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1.

ABSTRACT
Acetic acid or ethanoic acid is an organic compound with the chemical formula
CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H) that is in form of colorless solution and classified as a
weak acid. Vinegar is roughly contain about 39% acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid
the main component of vinegar apart from water. Acetic acid has a distinctive sour taste and
pungent smell. Even though, acetic acid is classified as a weak acid but it is corrosive. The
aim of this experiment is to determine the molarity of a solution and the percent by mass of
acetic acid in vinegar by using titration method with the standardized sodium hydroxide
solution (NaOH). This experiment was divided into two parts; the standardization of the
sodium hydroxide is the first part meanwhile for the second part is determining the molarity
of acetic acid and percent by mass of the acetic acid in vinegar. In standardization of sodium
hydroxide solution, 0.6 M sodium hydroxide solution was prepared from diluting the sodium
hydroxide solid. After that, the prepared NaOH solution is titrated with potassium hydrogen
phthalate, KHP solution. The KHP solution has been prepared by diluting 1.5 g of KHP
granules in 30 mL of distilled water. This experiment is proceed to the second part which is
the standardized sodium hydroxide solution is titrated with 10ml vinegar that has been diluted
with distilled water in order to make sure the probe of pH metre is immersed enough in the
titrated solution. Both part of the experiment was repeated 3 times in order to get the accurate
result.
2. INTRODUCTION
Concentration of solution is the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent. A
concentrated solution contains a relatively large quantity of solute in a given amount of
solvent. Dilute solutions contains a relatively little solute in a given amount of solvent. There
are two specific terms to express concentration, namely molarity and percent by mass:
Molarity is the number of moles of solute per litre of solution.
moles of solutes
Molarity (M) = liter of solutions
Percent by mass is the mass in grams of solute per 100 grams of solution
Percent solute =

grams of solute
grams of solution

X 100%

Vinegar is a dilute solution of acetic acid. The molecular formula for acetic acid is
CH3COOH. Both molarity and percent by mass of acetic acid in the vinegar solution can be
determined by performing a titration. A titration is a process in which small increments of a
solution of known concentration are added to a specific volume of a solution of unknown
concentration until the stoichiometry for that reaction is attained. Knowing the quantity of the
known solution required to complete the titration enables calculation of the unknown solution
concentration. The purpose of titration is to determine the equivalence point of the reaction.
The equivalence point is reach when the added quantity of one reactant is the exact amount
necessary for stoichiometric reaction with another reactant.
The acetic acid is composed by the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria.
Vinegar is now largely used as a cooking ingredient. Historically, as the most easily available
mild acid, it had a great variety of industrial, medical and domestic uses, some of which (such
as its use as a general household cleanser) are still promoted today.
3. OBJECTIVE
The objective of this experiment is to determine the molarity of the solution and the
percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar by titration with the standardized sodium hydroxide,
NaOH solution.
4. THEORY
In the titration process, a burette is used to dispense a small, quantifiable increment of
solution of known concentration. A typical burette has the smallest calibration unit of 0.1 mL
as shown in Figure 4.1, therefore the volume dispensed from the burette should be estimated
to the nearest 0.05 mL.
In this experiment, the equivalent point occurs when the moles of acid in the solution
equals the moles of base added in the titration. For example, the stoichiometric amount of 1
mole of strong base, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), is necessary to neutralize 1 mole of weak
acid, acetic acid (CH3CO2H), as indicated in equation 4 1:
NaOH (aq) + CH3CO2H (aq) NaCH3CO2 (aq) + H2O (l)

(Equation 1 3)

The sudden change in the solution pH shows that the titration has reached the
equivalence point. pH in an aqueous solution is related to its hydrogen in concentration.
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Symbolically, the hydrogen ion concentration is written as [H3O+]. pH is defined as the


negative of the logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.
pH = log10 [H3O+]

(Equation 1 4)

pH scale is a method of expressing the acidity or basicity of a solution. Solutions with pH < 7
are acidic, pH = 7 are neutral, and pH > 7 are basic as shown in Figure 4.2. For example,, a
solution having an H3O+ concentration of 2.35 x 102 M would have a pH of 1.629 and is
acidic. pH electrodes will be used in this experiment.
The titration is initiated by inserting a pH electrode into a beaker containing the acid
solution (pH 3 5). As sodium hydroxide, NaOH, is incrementally added to the acid
solutions, some of the hydrogen ions will be neutralized. As the hydrogen ion concentrated
decreases, the pH of the solution will gradually increase. When sufficient NaOH is added to
completely neutralize the acid (most of H3O+ ions are removed from the solution), the next
drop of NaOH added will cause a sudden sharp increase in pH as shown in Figure 4.3. The
volume of based required to completely neutralized the acid is determined at the equivalent
point of titration.

Acid base titration curve of weak acid titrated with NaOH


In this experiment, titration of a vinegar sample with standardized sodium hydroxide
solution will be performed. To standardize the sodium hydroxide solution, a primary standard
acid solution is initially prepared. In general, primary standard solutions are produce by
dissolving a weighed quantity of pure acid or base in a known volume of solution. Primary
standard acid or bases have several common characteristics:

They must be available in at least 99.9 purity


They must have a high molar mass to minimize error in weighing
They must be stable upon heating
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They must be soluble in the solvent of interest

Potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHC8H4O4, and oxalic acid, (COOH)2, are common
primary standard acids. Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, is the most commonly used base. Most
acids and bases (e.g. HCL, CH 3COOH, NaOH, and KOH) are mostly available in primary
standard form. To standardize one of these acidic or basic solutions, titration of the solution
with a primary standard should be performed. In this experiment, NaOH solution will be
titrated with potassium hydrogen phathalate (KHP). The reaction equation for this is:
KHC8H4O4 (aq) + NaOH (aq) KNaC8H4O4 (aq) + H2O (l)

(Equation 1 5)

Once the sodium solution has been standardized it will be titrated with 10.00 mL aliquots
of vinegar. The reaction equation for vinegar with NaOH is:
CH3COOH (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCHCOO (aq) + H2O (l)

(Equation 1

6)
Knowing the standardized NaOH concentration and using Equation1 6, the molarity and
percent by mass of acetic acid in the vinegar solution can be determined.
5. PROCEDURES
A) Standardization of sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution
1. 250 mL of approximately 0.6 M sodium hydroxide solution from NaOH solid was
prepared by laboratory assistance.
2. 1.5 grams of KHP granules was weighted and added into 250mL beaker. The mass
of the KHP was recorded to the nearest 0.0001g.
3. 30 mL of distilled water was added in to the beaker and the solution was stirred by
using magnetic stirrer until the KHP has dissolved completely.
4. The initial pH value of KHP solution was recorded using pH meter.
5. The solution is then titrated with 2 mL NaOH solution.
6. The pH value of the solution was recorded after the reading on the pH meter was
stabilized.
7. Step 5 and 6 were repeated until the pH values of the solution achieve its stable
state.
8. The titration process was repeated twice for NaOH standardization.

9. The graph of pH versus NaOH for all titration processes were plotted and the
volume of NaOH needed to neutralize the KHP solution was determined from all
three graphs.
10. The molarity of NaOH solution for titration 1, 2, and 3 were calculated.
11. The average molarity of the NaOH solution was calculated.
B) Molarity of acetic acid and percent of vinegar
1. 10.00 mL of vinegar was transferred into a clean, dry 250 mL beaker using a 10
mL volumetric pipette. Sufficient water about 75 to 100 mL was added to cover
the pH electrode tip during the titration.
2. 2 mL of NaOH was added to the vinegar solution and the pH value was recorded
after the reading on pH meter was stabilized.
3. Step 2 was repeated until the pH values achieved stable state
4. Step 1 until 3 are repeated twice more for standardization.
5. The graph of pH versus NaOH for all titration processes were plotted and the
volume of NaOH needed to neutralize the vinegar solution was determined from
all three graphs.
6. The molarity and the average molarity of acetic acid solution for titration 1, 2, and
3 were calculated.
7. The percent by mass and the average percent by mass of acetic acid solution in
vinegar for titration 1, 2, and 3 were calculated.
6. APPARATUS AND MATERIAL
6.1 Apparatus
No.
1
2
3
4

Apparatus
Hot plate
Magnetic stirrer
Retort stand
Beaker

Descriptions
To assist the stirring of solution in the experiment.
To stir the solution.
To hold the burette.
There are two types of beaker used in this experiment:
I.
II.

250mL beaker
10mL beaker

All solutions used in this experiment were placed in these


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6
7

pH meter
Burette
Weighing balance

beakers.
To measure changes of pH value of the solution.
To place the NaOH solution for titration.
To weight sufficient amount of materials used in the

Measuring cylinder

experiment.
To measure and transfer the right amount of solutions
needed from its actual container into the beaker.

6.2 Material
No

Materials
5

.
1
2
3
4

Sodium hydroxide, NaOH solid.


Potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHC8H4O4 (KHP) granules.
Vinegar.
Distilled water.

7. RESULT AND CALCULATION


7.1

Volume

Standardization of sodium hydroxide solution.

Titration 1
5
7

7.1.1
9

11

13

15

T
i

of

NaOH

(mL)
pH

4.12

4.19

value

4.64

4.89

5.09

5.34

5.64

6.36

11.81

t
i

on 1

Graph of pH versus volume NaOH for titration 1

pH value

11.62
11.12
10.62
10.12
9.62
9.12
8.62
8.12
7.62
7.12
6.62
6.12
5.62
5.12
4.62
4.12

10

11

12

13

14

15

volume of NaOH (mL)

pH

Based on the graph, molarity of NaOH solution for titration 1 = 0.5341M

7.1.2
Volume

Titration 2
0

4.12

4.29

4.60

4.83

Titration 2
7
9

11

13

13.4

15

5.64

6.34

7.10

11.9

of
NaOH
(mL)
pH

5.06

5.29

value

Graph pH versus volume of NaOH for titration 2

pH value

11.62
11.12
10.62
10.12
9.62
9.12
8.62
8.12
7.62
7.12
6.62
6.12
5.62
5.12
4.62
4.12

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Volume of NaOH (mL)

pH

Based on the graph, molarity of NaOH solution for titration 2 = 0.5407 M

pH

Volume

4.04

4.23

4.55

Titration 3
5
7

11

13

13.4

5.31

5.64

6.36

7.05

of
NaOH
(mL)
pH

4.84

5.07

value

7.1.3

Titration 3

Graph of pH versus volume of NaOH for titration 3


11.54
11.04
10.54
10.04
9.54
9.04
8.54
pH
8.04
pH value
7.54
7.04
Equivalence
6.54
point (13.68
6.04
mL)
5.54
5.04
4.54
4.04

10

11

12

13

14

15

Volume of NaOH (mL)

Based on the graph, molarity of NaOH solution for titration 3 = 0.5387 M


7.1.4

Overall results
TITRATION 1
Mass of KHP (g)
1.503
Volume of NaOH

TITRATION 2
1.506

TITRATION 3
1.504

needed

to

neutralized the KHP 13.778

13.648

13.68

solution (mL)
7.2 Molarity of acetic acid and mass percent in vinegar
7.2.1

Result for titration 1

Vol.

3.1

3.68

4.16

4.48

Titration 1
7
9

11

13

15

17

6.10

9.85

11.5

12.02

of
NaO
H
(mL)
pH

4.79

5.17

pH =
8.86
Equivalance
point
(12.447mL)

Based on the graph;


Molarity of acetic acid, CH3COOH in vinegar solution for titration 1 = 0.6694 M
Percent of acetic acid, CH3COOH in vinegar solution for titration 1 = 4.02 %

10

11

7.2.2

12

Vol.

2.7

3.71

4.16

4.68

Titration 2
7
9

11

11.6

13

15

6.10

7.10

10.5

11.7

of
NaO
H
(mL)
pH

4.79

5.13

9
Based on the graph;
Molarity of acetic acid, CH3COOH in vinegar solution for titration 2 = 0.6477 M
Percent of acetic acid, CH3COOH in vinegar solution for titration 2 = 3.890 %

pH =
8.39
Equivalance
point
(12.045mL)

7.2.3

Result for titration 3

Vol.

3.0

3.75

4.21

4.72

Titration 3
7
9

11

11.5

13

15

6.05

7.06

10.7

11.3

of
NaO
H
(mL)
pH

4.85

5.12

13

14

Graph of pH versus volume of NaOH for titration 3


12.02
11.02
10.02
9.02
8.02

pH value

7.02

Equivalance
point
(11.91ml)

6.02
5.02
4.02
3.02

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Volume of NaOH (mL)

Based on the graph;


Molarity of acetic acid, CH3COOH in vinegar solution for titration 3 = 0.6406M
Percent of acetic acid, CH3COOH in vinegar solution for titration 3 = 3.847 %

7.2.4

Overall result
TITRATION 1

TITRATION 2

TITRATION 3

12.447

12.045

11.910

Volume of NaOH
to

neutralize

vinegar (mL)

8. SAMPLES OF CALCULATION
8.1 Standardization of sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution ( for titration 1)
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8.1.1

Volume of NaOH needed to neutralize the KHP


Perform interpolation:
8.12 6.36

= Vol 13

8.62 6.36

14 14

1.76

= Vol 13

2.26

Vol
8.1.2

= 13.778 mL of NaOH

Molarity of NaOH
Moles of KHP:
1.503 g KHC8H4O4

1 mol KHC8H4O4

= 0.00736mol HC8H4O4

204.2 g KHC8H4O4
Moles of NaOH required neutralizing moles of KHP:
0.00736 mol KHC8H4O4

1 mol NaOH

= 0.00736 mol NaOH

1 mol KHC8H4O4
Molarity of NaOH solution:
13.778 mL NaOH

1L

= 0.013778 L NaOH

1000 mL
M = mol of NaOH = 0.00736 mol NaOH = 0.5341 M NaOH
L of solution

8.1.3

0.013778 L NaOH

Average molarity of NaOH


Mave = (M1 + M2 + M3) / 3
= (0.5341 + 0.5407 + 0.5387) / 3
= 0.5378 M NaOH

8.2 Molarity of acetic acid and mass percent in vinegar (for titration 1)
8.2.1 Volume of NaOH needed to neutralize the vinegar
Perform interpolation:
8.86 8.06

= Vol 12

9.85 8.06

13 12
16

0.8

= Vol 12

1.79

Vol

= 12.447 mL of NaOH

8.2.2 Molarity of acetic acid in vinegar


Moles of NaOH that reacted:
12.447 mL of NaOH X

1L

= 0.012447 L NaOH

1000 mL
0.012447 L NaOH

X 0.5378 mol NaOH = 0.006694 mol NaOH


1L NaOH solution

Moles of CH3COOH neutralized by moles of NaOH:


0.006694 mol NaOH X 1 mol CH3COOH = 0.006694 mol CH3COOH
Mol NaOH
Molarity of CH3COOH:
10 mL CH3COOH

1L

0.010 L CH3COOH

1000 mL
M = mol of CH3COOH = 0.006694 mol CH3COOH = 0.6694 M CH3COOH
L of solution

0.010 L CH3COOH

8.2.3 Average molarity of acetic acid in vinegar


Mave = (M1 + M2 + M3) / 3
= (0.6694 + 0.6477 + 0.6406) / 3
= 0.6526 M CH3COOH
8.2.4 Percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar
Mass of acetic acid in the solution:
10 mL CH3COOH

1L

0.010 L CH3COOH

1000 mL
0.010 L CH3COOH

X 0.6694 mol CH3COOH


1 L solution

60.06 g CH3COOH
1 mol CH3COOH

= 0.4020 g CH3COOH

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Mass of acetic acid solution:


10 mL CH3COOH

X 1 g CH3COOH solution

= 10 g CH3COOH solution

1 mL CH3COOH solution
Percent by mass of acetic acid in the solution =

g CH3COOH

X100%

g CH3COOH solution
=

0.4020

X 100%

10.0
= 4.020 %
Average percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar:
%ave = (%1 + %2 + %3) / 3
= (4.020 + 3.890 + 3.847 %) / 3
= 3.919 %

9. DISCUSSION
The objective of this experiment is successfully achieved as the molarity of the
solution and the percent by mass of acetic acid in vinegar have been determined by using
titration with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution. A titration is a laboratory method
for determining the concentration of a solution and the purpose of the titration is to
determine the equivalence point of the reaction. For the first part of this experiment in
which to standardize the sodium hydroxide solution, a primary standard acid solution is
initially prepared. Sodium hydroxide, NaOH is used as the base meanwhile potassium
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hydrogen phthalate, KHC8H4O4 or jotted as KHP is used as primary standard acid. For the
second part of this experiment, vinegar is used as the weak acid because in the vinegar
contain acetic acid and the NaOH solution is used as the base.
Based on the graph and the result calculated from the first experiment, the molarity of
the sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution is 0.5341 M, 0.5407 M and 0.5387 M respectively
for every trial of the experiment. For the first trial of the experiment, the mass of the KHP
used is 1.503 g and the molarity of NaOH obtained is 0.5341 M. For the second trial of
the experiment, the mass of KHP used is 1.506 g and the molarity of NaOH obtained is
0.5407 M meanwhile the third trial of the experiment the mass oh KHP used is 1.504 g
and the molarity of NaOH obtained is 0.5387 M. From the result it can be concluded that
when the mass of solute in the acid solution is greater, the more concentrated the solution
becomes thus, the higher the molarity and supposedly more volume of NaOH needed to
neutralize the acid but the volume of NaOH needed to neutralize the acid is decreased this
due to the error during take the reading of the volume NaOH.
Based on the graphs, it show that the pH value at the equivalence point for each
titration is different. The range of the pH value is about 7 to 9. In other words, the
solution started to neutralize from pH of 7.87 up to 8.12. As mention in the theory,
solutions with pH less than 7 are acidic, pH equal to 7 are neutral, and pH greater than 7
are basic. However, the result in this experiment does not exactly parallel with the theory.
In the second part of the experiment, the molarity of acetic acid and the mass percent
in vinegar are determined. The molarity of acetic acid and the mass percent in vinegar are
calculated by using the average molarity of NaOH resulted from the first part of the
experiment and with the help of graph plotted based on results from the second part of the
experiment. The average molarity of acetic acid in vinegar is 0.6526 and its average
percent by mass is 3.919 %. In addition, it is important to dilute the vinegar in order to
avoid a very small titre, which would reduce the accuracy of the experiment.

10. CONCLUSION
As for the conclusion, the aim of the experiment was achieved. The experiment was
successfully conducted. The molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution can be
determined by using the given formula through this experiment. The concentration of
acetic acid in vinegar and the percentage by mass of the acetic acid that contain in the
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vinegar also can be determined from this experiment. For the result obtained from this
experiment, it can be concluded that the higher molarity of solution, the higher of the
volume needed to neutralize the solution.

11. RECOMMENDATION
1. The swirling of the solution should be constant while adding the NaOH in order to
ensure that the NaOH is totally dispersed.
2. Make sure that the position of eye must be perpendicular to the meniscus when
reading the volume of solution in the burette to avoid inaccuracy.
3. It is better to carry out three accurate titration so that the experimental error is reduces
by calculating the average value.
4. Before the experiment started, make sure that the tip of the burette is filled with
NaOH so that no air bubbles are present in the tip.
5. When the solution is being prepared, wear safety glasses and gloves as solid sodium
hydroxide is corrosive, and can cause severe burns to eyes and skin while sodium
hydroxide solution irritates the eyes.

12. REFERENCES
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid-base_titration
2. Chang, R., Goldsby, K. A. Chemistry, Eleventh Edition, New York, Acids and
Bases (p.g 668)

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13. APPENDICES

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