6= 1 a 6= 1 si c 6= 1
29. pr. 36:
pag. 63, prima linie a celui de-al treilea tabel din aceast
a pagina: XI Xi
pag. 63, r
andul 6 de jos:
M I(X4 , Y ) = 0.3113 M I(X5 , Y ) = 0.3113 M I(X4 , Y ) = 0.3113 si M I(X5 , Y ) = 0.3113

pag. 64, r
andul 1 de sus: adaga adauga
30. pr. 37: pag. 64, r
andul 10 de sus:
prelucare prelucrare
pag. 65, r
andurile 9 si 10 de sus:
n raport cu Y Y pe de o parte n raport cu Y pe de o parte,
31. pr. 39, pag. 69
r
andul 10 de sus: guaranta garanta
r
andul 18 de sus: posibl posibil
32. pr. 40, pag. 70
r
andul 10 de sus: Acesta aceasta
r
andul 10 de sus: avem nevoie a pentru a justifica avem nevoie pentru a justifica
33. pr. 41, pag. 70, r
andul 9 de jos: Enunt Enuntul

34. pr. 45, pag. 72: venimente evenimente


35. pr. 50, pag. 74, r
andul 7 de jos: P (X0 ) = 0 X0 = 0 cu probabilitate 1
36. pr. 55, pag. 76, r
andul 9 de jos:

4
4
(1 x2 ) (1 x3 )
3
3

37. pr. 58, pag. 77, r


andul 8 de jos: x1 , x2, . . . , xn x1 , x2 , . . . , xn
38. (std. Nit
a Axenia, FII)
pr. 58, pag. 78, r
andul 8 de sus:
(x1 , y1 ), (x1 , y1 ), . . ., (xn , yn ) (x1 , y1 ), (x2 , y2 ), . . ., (xn , yn )
39. pr.P
59, pag. 78, r
andul 3 dePjos:
P
P
xi i sin(wxi ) cos(wxi ) = i xi yi cos(wxi ) i xi sin(wxi ) cos(wxi ) = i xi yi cos(wxi )

40. pag. 80: titlul subsectiunii Elemente de teoria informatiei trebuie mutat la nceputul
acestei pagini (adica imediat deasupra problemei 61)
41. pr. 62, pag. 80, r
andul 5 de jos (far
a nota de subsol): aleatore aleatoare
Cap. 2. Arbori de decizie
1. (std. Cojocaru Cristian, FII)
pag. 84, r
andul 4 de sus: gready greedy
2. pag. 85, r
andul 12 de sus: arborele arbore
3. pag. 86, r
andul 7-8 de sus: superiora superioara
4. pr. 2
(std. Munteanu Petru, Sutea-Dragan Silviu)

5
pag. 91, la calculul pentru HComestibila , r
andul al doilea: log2 5 log2 5
8
pag. 93, r
andul 8 de jos (far
a a tine cont de figuri): porceda proceda
pag. 95:
r
andul 1 de sus: fac
and facand
r
andul 6 de sus: nvatare nv
atare

5. pr. 3
pag. 95, r
andul 11 de sus: prelucare prelucrare
pag. 95, r
andul 3 de jos:
valoarea maxima a entropiei unei variabile boolene valoarea maxima a entropiei [conditionale
medii a] unei variabile boolene
pag. 96, r
andul 3 de sus:
Cele dou
a entropii sunt egale Cele dou
a entropii [conditionale medii] sunt egale
6. pr. 4, pag. 97, r
andul 14 de jos: suprevietuitor Supravietuitor
7. pr. 5
pag. 99, r
andul 9 de sus: Care va fi eroarea de antrenare Care va fi eroarea la antrenare
pag. 99, r
andul 16 de jos: eroarea la antrenare rata [medie a] erorii
pag. 99, r
andul 11 de jos: rata de eroare eroarea la antrenare
pag. 99, r
andul 9 de jos: rata de eroare eroare [la antrenare]
pag. 99, r
andul 4 de jos: rata maxima a erorii eroarea maxima
pag. 99, r
andul 9 de jos: fiecarei fiecarei

pag. 100, r
andul 2 de sus:
(ca tupluri de valori ale atributelor de intrare) ca tupluri de valori ale atributelor de
intrare
pag. 100, r
andul 6 de sus: Rata maxima de eroare Eroarea maxima la antrenare
8. pr. 8, pag. 103:
In prima figura de pe aceast
a pagina trebuie ncercuite instantele X = 4, X = 6 si
X = 8.5.
In figura a doua de pe aceast
a pagina trebuie ncercuite instantele X = 4, X = 6, X = 8,
X = 8.5 si X = 9.
r
andul 8 de sus: se de exemple set de exemple
r
andurile 12-13 de jos trebuie rescrise astfel:
Este imediat ca pentru restul de 7 cazuri (X = 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10), arborele determinat de
algoritmul DT2 va clasifica corect punctul X.
9. pr. 9
pag. 104, r
andul 22 de jos: atentie atentie
pag. 104, r
andul 7 de jos: nod frunza a acestui arbore nod frunza al acestui arbore
pag. 105, r
andul 5 de sus: nod frunza a acestui arbore nod frunza al acestui arbore
10. pr. 11:
pag. 107, r
andurile 1 si 2 de sus:
entropia conditional
a ai multimii S entropia conditional
a medie a multimii S
pag. 107, r
andul 4 de sus: atributul A atributului A
pag. 108, r
andul 9 de jos: face face
11. pr. 12, pag. 109, r
andul 1: entropia [specifica] entropia conditional
a specifica
12. pr. 13
pag. 111, r
andul 9 de jos (si de alte 6 ori mai jos):
ne-omogeneitate ne-omogenitate
pag. 112, r
andul 16 de jos: demosntrat demonstrat
13. pr. 15
pag. 115, r
andul 19 de jos: n a avans n avans
pag. 115, r
andul 17 de jos: acceasi aceeasi
pag. 116, r
andul 9 de jos: acceasi aceeasi
14. pr. 16, pag. 120, r
andul 3 de jos (far
a formulele din josul paginii):
calculul castigul de informatie calculul castigului de informatie
15. pr. 17
pag. 121,
pag. 122,
pag. 122,
pag. 123,

r
andul
r
andul
r
andul
r
andul

14 de jos: truchiere trunchiere


5 de sus: al caror un castig al caror castig
10 de sus: vice versa viceversa
20 de jos: IG > IG

16. pr. 18
pag. 124, r
andul 14 de sus: respingea respingerea
pag. 124, r
andul 3 de jos: matrice de contingenta matrice de contingenta,
 2
2

1
1
pag. 127, n ultima formula: 1
1
3
3

17. pr. 19, pag. 128


r
andul 10 de jos: ca ca
r
andul 7 de jos: inconsistente inconsistente,
18. pr. 20, pag. 129, r
andul 2 din enunt: corespunde corespunde/corespund
19. pr. 21, pag. 129, r
andul 7 de sus: funtiile functiile
20. pr. 22, pag. 129:
a aceast
a
r
andul 15 de jos: acest
r
andul 8 de jos: acest
a aceast
a
21. pr. 27, pag. 132, r
andul 5 de sus: costruit construit
22. pr. 28, pag. 132, r
andul 14 de jos: corss-validare cross-validare
23. pr. 34, pag. 139, r
andul 21 de sus: ca care are ca are
24. pr. 35, pag. 140, r
andul 7 de jos (far
a nota de subsol): IG(Y | Xi ) IG(Y, Xi )
Cap. 3. Clasificare bayesian
a
1. pag. 143, r
andul 7 de jos (far
a a pune la socoteal
a nota de subsol):
probabilt
ati probabilit
ati
2. pr. 4, pag. 150, r
andul 16 de jos: tablelului tabelului
3. pr. 5
pag. 155, r
andurile 1 si 3 de jos (far
a a pune la socoteal
a formulele si tabelul din partea
de jos paginii): Eroarea medie Rata medie a erorii
pag. 156, r
andul 5 de sus (far
a a pune la socoteal
a tabelul din prima parte a paginii):
Eroarea medie Rata medie a erorii
4. pr. 6 pag. 156, r
andul 8 de jos:
s
a aib
a rata (i.e., media) erorii de 50% s
a aiba rata medie a erorii de 50%
5. pr. 7
pag. 159, r
andul 14 de jos: indepenedente independente
pag. 159, r
andul 1 de jos (far
a a pune la socoteal
a formulele din ultima parte a paginii):
indepenedente independente
6. pr. 8, pag. 162
r
andul 15 si 16 de sus:
d
cate NNB = 1 + log2 observatii pentru fiecare din variabilele Xi (i = 1, d),

d
NNB = 1 + log2 observatii,

r
andul 7 de jos: s
a ori 0 ori 1 s
a fie ori 0 ori 1
7. pr. 9, pag. 165
r
andurile 6 si 7 de sus:
testele X > 2.5 i X sunt X > 3.625 sunt sunt 0.419
testele X > 2.5 i X > 3.625 sunt 0.419
r
andurile 12 si 16 de jos (far
a a pune la socoteal
a graficele din ultima parte a paginii:
) fie ), fie

8. pr. 10, pag. 167, r


andul 2 de jos: aceesi aceeasi
9. pr. 13, pag. 168, r
andul 4 de jos: Aadar Asadar
10. pr. 15, pag. 170, r
andul 3 de sus (far
a a pune la socoteal
a tabelul din prima parte a
paginii): rata medie erorilor rata medie a erorilor
Cap. 4.
Inv
atare bazat
a pe memorare
1. pr. 1, pag. 177
ari cei trei clasificatori
r
andul 8 de jos: cei clasific
r
andul 2 de jos: r
astr
ange restr
ange
2. pr. 3, pag. 180, r
andul 5 de sus: orecare oarecare
3. pr. 4, pag. 180, r
andul 2 de jos: memorez
a memoreaz
a
4. pr. 5, pag. 184, r
andul 10 de sus: 0 > 1/4 0 < 1/4
5. pr. 6, pag. 185, primul r
and de sus: k 6= j [k/j

k 6= j [k/j]

6. pr. 7, pag. 187, r


andurile 11 si 2 de jos:
Pentru orice punct (x, y) situat n afara celor dou
a zone hasurate, vom avea d+ =| x 1 |
si d = |x + 1|.
Aceast
a afirmatie nu este adevarata pentru toate zonele mentionate (deci altele decat
zonele hasurate). Corectiile, imposibil de redat aici din cauza lipsei de spatiu, au fost
introduse n noua variant
a (n pregatire) a culegerii.
7. (std. Ionel S
tef
anuc
a, FII)
pr. 8, pag. 189: n figura de la finalul rezolv
arii trebuie adagat semnul n pozitia (6, 4.5),
corespunzator valorii nv
atate de algoritm pentru x = 6.
8. pag. 192, pr. 9, la rezolvarea punctului d, linia a doua a demonstratiei:

n


1
1
n ln 1 p
ln 10 n ln 1 p ln 10
2
2
9. pr. 11, pag. 198, r
andul 7 de sus: x > 3.5 x > 4.5
10. pr. 12
pag. 199, r
andul 3 de jos (far
a a pune la socoteal
a tabelul din ultima parte a paginii):
urmaator urmator
pag. 200, r
andul 18 de sus: testare antrenare
11. pr. 14, pag. 202, r
andul 3 de sus: cros-validare cross-validare
12. pr. 18, pag. 203, r
andul 3 de jos: euclideana euclidian
a
Cap. 5. Clusterizare
1. pag. 208, r
andul 7 de sus: culsterizare clusterizare
2. pag. 208, r
andul 14 de jos:
2
1
P
|A| (|A| 1)
x,yA d(x, y)

C2|A|
x,yA d(x, y)

3. pag. 209
r
andul 1 de sus: cluserizare clusterizare
r
andul 14 de sus: a functie o functie
4. pag. 210
r
andul 6 de sus trebuie s
a nceapa cu: pentru K > 0 fixat,
r
andul 16 de sus: intr-clustere intra-clustere
5. pag. 214, r
andul 10 de sus: detalii n referitoare detalii referitoare
6. pag. 214, r
andul 18 de sus: evaluaze evalueze
7. pr. 1, pag. 216, r
andul 5 de jos (far
a a tine cont de notele de subsol):
6
6
4.285 c(C6 ) =
4.285
h(C6 ) =
1.4
1.4
8. pr. 3, pag. 221, r
andul 6 de sus: urmatorul setul de date urmatorul set de date
9. pr. 4, pag. 223, r
andul 8 de sus:
distantele dintre punctele consecutive se g
asesc n ordine strict crescatoare
distantele dintre punctele care se clusterizeaza succesiv sunt n ordine strict crescatoare
10. pr. 5, pag. 224, r
andul 6-7 de sus: clustere detop clustere de top
11. pr. 6
pag. 225, r
andul 11 de sus:
ale carui noduri sunt elementele din S ale carui noduri frunza sunt elementele din S
pag. 227, r
andul 2 de jos (n nota de subsol): folosese folosesc
12. pr. 7
pag. 230, r
andul 5 de jos: procedeie procedee
pag. 230, r
andul 3 de jos: procedeie procedee
13. pr. 8, pag. 231
r
andul 2 de sus: clustrele clusterele
r
andul 13 de sus: celalalt celalalt
r
andul 5 de jos (far
a a tine cont de figuri): clustre clustere
14. pr. 11:
pag. 237, r
andul 8 de jos: panul euclidian planul euclidian
pag. 239, r
andul 17 de jos: aceasi motiv acelasi motiv
15. pr. 13
pag. 245, r
andul 6 de sus: a a2
pag. 245, r
andul 10 de sus: a , b , a si b a , b , a2 , b2 , a si b
pag. 248, r
andurile 1-2 de jos: probabilt
atile probabilit
atile
16. pr. 14, pag. 253
r
andul 8 de sus:
1 Pm (t)
1 Pm (t)
1 Pm (t)
1 Pm (t)
2

p (xi 1 )2
i=1 pi1 (xi 1 )
i=1 pij + 3
i=1 pi1 + 3
1
1
1
1 i=1 i1
r
andurile 11-14 de sus: indicele 0 trebuie inlocuit peste tot cu 1
17. pr. 16, pag. 257, r
andul 7 de jos (far
a a tine cont de figurile din josul paginii):
K-means: K-means

18. pr. 18
pag. 260, r
andul 5 de jos (far
a a tine cont de notele de subsol): algorimtului algoritmului
pag. 261, r
andul 1 de jos (far
a a tine cont de figurile din josul paginii):
20 iteratii 20 de iteratii
19. pr. 19, pag. 262, r
andul 5 de jos: for fi vor fi
20. pr. 20:
pag. 267, r
andul 13 de jos: folosesste foloseste
pag. 269, r
andul 9 de sus: variabilel variabilele
pag. 269, r
andul 14 de sus: problema optimul local problema optimului local
21. pr. 1, pag. 269, r
andurile 6 si 13 de jos:
advantaje avantaje
22. pr. 26, pag. 273, r
andurile 8-9 de sus:
Justificati alegerea n mod riguros facuta. Justificati n mod riguros alegerea facuta.
23. pr. 33, pag. 276, r
andul 19 de sus: de de de
24. pr. 34, pag. 277, r
andul 2 de sus: modele urmatoare modelele urmatoare
25. pr. 35:
pag. 279, r
andul 6 de sus: set of instante set de instante
pag. 279, r
andul 9 de sus: pin
a pana
26. pr. 36:
pag. 280, r
andurile 4-5 de sus: prin pentru modelare prin modelare
pag. 280, r
andurile 10 de sus:
Daca un anumit pas nu necesar Daca un anumit pas nu este necesar
27. pr. 38, pag. 282, r
andul 3 de jos (vezi nota de subsol 67): clustrelor clusterelor