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LACS 16200 - Latin American

Civilizations 2: Lecture notes.

Week 1-1
Tenorio admits that he knows not what happened in 1649. Why this colony important?
He has no idea. What is Belize? Why is it English speaking? Some ideas about slavery,
etc, British empire, etc, decided not to cover the topic.
World around 1600
Empires: Rome, Sacro-Roman Empire, Spain, France, Portugal, England.
Kingdoms: The many loyalties
Markets: Commercial routes, explorations
Gods: Catholic State, Reformation, Indels, Religious Orders
Dont believe in me. The amount of knowledge is immense, I dont know, let me see
what I can nd out about it But there are many things that he doesnt know. That is
important to keep in mind.
The textbook wants to be a comprehensive account, but anyone who tells themselves
that they can give a comprehensive account of this event, is telling a lie. The aim of this
course is not to give a completely comprehensive account - Rather, it is a course that
aims at giving big pictures.
In order to begin, lets get a big picture of maps - Of Latin America - World around
1600, basically do not believe in geography. If we re going to explore what happens in x
region, we have to go to certain maps. Because in the 1600s, its impossible to
understand that part without considering the geography of the region.
Fashion of globalization.
In the 16th century and 17th century, there exist massive population moves to other
places - Demographic collapse of millions of people, not internet. If you want to
whatever to the 1600s, these maps together - It would be possible to redeem
ourselves to the idea of the American continent. Its immediate to whats happening in
Europe - Doesnt mean a peninsula, but rather this is a small port on the side and
there are maps etc A small place.

We talk about one of the smallest continents.


At any given point, any Christian grapples with the reality that not everybody can be
saved being safe, is an object of choice salvation cannot be offered to another
person but instead must be taken that person in question. Unless of course, you
believe otherwise if you are a Calvinist, for instance, then you believe in salvation
eternal: those who would already have been saved have already been saved. It is true
that the Native American would not have gone to hell if they had not known about the
gospel, the argument that is commonly made is that well, why then would you tell me?
At this point in the wall, that exists in both Christ and him and non-Christ in them and the
notion of an empire of Reformation. As empires and monarchies firmly steeped in the tradition of
trying to kill one another, the act against one another. Louisiana Canada, the Caribbean, all of
these place for themselves against one another in grand walls. The Dutch invaded the British
and the Portuguese, and conflict was held across different parties across different borders
across different nations with different individuals adjusting for power in a wall that was by and
large place in the great large anarchy an anarchy that is not entirely dissimilar to that which
the world in part secretly desires and an anarchy that can never be divorced from the forces of
history.
The whole known world about the 16th century, there are empires, India, China, Japan,
the Philippines, those few things. Those percent, encompass the known world around
the 17th century, a world made of empires, because the so called Latin America didnt
exist as a concept in the 1620s, nobody talked about, it didnt exist. What existed was
the Christians, which for the Spaniards were important because only at the end of the
15th century could they depict the presence, known as the conquest of the Iberian
peninsula, when in fact for a long time - So for a long time, there were Christendom
advocates and non-Christendom advocates. There were contrareformation empires. The reformation of part of Germany - Germany and Italy dont
exist as of yet as they are collections of kingdoms. The idea of Latin America using
these empires is a thing. Nuclear energy in 1600s - No point in talking about it.
But so there was Christendom and non-Christendom, and reformation empires There were similar but different countries/empires, there were very mixed countries,
England and France - As empires and powers and monarchies, they acted against one
another. Louisiana, Canada, the Caribbean, was in the constant presence of those

empires. Dutch invaded the British and the Portuguese empires They were part of
everything.
The World, at this point, was made up of empires, standing amid a milieu where there
existed other kinds of empires that were not alive. Its anachronistic to call them
empires, not because they existThey were polities that existed prior to existence of
the Spaniards.
For the most time, there were two big empire centers, and it may be tempting for
students to ask.. Was there a Mexica empire?
We dont know if the Mexica had an empire in the same way or understood empire in
the same sense. The Inca empire, it took place, and dominated in South America. It
was the center of power. Not because they existed as centers of power by 1600s, but
rather because they were previous structures of power. The kingdom of New Spain
and the Kingdom of Peru, its not a surprise that they became the center of Spanish
empire because they were the center of previous empires.
Furthermore, these empires are kingdoms. Why? Americanized, so we think these are
the Spanish colonies in America - They are not precisely colonies because they were
not exploited, because gold, money labor, etc were not exited from them - All that was
happening, they were intellectually considered kingdoms.
Never was New Spain known as the Colony of New Spain, it was called the
New Kingdom of Spain - Never a colony of Mexico. It was a Kingdom.
This was important because the empires are all kingdoms of kingdoms. This is difcult
for us to understand with our cultural exercise because we think power is exercised in
a centralized way - When we talk about the power of the federal government in the US,
we get a sense that some things are centralized such as national security, the state
dominates these - The state rights - The federal mentality shows a division of power These different structures in which each unity that composes empires results - Every
unity that composes empires is itself a kingdom. Provinces polities etc that had legal
code and language and social structure, all belonged to a king, to an emperor, a king
of kings. The king of Spain comes out for reasons of Marriage and etc and are now run

by Austrian Kings, Charles the Vth, was emperor not just because he was king of Sicily
Spain Germany, etc, crowned by the emperor of the Sacred Roman Empire.
Shows in TV conscious of being the most powerful man on Earth - An eighth as
powerful, perhaps. If Charles V were to say I am the most powerful man in America , it
would be closest to the truth.
Who is the King? Who is the boss?
At this point, the world is organized in such a way that nations do not work well - Much
as it is with the modern world. Christian or not Christian is one thing - Catholic or not
Catholic, whatever.
The glue of all this, that is New Spain, Catalonia, Portugal They are kingdoms
on their own. Highly loyal nobility, or with royalties like New Spain. The empire is
linked to a civilizing and to both religious and military campaigns - We are the soldiers
of Catholicism all over the world, kill Jews, Protestants, indels wherever we nd. If you
are part of the kingdom, regardless of your local privilege and statues, because all
kings had different was - Because you need to observe you must remain loyal to an
Emperor, the French, or the English. Sign that you swear an alliance that you will be
good - That is done through different forms.
To reduce it to the minimum, it is said to the people You are part of the Fire
Kingdom, Charles Kingdom, because he has conquered people engaged in wars To show you are royalty, you issue taxes. You say to Portugal... You are Portugal, and
you are a part of the larger Spanish empire. Keep your royalties, your laws, your
language, just This bunch of taxes and ne wines for the empire? That is the
emperor s portion, and it is due so long as he administers well.
This glue that keeps this set of ideologies and this loyalty etc together, is
power.
Of course, naturally, this ends up being an endeavor full of problems. The natural
scenario of humankind is from empire to nation. It happens because it happens - And
so besides, there is no other understanding of such. Why do you pay this guy? For
protection! Because if not, the British will come and force you to do the same! Just say

you know, the Facade is God(?), an ideological frame justies. Blah blah. These
guys adhere to them. It was not a joke - We know when American politicians say this is
Gods command he knows thats not true. 16th and 17th centuries they truly talked
about it. Its always revolving, the way it works. Well, it lasted for that long.
But it sounds like messy, its inefcient, its almost about to collapse, Tenorio notes.
Now, the thing that forms this world is markets.
Markets are important because you see interior expansion of the world - The
formation of international coups. Its not only about lack, not just about commanding
people, its about gaining access and commanding maritime groups, merchandises,
commodities of the world. Coulomb, say, did the whole business of searching for
route to India, to get the commodities that would become important in Europe. An
entire new people, etc - He was looking for commercial roots - In the Mediterranean,
etc, roots in the Caribbean, Cuba is important.
To command these maritime roots is very important, and thats why we should think of
empires as sophisticated squares and rectangles and circles like a business model,
very complicated - Think about commercial lines that are commanded by different
empires. To Japan, to China, to the Philippines, to New Spain, to China, Philippines,
back to Seville, or from here back to Lima, to get out from Spain.. And of course we are
thinking of the boom of new commodities. In Mexico, they found Gold, but
mostly Silver. Peru it was mainly Gold. Among other things, there was much
wood. Lots of sugar, tobacco, potatoes, all sorts of things Market, very important.
Lines, and now we visualize lots of little dots. British pirates everywhere.
To command these maritime roots is very important, and that is why we should think of
empires as sophisticated squares and rectangles arranged in the business plan
increasingly complicated as the size of its scale increases. Think about the
commercial lines commanded by different empires. From the silk Road of China,
across Japan and the Philippines and the Straits of Malacca across Malaysia and
Singapore. From there, we moved back to Seville and then on to Lima, as we trace the
course of the Spanish Empire moving outward. At all points, the decision to colonize is
predicated upon nothing more than the desire to ensure economic viability that was

the folly of the Spanish Empire: it had chased after so much, that it had ended up
running in place and never getting anywhere for numerous years.
the US is not so different from any other land: and the land is always made up of
people.
Think of the US as the land of the free and the brave - Land of Democracy, England, a
pirate empire. It was feeding with an army of pirates everywhere in the cities - All the
movies youve had about pirates? The Spaniards had commercial roots, putting
an entire score on play. They were everywhere, because there were empires and you
had free riders who wished to prot from different things.
And of course, there are religions, Catholic states, by law, Catholic religion in the world.
Arrangement - The King - The civil religious authority are the other way round - You
have other religions, reformation England, you have that stuff, you have problems with
the Jews, as well Spanish Empire, Spain Portugal etc is Christianizing. They wish
to conquer souls - They were exploiters that killed Indians that couldnt care about
anything but Gold.
These guys Worked hard toward stuff. Christianizing stuff - Now lets say next
summer you have a journey to Latin America, take the donkey to meet Indians, you get
there in the middle of Cuzco, you nd - 17th century America, ..
There was a joke. But it was not a joke. It was gold, and also about souls And full of
blood.
A word in our American train minds, that these kingdoms, Spaniards, people
suspected of conversion etc - If you were suspicious of being converted jew,
hard for you to be placed. They were more exible in terms of converted jews
migrating to Americas. The Portuguese empire was an American empire. There were a
lot of Jews and merchants, and the locals who lent the money The Spaniards have
expelled the Jews. Its not pro-Spain. But its important to know that you had either
convert or leave. But it was not a holocaust - There were problems in the Spanish
empire. Many in Europe, lots to explain about the decision. England has expelled them
centuries ago Nobody wanted the Jews.

The Spanish is a Catholic empire. Its not multi-culti empires. Portuguese empires Pragmatic. Spanish kings - Habsburgs - Cataratas - Jewish doctor - In order to do this,
wishes to nish today by saying:
Maps of America circa 1600:
1. Map of imperial encounters, Portugal, Spain, England, France, Netherlands.
2. Ecology-demography. Map of Frontiers of discovery and conquest (Andes, NA,
Brazilian Interior), resources, diseases, population, sex.
3. Maps of souls: Mexico, Peru, and the rest.
4. Map of languages.
Frontier of the Spanish empire - Indians who are part of the Spanish empire
Different map of imperial encounters. Map the entire thing - Spaces where there is
ghting and people trying to assemble different commands. Lots of demography Not going to speak much about this because taking for granted, but imagine the
union of these maps showing the biggest demographic collapse - Mesoamerica
in one generation lost 60-80% of population due to change of bacteria, producing
drastic change. It doesnt end.
As the Spaniards expand, people with diseases start to expand, and the same
demographic collapse happens everywhere. So There is a demography in which
people are densely populated and these Incas and Aztecs. These cities and roads
etc, the peak of South America are well known and not densely populated, then theres
the Amazon. People die of yellow fever, etc there - So its very important to think about
how for a long time demography and ecology Because people messed around. God
knows what is there. For a long time, Mesoamerica Incentive to conquer, and always
in a different way. College and demography, more inuential than golf.
Map of souls - Whether we believed it or not, they wanted to convert people.
One language is a nation-state.

Any questions?

Modern polities developed the idea that the nation state is dened by the people. The
spirit people is determined by the language.
The wisdom of the German people is a thing - In many nations like the United States That we re gonna have a national language was foolish. Americanization was a process
of creating democratic language by Americanizing the Spanish. Chileanized the
Spanish. A nation where people who spoke Italian, etc - They created a national
language - The French believed that the French language was extraordinary - Until
the Second Part of the 19th century there were many languages such as Basque, etc,
there was the creation of. Destruction of languages such as Catalan. Spain, there
was the idea of Spain, Basque, Catalan, Spanish. Because of local power, Spanish is a
huge language everywhere in the world. Portuguese is a small language and spoken in
many colonies in Africa.

Week 1-2
Maps and conquest, and incomplete, and the scene is not bae. Travelers and empires,
etc, are dubious in terms of creating a country, a settlement in the coast not really
colonization or anything, its very known what is there But in fact for the rst time
around the 1600s, you have this massive of Europe America that never existed before.
Big facts:
1) Demographic collapse and consequences
- European demography, low numbers
- Change and taming. Transformation, mixture, mess
- War: Slavery, imperial command, legitimate war
- Gold and souls.
From the very fact that there is a debate as some of you have studied, about the actual
nature of the indigenous people of America, that seems logical and theoretical, its
unthinkable without the demographic collapse. The Spaniards realize Well, need to
save them. Because they need to work in the mines - You can believe Spaniards were
liars, but for them the souls were important, and with no souls to convert what is your
role?
They were concerned about this, explaining why it was necessary to have an
intellectual debate about the nature of the Indians. In the Americas soon, dying slaves,
hence Africans. More resistant to shit. Demographic collapse is big big fact - All the
Indians Everything has to do with numbers. 60% of the population are the most
important centers of population in America. This is like the big bang, if you dont keep
it in mind its meh. Make catholics of all these people, less people to Christianize cause
they die. This is just everywhere - Conversion of religion is the end of the world. Listen
to God if you dont want the world to end. The world they knew had come to an end
and its not a political/intellectual world - People are dying collapsing.

European demographic etc - Talk about all of these things. There are not more than
2-3 million portuguese there, so thats something to consider. How are you going to

conquer them when you have no numbers? Remember, when the Britih started to
conquer india using local dynasties and local power to rule, it seemed like a great
innovation to the British empire, but in fact for the Spaniards and Portuguese empire,
you didnt have people to populate the territories to make up - Demographic collapse:
The peninsula - The great crisis of Spain, supped to whatever - Huge economic stuff The letters wrote these things and gave diagnoses of what was happening - Every part
of the New Year Times - Show that Jeffrey Sachs says that there were very few
Spaniards leaving to America.
If Spain is peninsula is whatever it is desert - They have to leave to the Americas - To
provoke the Spaniards to leave peninsula because wish to lower death rate.
Demographic number experiment has to do with social structures.
With Charles the Vth, the functional way it works is like saying Go and have sex,
there. Why would they approve these sexual whatever - No option. These soldiers were
being chased. They were having sex. Not enough Spaniard women to do it - Christian
marriage supporting the church and the king.
That can only be explained because of the low numbers. They never approved this
intermarriage thing. Protected marriage between Blacks Whites Indians Whites.No
miscegenation laws. Didnt have enough people to Promote these things.
New Spain, they found Indian Spaniards etc, living in sin, so reorganized these mass
ceremonies of marriage - Marrying so they could live in good faith. There was a big
factor of change and timing - This period, lots of transformation of empires, lots of
mixtures - The Portuguese empire was following a different time. The empire was a
mixture of a structure of races, cultures, etc, its not that there are not as equally
Christian - There is their own way of being Christian - Fight against religiosity for stuff
- Lets protect religion against any pagan rituals, so lets carefully point it to this: You
could say the Indians of Mexico are not really Christians, they are fake Christians Because they pray to fake Gods.

Catholic process - Lots of Pagans hitting themselves like crazy, have you seen a
Catholic processions. A big factor to keep in mind is war, violence is part of the story
I m going to tell you not just because the empires are violent. The Indians would kill
themselves, and you could explain the conquest of Peru. The Spaniards were no more
than 240. They could conquer an entire city - How did they do that? It was a civil war
among Indians. What we re going to see throughout this period, is that all wars are civil
wars and alliance wars. Local indians lying to French and British, Spanish in
Mesoamerica, once the entire structures are established, you have Indian subjects of
majesty to the queen, so if you want to explain what happened in Texas. They are not
expanding. Its an expansion? No, extinction.
Tlaxcalan Indians are conquering this area, becoming part of the Christian kingdom
and becoming part of the soldiers and the entire empire. It is important to realize
slavery is part of the equation - What we call now Latin America.
The moment the indigenous people were granted statues of people who could not be
slaves, it was accepted that slavery for blacks was OK, and the presence of slaves didnt
mean all societies were slave societies. It was a slave port, there were slaves
everywhere. By 17th century, every good house had slaves - It didnt mean society
would be slavery-contained. There was slavery everywhere.
Slavery is a unique phenomenon - And not in terms of this as in nice and beautiful The law will tend to return them, the antimiscegeneation rule that works.
Through conquest and after conquest - Portuguese settlements in Salvador, Bahia,
every new conquering of imperial lands and people - The Tierra of Fuego, etc, you
face new indigenous people. Q: How do you face them? You cant slave them Unless
they engage in revolt against you, then they dont accept the power in revolt. If they are
in revolt, its a legitimate war. Guerra Justa- In the 16th, 17th, 18th. 19th century,
Amazon, capture Indians and say well they ll resist me. Kill me or enslave them
because they re engaged in a just war - You cannot justify slavery or a just war if they
do not resist you.

Another aspect is the soul-money conquering.

Habsburg times: Classic Spanish Emp out andire - 1520-1700.


Charles Vth, Sacred Roman Empire, king of New Spain, King of Sicilia, The
Netherlands.
Charles Vth is the rst great king.
1580-1640 Spanish ruling in Portugal.

- Habsburg organization is interesting. 1700. the last Habsburg king, Charles II,
dies with no descendant,.

Bourbon times (1700 circa 1830)


4.
Borbn reforms (circa 1750-1800)
5.
Pombal reforms (circa 1750-1800)
6.
Napoleonic eect (1808 - 1815)
7.
Independence moment (1776-1830
Chief of state in newspapers? Prime minister - The chief of state - Felipe something Borbons are still ruling in same way . 1518 - 1640 Felipe - Portuguese empire is part of
Spanish empire in that time. Now defeated the Portuguese - Spanish empire etc.
Portugal totes has a king, keeps its laws, its just part of the empire.
2 important moments for Americas are the Borbn reforms, and the Pombal reforms
at the same time. Pommel is instituted by Marques de Pombal. Centralizing reforms
make lots of traces available. Some other state in the way closer to us, centralized
power, centralized government, centralized same law, etc, these are the modernizing
liberal reforms, that are important and explain a lot of development of the Americas.
Another important moment is.
Big bang of the western world.
Napoleonic effect: Creation of vacuum of power in the world, creating an effect in the
peninsulas, from the moment of invasion of peninsula by Napoleonic invasion.
No more kings in Spain, no kings in Portugal, because the kings are in RDJ etc,
Napoleon, lots of consequences of independence throughout the Americas. The
independence movement - Last part of the 18th century to 1830s, most of the Latin
America countries apart from Cuba and Puerto Rico, Cuba became independent
1890. Installed in America - The rst time well, we are the Spanish and Mexicans,
Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines. Basic concepts to keep in our minds

Basic concepts and their ambiguities.


1.
Indio nativo, natural, pueblo, vecino, alma.
Indian because you pay taxes, its about your lineage. Normal indian and high class,
low indian and whatever - You cannot be a slave if you re Indian unless you revolt. Not
talking about Indians and Spaniards - If you live in Indian town, you are Indian.
2.
Nativo, resident of certain location - Natural, belonging to the natural
inhabitant. Pueblo - It means town . The local administration. The local settlement. A
little town like Quetzaltenango.
All these things crossed by shit - Similar quality and religious are contradicting. Priests
protecting
3.
Salvaje. Recreation of Salvage - They are all soldiers of our king. Doesnt mean
they have a wonderful life, but they are Christians.
4.
Esclavo - Slave.
5.
Castas - Peru And New Spain indian. Castas - Mixed blood, lineage.
ove to mexico and speak this Spanish - In this category you never pass. Whatever you
seem to be thats what you are As vecinos (neighbors),
No possibility of passing - If you believe in essential categories - If there is one
characteristic You are what you pretend to be. It only matters to certain levels. From
the bottom to a certain level nobody really cares: Who cares? You are no asking for
privilege, you re not asking for furors or derecho.
At certain levels of society you must prove lineage - If you want to be noble lineage, so
you are an Indian and you are a noble India, you believe you should have privilege, stuff
- Wrapped to you because of your language.

Criollo peninsulares - A category that touches within the new elites: Whether they
are really Spaniards - They are poor Spaniards - They characteristically
thesis, Spaniards on the peninsula, who live in Mexico.
Criollos, are children of Spaniards in New Spain.

Week 2-Session
We perform the act of graphing the fate of the Spanish empire during this period of
time.
Starts off with bankruptcy of Phillip, Dutch making ingress, seizing salt island, 1598
Phillip takes power, things get worse. Right away, there's the plague in 1599 1600s,
creating labor shortage, hence ight form rural areas, less agricultural production and
thus spoke in grain prices, new Spain century of depression, so the colonies are under
economic lacking.
Stamping coins, starting in 1599, 1607, 1617... The expulsion of Moriscos, we're a
problem. Redistribution of tax burden, which they failed. 1620s lack of investment and
agriculture, huge economic issues - No investment in agriculture industry etc, it was
not productive. They were losing against countries.
Didn't have the Americas for a century, Americas came out and they were better.
Revival and disaster.
Palace of Duke Luceida, starts taking control. Not a lot of shift, government wasn't
prepared to do anything - March 31st 1521, gave way to Phillip 4th. 1623, 24, Olivares
publishes idea of Spanish monarchy, very much in the tradition.
It was the rst time there was a centralized Spanish crown that later gave rise to more
insecurities. Lots of regional dissatisfaction with the monarchies, castile can't handle
the monarchy, the unity of arms was a thing, aragon didn't tell them where to go...
Economic crash was a thing. The Mantuan war, in 1628, ruining the idea
Portuguese were increasingly wanting to become independent in 37. Portugal pieces
out in 1640.
1610, goes through 1660s, take into account that primary source of revenue was
silver, America becoming more independent, losing control of Americas. 1621 silver
revenue drops by 50%, invest in a larger whatever - Increase the army of Flanders
increases decit. 1623, Olivares includes reforms to redirect the economy, working for
short periods by redistributing taxes so that burden is borne throughout population.

They were printing 20m ducats, if you print decit then not bae. Hyperinationary
stuff, 1600s, 1628. Political stuff - Habsburgs were there, entered the Mantuan war.
August 28, signicant reforms. Dutch triumphant song of the silver eet. 1647 1653
bankruptcy. 1657, their eet is captured again, no silver. Lost Brazil to Portuguese, in
1668 lose Portugal and claim it independent.

Silver from Spain funds wars that they can't pay, they resort to selling positions titles
land grants and after 1600s made sellable in perpetuity.
1600s - A criollo class is created and growing independent in the 1600s.
Tittes/land grants are a thing.

Week 3-1
Baroque
- Ornate, rich, name of a period of styles in history - Art history, music history, the
baroque theory of music and painting - It is identied with a period of time, the
Baroque theater, in German, in Spanish, the Baroque in poetry, from John Donne to
Cabildo whatever - Baroque is also considered Vivaldi in music - That is what is called
Baroque. A name or a style in a period of time, ostentatious.
- What he wants to get at is that unfortunately we are running behind - Or he will get
them to push them to get say It means bad taste , gaudy , incoherent . It means
too many things together , all over the place . In a kind of Socratic way, in order to
understand this, we use Baroque not because its the thing . The idea of Baroque in
the Spanish empire - Is bae. They dont believe in the explanations - The Spanish
empire is incoherent, it is of bad taste, its gaudy and tacky - He wishes to use the
Baroque in a different way/
Pueblo, intermarriages, population demographic collapse, the idea of god
and the king and the intermarriage shit and also the parishes creating a
divided church(?)
Castas(New Spain Indians - Mixed blood, lineage) - Proof of lineage was a thing
- Baroque. Labor shortages both because of the demographic collapse but also
because of indigenous people resisting labor shaped the possibilities of the economy
in both Portugal and Spains colonies so there were difculties expanding inward for
Portugal so there was a difculty in setting up shifts
- Baroque empire in the sense that Indians was a juridical category and also the
- First stirrings of independence in Latin America - A lot of the early violent struggles
but the indigenous peoples struggles give the struggle for regional identity forming
and put them into conict with the Spanish empire - Peru is a nation that should be
independent comes from idea of heritage.

- Lots of Indian towns. Pueblos. Reform their government after the Spanish
government said that they had the same sort of government models - Elections.
- Comes out of the combinations of (independence) - Claims to indigenous
civilizations of the past - Nations that have their own identities are bae.
In the church,
- Changes are happening with the reforms where you have French kings - Borbon
reforms - secular governments - Indians centralization - Taxes increasing - ->
Americas: Bakewell.
- Prior to the reforms, Franciscans, Jesuits - Church chooses Bakewell 290 - 257 Church taken over in less easy areas to settle.

Q: What is the dierence between empires and kingdoms?


- Tenorio concludes that empires are composed of kingdoms and each kingdom is
somewhat sovereign and a lot of them had their own structure and language and they
still pay taxes to the empire in order to be protected from other empires.
- Languages and structures and culture were a thing
- Protection was paid to empire to get security - Protection - From other Empires.
Jose:
Geographical inuences and the differences between Portugal Brazil and the Spanish
Americas - The two strategies that the Portuguese and Spanish did - The Spanish
wanted to topple the existing empires that were more inland - The Portuguese didnt
have any social structures to establish inland - They just had very lose tribes settled
around the coast - Their intention was to set up trading posts around the coast - They
=got natives around the posts and this led to eventual inland expansion to the
porutguese.

Alex:
Talking about the economic structure of Americas - New Spain was founded upon a
lot of silver production used in europe as a line of credit for Phillip the second, and that
eventually dried up, made up for with sugar and slaves , which helped them to
maintain the balance - Brazil, new place for Portugal to continue with export business
because that was what economy was founded upon - Sugar, which they garnered 70%
of world production, cotton, tobacco, coffee, had continued economic growth
throughout colonization.
Brazil is Portugals export business
- Silver products are an unlimited line of credit"
Sugar + Slaves.
Changing social hierarchies
- Rise of the criollo class, Bakewell talks about how they sell these additions - This
development was very inuential for the well to do class - The Siguenza letter you see
lots of assumptions relate to it - Brazil could be a thing - Talk about the Siguenza
reading - While the assumptions are clear, some of these social hierarchies are
challenged - There is a shortage of grain and the producers managed to stick to their
own prices because of the prices that the governors had placed upon them (they
opposed!) The Indians technically didnt have enough power but they managed to do
an uprising - But they managed to oppose shit.
Role of slaves in Brazil.
- Importance of slaves came from their economic model - Very based on agriculture
starting with sugar and then got some mining and coffee etc - And because of the
stuff - Brazils involvement in shit - Reliance on slave based agriculture - Social thing
such as towns based on runaways - Wasserman: Father Vieiras sermon was a thing.
What brought about the decay of the Spanish empire?

- It was a string of poor political leaders and decisions - Phillip 2 and Phillip 3rd Phillip 2 delegated lots of power to the wrong people - Aragonese v Castilians - Eboli
factions - Disappearance of the middle classes - Failed redistribution of taxes Overextension of resources.
- Most of that came from Elliot - Very dense but very useful.

How was Brazil dierent from Spain?


- Pre-existing empires lacking in Brazil.
- So originally Portugal discovers Brazil, it has low desire to develop brazil - The initial
resource was dye wood that could be operated from the coastline, French encroach,
Portugal does things to develop the sugar economy that is focused along the
coastline just because it is close to the ports with the sugar empires (Europeans)

- Jesuits move into Brazil and start protecting the natives and all is well.
- Jesuits create aldeias - Most of it comes from Bakewell chapter.
Wasserman documents on piracy are great for the documents of the
empire - Role of the Caribbean was a thing.
Anything that came up??
Decay of Spain? - Decay of Portuguese: Spain has a much more pronounced decay And thats when Portugal is discovering a successful sugar economy and thus mask
the.
Erin: The purpose weve discussed this term - Decay of empires The real decay of Portugal is coming up. They are taking the course of whatever You re not responsible for that.
- Baroque empire - He has found a way to explain a very complicated period of many
societies at the same time. These are some of the denitions - A sensual art which
blends the infernos ames and all precious stones of Catholic paradises. Its white,
black, despotism and profound freedom - Doctrinally despotism. This is referred. for
art, poetry and painting/
It is descriptive of the political and economic administration.
- Catalan:

Eugene d Ors. Whenever we nd in one single gesture several conicting intentions,


the rest stylistically belongs to the category baroque . The Baroque spirit ignores what
it was - It seeks to pro- and the contraMadrid does not exist at this point - Legal codes and divides, subjects in India, China,
Peru, speak different languages. How do you get that without embracing
contradictions?
Baroque An architectonical style, era, Spanish thing or a commonplaces: Bad taste,
too much, chaos, messiness, blend, sensuality, movement, colors, pantheism,
promiscuity, culteranismo, mannerism, plateresco, churrigueresco, metaphysics.
Context:
Post-renaissance, reform, counter reform, explorations and expansion of the world,
new wealth.
Basics:
Strong dogmas/assimilation of contradictions
- Solid social hierarchies vs social mixtures, pragmatism of the powerful weak.
- Kingdom of the forms: Passion and science of the form
- Desengao.
Spain becomes the defender of catholicism. Conquering new souls, new wealth. The
economic effect of the discovery of gold, the discovery of wealth is a thing. England
slips out of piracy monetarized. Pesos were the currency - prior to Bretton Woods.
Strong dogma: In the 17th century, nobody was willing to negotiate regardless of
catholic dogma. You could be killed for being Jewish. If you were found in scenes, there
was no seeming possibility of exibility - A system that assimilated differences,
contradictions - One of the most extraordinary ideas is the founding of the institution
of the Inquisition.
Spain in 15th century establishment - To ght Judaism and bad conversion. They
established a decree in which they converted. There was need to measure whether

they were converts. What about if we found out that they were circumcised?
Inquisition is brought to Lima, the role of these institutions is?
They are not used to traveling to America. Where Jews in the families abroad - Though
many came to America. Carvajal family came over and stuff - The inquisition was
ghting for conversions - Because this was a Baroque attempt to convert many.

Why The Inquisition?


The Inquisition was in charge in America to ensure absence of idolatry - No praying to
the old gods, no totems or stones. They monitored that there were no scenes or
problems, witches, wizards, bad people that were against the creed. I

Inquisition is a word with a terrible reputation - We know it was terrible. It was


Federalist institution that didnt belong to Catalunia, Portugal, etc
Its like the FBI.
This works in Baroque way such that the supreme court would require all of these
things - Interview all of these things. Historians love this institution - You are accused
of something, they try to ascertain whatever - Tortured to confess this and that - The
rule is this. The inquisitor must be an expert on legal codes, but also the most vicious
thinker - In order to imagine whatever. They are master Choreography - Did you
engage in onanism?
They want to know - Exactly - He did this in that way - Engaging with all these Catholic
rituals - Now they were singing for Gods. The priests didnt pay attention to that.
Federal police doesnt take care of local elites taking care - Dont take care of his
moneys? Why this possibility of living with strong dogmas and assimilating
contradictions?
Any textbook in Spanish whatever - They will say baroque and a lot that they had
- Obey it but dont fulll it.
- The law is the law. It has to come. When? When it comes. The French includes an
entire line of thinking - Law is the law. We cannot be discretionary. If you are a huge
empire, extraordinary - This possibility of assimilating contradictions, but this is the
consequence of weakness.
- The whole thing lasted four centuries - You could say money, honor, privileges - Etc But it lasted four centuries. America cannot give morality - Characteristics, scal
policies, politics, everything

Spanish America (1600)


Peninsulares -> Criollos/Novel Indians -> Indians/Mestizos - > Castas -> Slaves
Criollos: Children of Spaniards.
Peru: Cortes defeated Indians, in the rst generation, they did what they did in the
Crusades. Divide people land wealth etc. Charge the owners of the land to take care of
Indians.
Soon after, 15th and 16th centuries. The empire had to be remade again
because it wasn t working. Indian towns.. In order to protect the Indians, they had
to respect the local Indian towns - To be founded with their own principles. Well, it is
everywhere but nowhere. In the US we use race - The race issue is strong - The Indian
nobility - You have to accept the caciques and kurakas convert, then you say they sell
hamburgers on your behalf. The mita, payment in kind.
- Trade. Caciques are forcing Indians to pay what corresponds to what the Caciques
must pay. Literati - Caciques: Literary characters who traveled to Spain - Elites were
hispanizeld and by the 15th/16th century they were all Spanish-speaking
- Castas are combinations. Spanish cared about race - Race based on interpretation.
It was all baroque. You can marry whoever you want -

Gender
Location
Wealth
Race
Opportunities.
Location

Castas are mixtures. Quito too Lima too, depending on the situation it would change.
Those at the top were ghting about whether the blood was pure - They were always
ghting. The hierarchy is very strong - The hierarchy depends on gender location
wealth race opportunities. Its all baroque in the sense that it depends on when who
how. Indians/Mestizo: Dress up and be Mestizo.
- Hierarchy was exible. If you were a slave there was no exibility - America laws of
antimiscegeneation - Children were slaves. In Spanish law, you cannot slave the
children - And so, it was also exible thing in some ways but not in certain ways. In the
Tupac Amaru in 18th century. Not enough Spanish soldiers - Mulattoes. How strong is
this? If you serve as a soldier etc - You are white by treaty - What we say. Gracias alSakar.
You are what you prove to be at every single moment - What matters is how the law
recognizes him Kingdom of the forms: Passion and science of the form.
Lots of time, labor, etc - There is no space to put nothing. Q: Why put so much effort?
They dont care about essence but rather form. They discovered something - Politics
is about form, not substances. Father was going to retire - He would not visit little
towns in the anywhere - Structures and symbols of power are present everywhere. If
people organize a parade, the Ostia, for instance - Communion bread, everyone with
symbols Because of the Baroque empire, the forms etc, this extreme performance of
power How impressive and important that is for ruling.
Is the These kingdoms of the forms include passions, arts, everything - A lot of
hardcore knowledge: It was not the kingdom of forms only - It was a time of
extraordinary discovery - Discovering for ora and fauna, nding new forms and
technology - 1985 they lost most of the buildings in the 19th century - Those
constructed in the 16th and 17th century. Forms constructed in the most scientic way
possible - It is baroque - How do they do that?
Characteristic:

Desengao, disillusionment - There is a constant sense of disillusioned


enchantment - They are too big yet they are about to collapse all the time - They seem
that they were too great - The empire is strong and now we are saving the Catholic
religion Yet Indians are dying. The Indians are ready to revolt to kill us - Its a
constant - If you read literature, there is this disenchantment and thats why he called
it a Baroque empire.
Spanish empire -> Church/King, Court, Cortes, Consejo de Indias
Church -> Arzobispo/Inquisitions
Arzobispo: Local Ar/Local Ar
King, Court, Cortes, Consejo de Indias -> Viceroyalty/Viceroyalty.
Viceroyalty -> Audiencia/Audiencia
Audiencia -> Provincias and alcaldas mayores/Provincias and alcaldas mayores
and alcaldas mayores -> Cabildos/Cabildos/Cabildos.
There is no possibility of the pope appointing bishops - If not the king of Spain has no
pope - The king of Spain appoints great visions. Its Baroque. There are orders created,
centralized in the Vatican, the King of Spain cannot appoint anybody, they are ruled
directly in the Vatican - Some kings prefer Vatican and Dominian, there are the
Federalist institutions.
Royalties equivalent to kingdoms.

Class 4
Trabajar para el Pueblo
Netherlands - Asked advisors to advise him on the Netherlands.
Fixed Government.
Traveled a lot
Killed his own son Don Carlos
Many wives
Centrality/remoteness goes against the assumption that the Spanish empire is
composed of units of equal rank.

Didnt perform royal gestures, put himself in the mathematical center


Italians objected because of the increasingly Spanish nature of the empire.
Castilians v. Aragonese
The monarchy was not static but rather subject to change and Phillip did not perceive
this
Fadrique Furio Ceriol proposes federalism which is juxtaposed against the notion of a
Castilian crown.
King is executive ofcer and thus any actions have to be understood in context of the
Castilian crown
Secretaries were bae, and they were attracted to this pressure group thing just
because of the fact that they had a lot of power - Bureaucratic provlicvities checked
the total amount of secretarial largesse that could have transpired.
Lots of magnates who didnt really give a fuck about government but nonetheless gave
fucks
The Castilian aristocracy lived on.

Ruy Gomez was a thing, popular with the ladies, inuential to those who disliked the
Duke of Alba.
Executive: Led by king and secretaries.
Advisory remained the same because of the old structure.
Council of state established, glitter shows that perhaps it will be kings who do shit.
Revolt of the Comuneros
Open Spain, closed Castilian aristocracy.
Mendozas - Infantado - Ruy Gomez - Eboli house
Escobedo v. Perez,
Princess with Perez, house of Eboli, eventually destroyed.
Princess and the
Portugal is annexed.
Crown is short of money for some years until mercury is introduced into the smelting
process, allowing more ducats to be made, following a period of nancial shortage
after which the crown is trying to collect taxes but fails.
1580s and 1590s, Phillip II has money, and he tries to reclaim the Netherlands
He succeeds in annexing Portugal, giving a seaboard to the conquest, and also
getting resources/money. Portugal is won for Spain by American silver.
In inheriting the Trastamara ambition of uniting the world under a single scepter,
Phillip II appeals to Cardinal Henry, who has already made the country tied to the
wealth of Spain.

Cristobal de Moura, a Portuguese citizen, ends up endorsing the candidacy of Phillip


II with de Moura, spending his own silver in order to eliminate the competition that
Phillip II faces.
Phillip II becomes king of Portugal, swearing an oath to abide by its customs and shit,
Portugal unites to Castile in 1580 in the same way Aragon united to Castile.
Revolt of Aragon - 1590-2
Zaragoza and the Anti-Castilians.
24 September, cross over to Aragon territory, repress the rebellion, had wanted to do
whatever in the Low Countries but as it turns out thats not bae.

Session 2
We plotted a graph of the empires fates as the time passed.
Health of the economy in y axis - 1646 - hemorrhaging population - economic
backbone of castile and in turn spanish empire - Burgos lost 10k people seville lost
600k people due to plague - further, there was ination, in the empire, for commodity
prices, they tried to deate silver and that was in 1660s, but then that didnt do enough
to control ination happening, in 1680 there was collapse of prices and bankruptcy of
crown.
1680s, there was a collapse of castillian economy, no export apart from wool, not a lot
of foreign wealth coming into castile, 1686, castile began to recover the monetary
position that stabilized, and then some guy starting with an o cut government
spending but was ousted - Olivares was earlier - Toward the end of
Count of Oro Peso tries to cut GS but they take him out in 1691 - Where we shift into
the bakewell reading, this is a time when we see spanish colonies in south america
have a lot of self sufciency, lots of untaxed silver from colonies, in 1654, there was a
large ship with 2-9m of unregistered silver- lOts of expansion of sugar cattle in Peru,
cacao, economy was booming.
Thats up on Oropesa.

Thematic Start in 1669 with periphery revolt with DJ Jose but it was telling about lack of
central power - What part of periphery? Its the rst cue not originating from central
portion.
1690s Charles II childless, so many take a go for the crown - Fall of Count
Oropeso, he had tried to cut GS and tax, and the only form of taxing left - Spit into
multiple regions even less power - Louis is working for Spanish crown with bourbons,
1680s death Then spanish succession begins till 1713 - There are other things that happened
include England not being pleased and gets into war and become civil war btw
catalunia and castile
1714 - Phillip 4th king of spain - Bourbons came in lack of power thinking
they could x it - The Nueva Planta and they wanted to unite Spain and
centralize power.
One trend critical was how they described the conclusion to this era of spains history...
In Castile there was growth in culture and art. This paralleled the inux of wealth in This was lots of disillusionment - A lot of it described the decline of empire - Castile
created and also destroyed spain.
Indian is a juridical category - Low class Spaniards wouldnt have the same
whatever - Pass yourself off as juridical whatever.
Tortilla monopoly: put them to survival in the land - The Spaniards would starve
without tortillas - Gives them a subversive power
Indians need to make tortillas - The Indians have more power perhaps as a result of
whatever - They have more power over the prices of corn - They mark up prices
because Siguenza doesnt want to grant them. This division is as neat as - What does
he do with the idea of the idea of a divided republic of spanish and indians? you were
talking about how that blurs? See

Viceroy creates 3 more parishes for the Spanish - A lot of it is not helpful.
Spanish republic? Do they function together to create a whatever? What is another
way of looking at it?
Distinguished by race and thus not equal to one another but lumped as agents of
chaos - Makes a point of listing them all separately, and the order is very telling - The
ear class spaniards taking the side of the Spaniards are part of that - If you re not part
of the viceroy then you re dead to him.
The more interesting part is that its not necessarily explicitly stated - Insofar as hes a
criollo - Hes not describing how criollos t into this hierarchy - But this perspective is
an expression of nationalism - While hes very racist - Anticipates racial stereotypes Lots of it stems from institutional and expressive components - 249, when hes talking
about the Indians wanting to complain about how theyd been mistreated - They go to
the Royal Palace, and it speaks to this resentment of the fact that indians could
appropriate power from the crown and been put in a better position - They re putting
the church in between as an intermediary between the government - AS adela pints
out - The Crioles - And Americans havel earned how to use these institutions to
interpose between government and solve between
Eclipse, Alex?
- When he talks about eclipse he shows true colors - Because here, he was the high
class intellectual guy who was freaking out - About something that has no effect on
their lives and it shows that they dont have the same belief in the god that he does And the empire was very church is state there was no separation - DIdnt acknowledge
the fact that the lower class had the same sentiment of the Spanish empire - The
empires needs were met because it was the will of God but it never overlapped with
the needs of the poor - When the riot happens the rst thing they do is go to Church They give them soothing words but when they go to state they disagree with
intentions - The Church is the State - Then theres nothing and the riot is warranted
and maybe it grows - This page tells us a lot about what Siguenza tells us - There can
have been no more whatever a night - Since such blackness of this (232) that moment
the lights fell - They sold lots of shit - Gazing upon the sun, granting the privilege of

beholding rarely what there is few observations - Why is the shit aligned. Theres some
atmosphere on the moon - The cold is the whatever - The astrologers attribute this
whatever
- This criollo intellectual guy - The criollos we re gonna read are not gonna be this
insufferable. Its not just the Criollo class losing faith on the Spanish empire - Its kind of
a cross class phenomenon development?
- Hostility toward Indians was masked. Didnt express - 244 top - The most ungrateful
thankful grumbling people - Thats that God still created them - Dont wish to dictate
this sentiment - Because it seems that he says. He keeps intermixing these digs at the
Indians - He seems to be hiding a lot about actual administrative chambers - We
walked through the torture chamber. 275. Setting them to re - Tlaxcalans fuck the
Spanish, not enough corn, Siguenza and Spaniards are bae.

Week 3-1
What is the knower s advantage?
Dates:
1578 Spanish victory - Netherlands
1581 - Felipe II, king of Portugal
1588 - War with England, defeat of La Armada
1604 - Peace with England, effective occupation
1598 - Death of Felipe II
- Felipe III: 1598 - 1621
- Felipe IV - 1621 - 1665
Carlos II - 1665 - 1700
In Portugal Casa de Bragana (Joo IV 1640-1656; Alfonso VI 1656-1667; Pedro II
1667-1750)
Riot in Mexico - In which the commoners and the Indians and the people revolted
against the city - A prominent scholar among the jesuits - Writes an account of the riot
in 1692, and he says let me go back to the story:

To understand the Americas you must understand period:


2 empires: Spain and Portugal.
Map of things:
1580 Charles Vth nished an important work against the Netherlands For Charles V it was important bc homeland, want to keep Netherlands. A simple
pause, a moment and a temporary arrangement till the next thing happens. 1580
Spain needs pacication, New Spain conquered, Charles Vth retired to Escorial, Felipe
IInd becomes king. 1781 - Felipe IInd is capable of becoming by 1580s. Charles Vth
and Felipe II - Felipe II is able to conquer portugal, and the two stories are one from
1581 to more or less 1680. It was then that Portugal became independent of Spain.
Important because for the rst time, these huge empires were together. Now, Felipe II
was not going to call the shots.
Portugal now belonged to Spain, but the king remained, Brazil remained the
possession of Portugal.
In 1588: War with England, and Defeat of La Armada England is now with France growing in terms of imperial importance - Pirates are
trying to steal the silver and gold - In the 17th century it challenges Spanish and
Portuguese empires - Not just in colonization, but also in the Caribbean in the
Spanish empire. The defeat of this huge empire in 1588 is important.
The important part of the Felipe II son of Charles V - The peak of the great golden age,
with Felipe IInd, followed by many different sons. 16th century to 1700s - More or less
would do that shit.
The history shows the king is important but shows that king has a strong man Olivares, etc, are the masters of negotiations within those times. The Spanish empire
will acquire an important moment - Charles and Felipe are the most important.

Portugal and Spain were together because of the ghts among empires.
Catalonia defeated - Portugal became an independent kingdom. It was 1640 Portugal - The expansion of the monarchy by declaring the son of the king of Portugal
- Son Pedro was made the Emperor of Brazil - He became the rst empire of the
independent Brazil. It would not change till 1889.

1640 was end of ocial control. In the case of the Americas.


1535 - Viceroyalty of New Spain
1542 - Viceroyalty of Peru
1549 - Bahia bought by the Portuguese Crown, RGG
1625-1650 Nadir of Native Population, free wage labor supplants
repartimiento
1628-1654 - Dutch in Bahia (1625) and Pernambuco
1690s - Gold in Brazil.
It is baroque because it incorporates many similar places.
Viceroyalties are very radically different in local characteristics. Organizing Indian
towns and Indian communities - Depending on their alliances with the Cortes,
the number of people in the Indian elite Depending on that there were different
arrangements within the same framework but with different changes - The Peruvian
viceroyalty took longer because of violence. It would remain a lot more violent, a lot
more killing than New Spain. Its not part to explain - From the moment of conquest
with Cortes and Lima, from the geographical Hernan Cortes kills by taking advantage of a civil war. Once they are defeating, instead
of destroying, they restore the demographic - He was the former head: Established
religious structure called Mexico. In the case of Peru, it was not complicated. There
was a civil war. New Spain, if you read the story, the Story of Bernal Diaz - Read it. It tells
you the story of how Cortes - Montezuma, how the death of Emperor by the same
death of smallpox, Cuauhtemoc, is tortured.
Importantly: Pizarro beheads the inca king, and is now going to establish the Spanish
government in Cuzco, where the administrative structures of the Inca empire,
because Lima is in a port. The consequence of this is that well, the Spanish wanted
gold - This had tremendous consequences to experience of Peru. Different original
moment.
In 1549, we have the rst Portuguese administrative structures in what they call Brazil.

They established at the beginning the Portuguese conquest of Brazil, which was a set
of explorations - It was not about creating Kingdoms, as in Spain. Its not about
colonization and populating.
The Portuguese is a Maritime environment - Its not about as in Africa - The
Portuguese, they were few - A maritime empire with no more than 5m people
establishing commercial ports everywhere.
The idea was to create in Bahia a capital esgenerale General unities distributed to
certain private characters, in charge of governing that part of Brazil - The Portuguese
crown was the center of the Portuguese empire - This was the beginning of
establishment f colonial endeavor of Portugal - Bahia becomes El Salvador - Its not
working as the Spanish Empire - It begins Commercial Port establishment - While the
other part is granted to Portuguese companies. Not what happened to Spain.
By the end of the 17th century, the empire changed.
A lot of this story is not about native resistance - Its a lot to do with the challenge
posed by other empires. The Dutch, in Bahia, in 1625, commanded the
establishment of colonies there - They decided that the only way to keep
it was to conquer the entire territory - The lack of Portuguese to do it was
a problem.
Spain faced a decline of population the moment the Portuguese tried to move into
the interior - As the Indians started to die the same way. By the middle of the 17th
century, there was a problem of population: The problem of radical decline, and that
this moment of change, repartifmiento, etc - Change was profound. The protection of
Indians was bae. The enterprise of the empire was not anymore simply a matter of
private interest distributing men and labor for work - It was about empire that had
authority to practice these parts not just at the center but also at local level at the plevl
of NSA and always lubricating all interactions with money, favors, as we talk about.
Day changing settlement: Discovery of Gold in the 1690s.
- Brazil was a huge possession of Portugal but not its most important

- Portugal cared about India China, etc.


- Gradually especially in 1690s, in 18th century Brazil became important because of
gold. Huge amount of gold found in Buenos Aires in the late 18th century.
The Portuguese, recall, were merchants and didnt create cultural economies - When
they were working with precious goods - They changed the structure of the empire,
settlements everywhere akin to Spanish empire- Establishing export empires - Sugar,
Tobacco, coffee, more in the 18th century, these economies based in slave trade and
work - Although it was wonderful integration. Who were the masters? After the 17th
century only the Portuguese had slaves.
- They had land, sugar, slaves. Portugal would make the second slave economy after
the USA - After the integration of the exploration expansion etc around the world. Go
back to the administrative aspects of the empire to talk about this. Flexible structure Let me talk more about the differences.

1.
empire
2.
3.
results.
4.

Baroque administration - Inevitability of baroque in a vast


Flexible structures within solid foundations (god, king, honor)
Dierences - New Spain - Peru: Same structures, dierent
New Spain and Peru vis a vis Brazil: very little in common:

The leaders of Indian results were the Spanish elite, in Lima. We have different results
- In the case of New Spain - Local leaders. Caciques, in the case of the others Kurakas in Peru. Why in New Spain was there tax and shit depending on whether there
were new towns?
The Spanish in Peru, they invented this structure called the Mita. Because if I force the
Indians to move to the mines, If I revolt, after the huge demographic collapse, what the
Spanish empire starts to do is relocate them for security reasons, practical reasons,
survival reasons. The Spanish create 2 republics - Indians and Spaniards. The Indian
towns established as Indian towns, have leaders respected by the Spanish empire,
dened as Indian towns. In order to distinguish them, this style Other town that
we re gonna create. San Juan Chamula, mixing the new names - So they want to
distinguish that from another Indian time - What you buy then at there is an Indian

universe. They are a unit of administration created after demographic collapse - They
have common land and periods in Peru, they ask the Caciques, where they re gonna
take them is that theres tax - The Kurakas are in charge of recruiting men for towns Thats how Indian town pays taxes - Just to show you, there are differences - There are
differences among this place and differences between New Spain and Peru. Brazil is a
factory - And then it becomes colonial settlements. Starting from that moment, it
becomes very different.
If we continue the story, its different for many reasons: Huge slave economy. Spanish
develop economy in the coast of Venezuela and Colombia, and in the Caribbean.
Slaves are everywhere in the Americas. Moreover, Brazil changes administration until
the 18th century that becomes the center of the Portuguese empire - By the time o
Napoleonic wars, what Brazil experiences is different - With Portuguese king in Brazil
ruling entire empire - Which is very different than the other countries. In Brazil, there
is no war of independence - They become independent and this one remains a
monarchy different from the rest of the continent until 1889.
If you compare, Brazil looks more like Canada, in terms of continuity of monarchy,
revolt absent, looks like rest of Spanish empire.. Regardless of whatever.
The Spanish empire is Baroque and decentralized in some way - They established one
in - Mexico City - Lima - Whatever - To avoid corruption, to diminish to the minimum
the possibility of corruption - They had these transportation routes - And ofcial tax
and other stuff - The creation of viceroyalties. The criteria they follow to divide Guatemala wants to become independent - It was na administrative unit that wanted
to go independent
Brazil followed a very independent pattern. It was changed to Capitanias. This is the
royal privilege to you. Bahia, is made into the ofcial one. The one belonging to
Portugal. Changing the capital - Creating a viceroyalty.

Administrative structure of Portuguese America (1650) King -> Governor general -> 12 capitanias -> Council.
2.
3.
4.

Baroque social structures - Hierarchical societies, yet exible.


Baroque culture.
Global: Multifarious barrowing

Global is modern, backward is Spanish - They are not global? False. It multifarious
borrowing - Its linked to Japanese art and trends: The stuff coming from India Japan
etc to New Spain - If you were able to Mexico, you could see every single cabinet and
furniture showed Dutch inuence, Japanese inuence Because it was huge and
everywhere. Portuguese were trading with Indian.
2.

Courtesan culture

Sor Juana and the culture of Mexico City: It works in a complex of ways. Its based in a
Court. The Paraphernalia and the court - All these things. People have to sing this way,
walk this way It sounds old fashioned. Think of Washington as a courtesan culture.
The framework was a baroque monarchical structure - It was playing favors, etc
Other culture was there. For people to get money for research in natural history, etc,
you had to be part of a court.
National endowment for the university - Contracts . It is almost like Chicago, which
pays to be the ears of famous politicians.
2.
Innovative culture
3.
Sensual culture
They were very sensual. Its all about design.
2.
Urban, urban fascination for nature.
Its urban, there were lots of cities - They didnt conceive the idea of civilization - You
didnt live in the land: You lived in the city. It was an urban environment. It was unlike
the US idea of the city - Here, they loved the city. The city was everything. They
created cities throughout the world.

Spain 1700s war - Bourbons win. Bourbons become the kings of Spain to
this day.
Private: Capitanias they are very different depending on Capitanias - They were similar
to mineral resources - They only found goods, for instance. He has not read a history
of how the CApitanias were run - Regardless of how they were run, the Portuguese
decided to say it doesnt work. Some histories talk about the failure of these guys - Its
that the Portuguese couldnt pass. T
Don Carlos for Wednesday.
You may have studied civilization - Between Portugal and Spain establishes a line. It
creates a religious center - Audience in Mexico City - Mexico City imperial city wit h a
capital. These will be centers of power for a long time.

Conquest of Moorish in Peru

Week 4-1
Distribute the midterm.
Due to MLK day and other matters, he is proposing to you to change the date of the
midterm so that it - He is submitting such that - February the 3rd, distribute February
10th instead, expecting them back in class February 15th. Since we have to change
the date?
Two examples:
University and convents (Jesuits)
- Education of elites
- Research and development
- Neo Thomas vs Renaissance thought
- Libraries
Urban cultural life
- La cortes: patronage/rituals (arcos triunfales, parades, poetry contests)
- Tertulias, discussions (global)
Don Carlos riot in Mexico city in 1692 - A very prominent poet - Juan Cortes...
Its important to understand that Mexico city is big compared to other capitals Invested extensively in capitals, is full of universities - Very important institution:
Important because of Don Carlos who wanted to be a jesuit - Talk about the Jesuits in
the city. How important were the religious class?

Jesuits
- The Jesuits were an order. Unlike the other orders, that responded to the king of
Spain, the jesuits were the Soldiers of God. They responded directly to the pope. They
are an order in charge of the great business. If you were to go to the 17th century what
happened with the jesuits - Great exploration parts of Brazil in Robert de Niros The
Mission.
- Robert de Niro ghts in the middle of the Amazon because the Portuguese want to
get rid of them - Because at the grassroots level, they have the demand of missions in
NA texas heavily in the highlands of Brazil, that command supposedly educated our
civilized Indians while simultaneously producing raw materials.
- They owned haciendas to produce pulque from agave: The most important alcohol..
A combination of tequila and a milkshake, and the most important beverage in Mexico
City.
- They were impresarios, that had an important role to play - They were the intellectual
order - The most enlightened part of the church, they had libraries, they engaged in
research and development, in Mexico City, these citizens - The Barios are formed by a
Baroque and functions like an indian Bariro because they are part of the Elite - They
have pontical university - Salamanca, etc
- They had central universities and minds because the jesuits were researching
mining, to improve the production of metals. Above all they had the whatever.
- This will make sense with Carlos Siguenza - They did research about New Spain, the
role of Spain, the lands, what was the future of these lands? The Criollos at the
beginning of the conquest made an attempt to
- Ideas of the renaissance was part of the city: Toledo was not in the middle of
Nowhere, Transportation was very difcult, research was very Difcult as this thing, it
worked - You had to read Latin, books in the world circulated everywhere - We dont
understand 99% of what we have access to. If you were well read, you had one copy in
Mexico: Couldnt read it because it was Latin. It was an urban culture based because
this space, this Mexico city, this big city created in what used to be Mexico.

Tenochtitlan used as a space of power - Which included the cathedral in construction


nished by the end of the 17th century: If you had been there, you a 21st century
young man or woman, you nd impressive still the scale of things. The church is so big
that the weight is sinking - It was there Why? Because the kind of urban planning
comes from Rome, etc, when you divide it you divide it among the wealthy people.
Then the borders were organized according to the history of the old city. In a long way
they were organized in such a way that it created an imperial capital.
At the center, there was the great symbol of the church immense - There is also the
period representing the political part. Coming out of that building, the Indians are
getting to the center of Mexico - How do they nally get out? Crucix. We have this
huge city that is lled with Courtesans, it was Baroque.
The problem of colonial mexico was that there was a high altitude: Lots of oods.
Whenever there were oods, the city would have problems. Castles were full of rituals.
This was the arrival of representatives: The arrival of one of the viceroys was painted.
Everyone participated. You saw nuns there, poor and rich, part of the ceremonial
issue.
Red stone: The stone with which the pyramids were created - The old city is both
underneath and inside red stone. It was beautiful depending on who you were. This
was the Mexico city middle school. That building with the Inquisition - Building of the
federal police, the Tribune of the Saint Inquisition. The Inquisition was there to ght.
You had in this Courtesan city That Baroque art was a thing.
There was a notion of sin, and temptation of sensuality. as a man. human body.
Barbarism was obsessed - Baroque people wanted to know the backwardness of the
scientic obsession with knowledge. You have to document part of the inquisition They had to draw the way the sexual scene took place. In order to regulate the society,
you needed to know all the possible ways to create sin. It was also a culture in which,
because of the Redemption, Confession, important were these paraphernalia of
accord. You have all the representatives - The great saver of God, a multimedia was
included. Poems were written on rock.

Don Carlos (1645-1700)


1.
Honor, moral and politics
2.
Criollos who entered the jesuit order
3.
Courtesan - University, poetry, etc.. And apparently high class
prostitutes.

4.
5.
6.

Indigents: Collector archeologist, historian


Fenix del Occidente
The Limits of Criollo

Comet - A treaty made about punishment, decided that this was a symbol of evilness.
Carlos wrote it was a phenomena, something that would happen..
He had a library and he was upset that Indians would kill library. I ve been fascinated
with these guys for a long time and the only thing is whatever - This baroque culture
will be part of the 17th century. The histories of the respective countries will be
granted. Aztec past is going to be equivalent - We are the experts of Inca past. This is
a light idea - A God present through the Toltecs mythology, the serpent, in the Maya,
the Aztec, this is Santo Tomas, the incarnation of Santo Tomas, but its not more crazy
than a myth from any other nation.
Black forest of Germany? Don Carlos - Bastard daughter of a relatively normal person.
Bastard child - Not conceived within marriage - Accessed eery other thing because of
the convent. She became an interlocutor of Don Siguenza. You re not supposed to go

out, etc, they will visit each other with a fence, between them, because they are not
supposed to leave. there are other intellectuals - Don Carlos found her a great
intellectual interlocutor. She was a good friend of the wife of viceroy, and protection of
the Bishop. In this Courtesan baroque culture Authority has not role to play but proof and demonstration.
- Sor Juana Ins de la Cruz (1648-1895)
- Carmelita - They were too strict. Moved to Jeronimas - Patronage of Virreina, Puebla
Bishop, for lotea. She was a nun in charge of praying.
She became the great version of the Baroque language - This is no matter of spring of
study or dying words without sense. Its as sophisticated as learning Baroque - And
riddles - And meanings - In a very sophisticated way. Because she was brilliant, so
much so that she got involved in a terrible debate with another scientists - padre
Viera, and got involved in the Carta Athenagorica in which she tried to contradict the
theological view of African Lady in the middle of Angola, professor Baker being
challenged.
- Lots of the rational of Rhetoric and the rhetoric of passion. She was well-read, and
how she got the favor of the viceroy - By writing poems. Suppose she felt desire - She
just People wrote Songs of Songs - Whether she was gay or not - There were many
problems - 1694 - Yo la poor del undo Sor Juana Ins del Cruz.

- Reason, Passion, Poetry, and Politics.

Week 4-2
Because of coastal settlements and because of interior settlements - They are more
vulnerable to section. We re gonna be doing something for Elliot - Take up everything
about sugar agriculture, gold mining, imperial rivalries, the French and other empires
that Portugal had to contend with, how Brazil became economically viable.
Indians didn t want their money, so the way to extract labor in the 1550s?
Demand for sugar was very much higher - They ended up planting sugar.
More roads were built - Sugar production. From 1550 there were 5 sugar mills - 85
there were 66. Rapid accelerated in the sugar cane industry - Bahia 18.8m kilos per
year production, lots of it was going to Europe, making lots of money for themselves off
these colonies.
1516 - Sugar makes its rst presence
1530-1700 Sugar cane cycle - Brazilian history.
- 1530 thats when Portugal focused attention on the role of Brazil in the economy.
*Without sugar?
- Wouldnt have required slavery - Slavery was likely not to happen: The only export
before was dye wood, sugar was literally the Brazilian colonization would look like.
- 1610 advancement in technology for sugar production - 1530-1610: First actual
technological production
- Primary region of sugar production: Sao Vicente and Pernambuco were places. 1654
transition was when the Dutch were removed from Brazil, they took the sugar making
techniques of the Brazilians, weakening the exports - Seemingly ruining their
economy, because of the new agricultural products that they found: Which ended up
giving them a problem.

Gold mining - Portuguese start looking for mineral wealth in 1650s - The period till the
1720s - The period of discovery of silver mines and diamond mines - Thats a big
difference between Brazil and New Spain - When arribefdv at New Spain it was not a
thing - When it hit it, was a thing.
- The economic shift from plantations to mines weakens lots of the plantations of the
coast and theres a demographic shift because lots of people come from Portugal Theres an increase of slaves - The demographics of interior of the country is really
formulated in this period - Lots of the settlements - They grow a lot because of the
mineral rush.
- Around the 1840s, the gold mines were starting to be depleted - The shift was into
agricultural crops: Thats what eventually had happened.
- Brazil the same part of the sugar lands? Near Sao Paulo and Minas, it contributes
toward whatever - The Portuguese had a problem with contraband gold, the taxes
were too high, there were conditions for mining that sucked, they were also over reliant
on mines that got them to be depleted by 1800. They were using the gold and
diamonds to do whatever - They were using gold to balance the books.
- What New Spains metals were funding? Religious wars. Portuguese trade with
Britain was an analogous function.
- Dutch invasion. Start with the French because - France felt pretty left out of the
Americas - They wanted to question authority of the Pope - The rst French ship was
whatever - If we dont get people to settle here Frnce will be a threat - The Portuguese
empire had already extended into Africa by this point - There was lots of trade in the
area - In 1516 they started the srs fort to defend Pernambuco, and King John III
started a private captaincy system and one of the ways in which they saw the French
around there - French being around Brazil as a threat to the own side of their trade,
after that So basically around the time of Portugal, one of the things that happened
around that time, the Dutch were always constantly taking business away from Brazil:
Because stye start focusing on Asia, (or the other way round) - 1530 the Dutch arrive in
Brazil They go there because Portugal is a weaker empire -

1641, the year after Portugal and Spain, thats when they start being allies - 1663. They
went to New Amsterdam - New York City. The Dutch countries had a lot of Jews among
them. The rst Jews that came to NY came from Brazil, they were Dutch Jews who
went to New Amsterdam: That is why the Atlantic world is best studied as a totality.
Wasserman:
Antonio Vieira - A minister or a bishop or someone high in the church, condemning
slaveowners, saying slaves have souls too, they re christians, not allowing them to be
Christian - Hes sort of who? Las Casas - Padre Vieira is the one who has a debate with
Sor Juana - Hes a protector of the Jews in Brazil: A very devoted man to the Catholic
dogma: Father Antonio Vieira: Dying in Brazil or in Africa: Some went to Goa, China,
etc, die in China because they would spend years learning the language to
Christianize: If they were not killed for some reason they would die that - They were
soldiers of God - Lisbons - From there, they would leave for China and never return.
Immense amounts of documents - The Vatican is full of people - They send in the
information about language - And it was an amazing - They were bad people: Think
about it: Its an incredibly commitment not only to colonization but also to religion.
Vieira makes it 89 years - So thats pretty impressive!
The next document is really short - Its a description of the church in Sacife(?) where
the black slaves build their own church and control it themselves - Were the slaves
baptized?
Vieira seems to be criticizing
Virginia in the 17th century, were slaves Christianized? Were there missionaries doing
it? No.
In 17th century Brazil/New Spain, Vieira is supporting a can - He said that hes not
against the institution, you must Christianize them, they are lost souls, you must
Christianize them. They will eventually become Christians - There are attempts to
Christianize them. Its an accident. They are slaves whether they are whatever or not When they have children then they are no longer slaves - In the US In British
America its different. Vieira is ghting both against local owners of slaves, and certain
branches of the Church that are in favor of this - They re ghting not against the
institution of slavery - But for the real campaign that the Catholics were trying to do

which was tho Christianize everyone in the world - If they had constructed a church
they had become Christian.
- Mines had little food and featured crushing by rocks. If you found a large enough
diamond, the
- What happens when slaves procure their freedom?
1789 slave revolt: Gregorio Reese - He was a Cowbra (mixed race) - They
intimidated him - Killed someone - Intimidated someone - And they went into the
forest and hid there for a while - The engenho stopped working: They got a letter of
manumission that freed them.

Week 5-1
The invention of Feitorias and stuff.
Feitorias were not meant to be capitalistic. The capitania was meant to create different
private authorities. Eventually it became imperial colonies, becoming enterprises or
colonization trying to expand colonize convert large population into the empire.
Portugal already compared to the rest of the ountries did not mean to populate: They
were to conquer in colonial trade, the Dutch were threatening the empires, lots of
pacts are signed and the treaty of tordesillas, you need to re-establish territorial
claims. They must colonize and then whatever in order to prevent shit from going
down.
Brazil is part of a network of connections on the empires. More or less in 1808, it's with
the Pombal reforms, what is close than ever is trying to be a colony: The Spanish
colonies
1. Feitorias - Captain cues - Imperial colonies - Commerical private network (vieira,
Companhia Geraldine do Comercio, 1649) -> Imperial commercial network
2. Gradual inland colonization.
Portugal becomes a kingdom, the center of power is not Lisbon.
Since the king is already in Rio de Janeiro, Portugal becomes a kingdom. It looked like
new Spain but more powerful, the center of power was not Lisbon but rather RDJ.
Another thing is that unlike Lima which was a very difcult conquer for Pizarro in there
was many revolts, then lima became the capital of Peru and it never changed. It was
difcult and a bad decision and through chi olence and military Co quest lima
remained for the entire ruling period as the capital of Peru.
Since the Mexico Tenochtitlan decision, tenochtitlan became one of the megalopolis
of the world. In Brazil, the idea was to establish a capital in Salvador DE bahia and Rio
DE Janeiro, they were not just ports and merchants: That was what the Portuguese
had not done much. They started - Rdj in 1808 became capital of Portugal. Rd by the
last part of the 18th century....

It would receive 15k over people who were escaping from persecution of Napoleon. It
was a different economic structure than the Americas and it was a different structure
base for materials produced for Europe. The Portuguese are merchants, they things
from China to Europe to Europe to India and as the idea of a simple Feitoria style of
colonization, conversion, expansion, incorporation into the idea.... Sugar becomes
important.

Sugar
Sugar in Europe in this time, can do an entire course on the discovery of carrots.
Beets. This red thing. Rebolacha, Betabete. When sugar came in the tropics, and the
product on of sugar became cheaper through slaves, the Caribbean and Brazil
became providers of this rapid access to carrots. It was done not only because it was
tropic - They had already been trading slaves and could bring them to the new sugar
economy.
The other thing is that although the Portuguese didn't want to expand inland, this
began a gold rush. A colony on peripheral relative to India China and Africa, it
produced not just sugar but also gold. Lisbon, too, is also transformed
Portugal relationship with English, they are frenemies. England 'is depicted ad
abuser of Portuguese - Portuguese whatever pictured as ducking.
In 16th century, if you are Spains neighbor, you are height or of France. It is a marriage
of mutual convenience. The British trying to expand the seas... the proteges are the
great explorers of the world.
For the Portuguese, without the English the Spaniards would invade. The British is
saving the Portuguese crown. The gold to monetarize the economy has to do a lot
with England. England buys produce, Portugal buys mostly wine, olives.

2. Dierent economic structures.


Sugar (up to 1680s)
Gold (1700 to 1750s)
Tobacco and coffee (late 18th century)
Late 19th century, valoriAtion of coffee.
Father Vieiras commercialism showed its effects - We consider the Jewish factor, proto
ISM protectionism.
Marianos and Jews were regarded primarily as pigs... They were advised not to be
around in the Spanish empire.
5. Gold, free trade.
6. Pombal reforms (1750-1777): Centralization, tax reform, commercial reform,
research and development, against local autonomy. Mindoro revolt 1780s.
Quality of coffee is produced and determined by altitude. It has to be... and certain
ecological niches, thus it couldn't be the coast, and required gradual expansion of
territory into the Frontier. In the 19th century this becomes so protigyable so this ends
up producing crisis of overproduction. Brazil contains 70% of shit in Brazil. What
people have in Brazil is land: More coffee is produced.

Week 5-2
Well, consider some news that would be akin to Fox news announcing that the
Martians have landed? Such radical news. That was the story of the French
Revolution.
This is a story of how a second nation was born in the Americas: The rst is the one
where the American Revolution is created: We the people - Soon after in 1804, after, a
new nation state is declared and it starts with a constitutional arrangement of 1804 Haiti is the state that is established. Well, what is it? Its a nation of Blacks. The last of
the things is that all of them will just be Blacks. Fanon?
Haiti had half a million slaves and 45,000 whites when the process started in 1790s
and the nation of the blacks was generated by the blacks - The beginning of the 19th
century - How long did it take the states to accept the african american state? 1804,
and all of a sudden we have a nation of black Robespierres and Washingtons. This was
extraordinary and unthinkable. This was a constitution whereby a nation of people who
abolished slaves - No masters would be had - We would all be black, so it was said.
This consequence would have the creation of nation states that we call Lati nMAerica
A new nation state of blacks? Well, this is what we want to explain - Haiti is a successful
colony, produces lots of sugar, economy is massive slave economy: Thousands of
slaves and very very few white in an island. Imagine for US Southerners it would be a
nightmare thinking you are sleeping in an island full of slaves - You would not sleep at
night.
Very successful economically, a slave economy - Nevertheless, this was an island
belonging to the LEnfants - This island would be touched by the crazy experiments of
the French Revolution - There were all these African slaves - But also free peoples of
color because of different forms of getting out of slavery and many were successfully
economic and cultural, creating a free people of color organization in Haiti.
Once these crazy guys start their business by talking about liberty, egalite, etc, a
famous one is Vicent Og who becomes a member of parliament - Hes not even
ghting against slavery: Hes ghting for the egalite of free people regardless of color

in Haiti. Regardless of their color, these people ought to be citizens of color like
anyone else. In the
1791 French Revolutionary Assembly - People are killing kings and they want a
republic - The people are the rulers - All this radicalism of the French revolution - Of
course, excited about this and decides to give citizenship to those who are free - In the
Island - It is a complicated phenomena - But this creates - This has all the revolution
you want, but you re going to enfranchise all these free blacks? Say the blacks. This is
San Domingo and with Haiti on the other side in the middle of the revolution - Whites
protect their rights and attack certain blacks and then Spain and Britain get involved,
trying to defeat revolutionary france - Britain and Spain are against revolutionary
france. In this kind of civil war..
1792 Assembly gives full citizenship to all free blacks
Civil war continues - There is a mess in the French revolution - It is comfortable for
revolutionaries in Paris to talk about revolution when you are not dealing with shit.
1793 Lger Felicite Sonthonax - Freedom for slaves, abolishment of
slavery.
Toussaint-Couverture becomes French commander, Perpetual General
Governor (1802)
People who have developed reputation and civil war - Fought for the Spaniards and
British for a while - This massive slave revolt where they change sides a lot, Napoleon
decides to send his brother in law, Charles Leclere, with massive armies to [pacify Haiti
- Allied with the Guerrilla Wars of Toussaintq-Louverture - The French are being
defeated. Leclerc himself dies of yellow fever, dying like ies. Tropical scenario, yellow
fever. All the way to World War I, WWII, that was the problem. Now, DDT.
Put lots of DDT - It was a great discovery before WW2, then in the African Front or in
the nation, the allies would send planes full of DDT and spray the beaches before they
land - That reduced tremendously the soldiers who would die of yellow fever. Another
tropical disease is transmitted by insects. At the end, the war was won by the general

of Toussaint-Louverture, but soon after one of the generals declares independence of


Haiti in independence.
It becomes an independent nation as an absolutist monarchy. Ruled in eternity. With
terrible contradictions among themselves marked by color of skin, mulattos, free
blacks, slaves for multiple generations, multiple slaves. The tragedy of these countries
is that the terrible turmoil would continue and continue - For today for instance as you
keep reading your news try to read the Economist - I dont like it but it covers the world.
American interests - One American covers 48,000 - If you read The Economist or The
Espaia, or Le Monde, the French newspapers

Now, Haitis rule by a popular singer who was supposed to call for elections but didnt
call for elections. There is an intervention in Haiti. In order for them to not kill one
another the US exercises the power of police in Haiti and the troops, for instance, are
Brazilian troops who are playing this role in Haiti. Now, this is the rst grand revolution
in this - It was as I told you, part of this big bang and it was the world upside down,
including these arguments all these aspects social political economic etc a very
successful sugar economy large slave economy whites always scared to death.
It explains what happens when the big bang reaches these territories - The big bang
passes like a tornado, and by the time you look back the entire region is different
except Cuba;
Because its an island.

1791-1804 - The world upside down.


1790: - Saint Domingue: Successful colony (sugar, coee, tobacco; 45,000
whites, half million black slaves)
1. Slavery
2. Mulattos and whites
3. French revolution: Egalitem, but not for all.
4. Imperial conicts - Sugar, Santo Domingo, Fear of contagion, France,
England, Spain.
Slavery is behind the big bang. Firs, by the very fact of the Haiti defect. Haiti had
produced a bad dependent - Whether Bolivia in Venezuela, or Saint Martin
Argentina, everyone has in the back of their minds OMG Haiti - We have to be careful
to not repeat the violence and killing of Haiti - Especially so if you have slaves. It is not a
coincidence: Once this tornado goes through that - And nation-states emerge like
planets after the Big Bang, but what remains is touched but untouched. Cuba remains
a colony till 1898
Brazil remains with the republic: The Empire. They are massive slavers and sugar
empires. They create new conicts - It is a civil war amongst people of color - It is also
very importantly a sort of appendix of the French revolution - Its not as if the French
are not doing anything. There is an appendix far away, its not a simple revolt - This is
part of a global conict - Spain and Britain get involved in this revolution Fighting
with the Spaniards and against the Spaniards, sometimes with the Napoleonic troops
sometimes against.
This was the story of a very important moment.

Caribbean - Big bang


What was the role of indigenous populations in this Caribbean confrontation?
A: There was no participation - Because there was no indigenous population.
This island is small: The contact with the Spaniards produced massive demographic
collapse, very few survived. However...
To speak politically, The Republic of Cuba or whatever, there is no movement We didnt die. Now that we re conscious of our identity, we re back. Before the invention
of the idea of identity Identity did t exist. You were an ugly or a bad or whatever
person - But Identity didnt exist. As indigenous people there was no institutional way.
There was a vast amount of indigenous population. I pay taxes because i belong to this
category - The important thing is that you were catholic - You paid taxes - You were
nobody.
There were no institutions because they didnt survive.
Both France and Spain had to import this labor force because there was no possibility
of working with you - But now, they are combiner - There is a Neo-Hiba movement
where more indigenous people are emerging - The same happened in North America
- If you look till the middle of the 19th century, the population was being killed, in the
1770s the population of the Native Americas begins to grow - Its a matter of
institutions. If you re a native you do this this this. Before independence in Mexico,
there were 60-70% of the population there were Indians. After, 60-70% were Mestizos.
What happened? They changed the category and people identied differently.
Henry Lugate would then show you that you had certain percentage of Black or Jew
But that was then. In the Americas the role the troops will play is central, because the
ght is with indigenous peoples.

Also, the Blacks will be affected by this because precisely in this big bang, the Spanish
empire realizes it doesnt have enough troops and most of the lost militias are formed
by mulattos: Free peoples of color. In the same way that the British king is defended by
slaves in America who thrive in America under the throne of America - Remember,
Washington was asking - They were sent to Canada but they were not slaves. He just
made them white by decree. If you pay tax You become white.
Successful island - A simple slave revolution. England, France, Haiti whatever. Its a
Black revolt - They were killing one another and cruelly and in violence, violent so
much so that in the rest of the America we talk about slaves circulated among the
slave economies, whether in Louisiana or Mississippi, they heard a slave speaking
French they knew these slaves had republicanism. It was very easy for republican
france to play around with these ideas of freedom to establish special cults to do with
Haiti. In a remote way, this is very familiar to America: These guys were radical - We are
going to keep slavery, say the America.
1803 - Napoleon sends Charles Leclerc, Mulatto army, Napoleon is trying
to say in the case of Haiti we re going to do this L Overture.

Week 5-Section
Indigenous inuence upon cities and shit Unmodern and messy Its called Art - About how this can apply to much about the
mexio city - That is a concrete example of what illustrates the Baroque - This is a term
that there is a denitive answer to and it makes it a little clearer to people that there
are not any denitive answers - This spirited contradiction and this amalgamation:
Keep in mind that theres this tacky, gaudy type of connotation - Keep in mind the
massive amount of wealth funding this wealth this ashy showy visual architectural
culture - This is being funded by new world metal, sugar, it doesnt just touch on
aesthetic and governmental things but also the governmental thing - Cathedrals
covered in gold, ornate - Again as mentioned with Mexico City, Siguenza de Gongora
is great.

- As far as understanding what a baroque city looks like.


- What does it mean? Everything is gaudy and it is a way of accommodating
contradictions - Notes from Tenor - I obey but I do not comply. The law is the law but
only needs be enforced when viceroy is there. The system is very messy, ad hoc, that is
very strict at the same time - Ass you think about the Baroque, the generality of it is
what makes it useful - Baroque wasnt what was come up with.
- Rigid social hierarchy, but also exibility. Think about architecture displays of wealth If you pay the right tax you re functionally european or white - These distinctions that
should be physically apparent in people - Is this a thing that people at the time were
aware of - They understood sort of what it was but they didnt put a label on it - You didnt have
to comply with it save for if there was directorial oversight - They were aware of the
slipperiness of the concept Chris: He would agree with that and says that it came about after the fact: what made
it so messy was the fact that they were trying to control huge areas of land and lots of
people and they wanted to make this shit economically viable - The fruits of their

exploration - This is no more - They re just barely keeping up - The baroque is a


contemporary term that would help.
Erin:
To make this more digestible, we re going to break down into small groups, come back
as a group after 15 minutes that might be useful? More for now, think about what
Tenor said about this topic. Readings? Bakewell, Siguenza, etc.

Week 6, 1-2
These two lectures, are about the story of Independence in Latin America.
Beginning his lecture, Tenorio had moved into his typical motions about us being
members of a community and a family - He had indicated that the midterm would be
distributed on Wednesday, and after some minor logistical issues, we had gone on to
speak about the history of Independence in Latin America.
First, the professor began with the admission that he could not possibly cover the
entire history of this period completely as there were too many events - It was true,
after all: This was a period in which Portugal, France, and Spain had ascended, which
he had elected to talk about through a study in Spanish history, and a war of
independence.
The question was:
Q: Why did the Spaniards start the War of Independence in 1815?
A: Because they were invaded by the French and had to liberate themselves: It was a
story of revenge, and revenge was a dish best served cold.
Again, Professor Tenorio admitted how little hew knew How could he tell us about
this period of time condently and coherently given that he now knew that he knew so
little about it?
Again, this was an episode in which Portugal, France, and Spain had ascended. What
he talked about is a study in Spanish history and a war of independence. Why did the
Spaniards start the war of independence in 1815? Because they were invaded by the
French and had to liberate themselves.

What is proposed is this:


A Historical Big Bang.
The main actors are Spain and Portugal. At the end of the 18th century, there are lots
of things.
The great changes include
1. French revolution,
2. Industrial revolution,
3. Intellectual revolution.
4. The histories if many nations, the one ND only global sort of modern nationhood
and statehood.
In the independence period, Tenorio notes, this would be a piece of history of many
nations. We start in Spain, after he recounts the fact that it is fundamentally a
European history. Why does this involve Spain? In 1806, napoleon after coming to
power, after all the terror that had produced the French Revolution, Napoleon comes
to power in France.
At this point, Napoleons main enemy is England. The reason is Napoleon would be
able to conquer all parts of Europe, but not England.
He carried on, in his long drawl.
"As England was his main enemy, napoleon had to isolate England from the rest of
Europe."
One of England's allies was Portugal, so France had a problem with conquering the
Iberia peninsula. Hence, Spain and France fought against England, and pacts were
made with England and some unfullled. You could do it by sea or by land but this was
the point.

Consider the history of Spain.


1714 - War of succession in 1714 (Borbon reforms)

The Borbon were more modernizing. 18th century, Charles 3 becomes the king of
Spain and is known as the enlightened. He was the prototype of the modern king, very
much interested in the arts and science, and in the history we care about, he is
remembered in power for the famous Borbon reforms implemented in the empire.
Basically, these were Centralizing Modernizing policies to restructure the empire to
make it a Modern Absolutist structure. In other words no more pluralities. It was a well
organized administration of taxes, a geographical restructuring that mandated the
creation of new vicer9yaltiss through Peru and lima and Buenos Aires.
If mining was terrible, we recuperated the mining industry. If I got more silver for my
mines it would go to the local criollos who were in pay of his majesty. He got a royal
envoy to Madrid who would be directly responsible to the king, so he structured the
administration.
The Borbon reforms had desired things but could not deliver - Hitler and Stalin were
megalomaniacs. The Borbon reforms did language extermination.
Charles 3 was replaced by Charles 4.
The mess began because Charles 4 became king during the last year any attempt for
reform would be doable because

1789 - New transformations?


In the middle of Paris, a revolution caught in the heads of Kings, there was a
persecution of Queens, the freeing of prisoners and commoners who were in the
streets, changing the dates and months and going against God and religion alike. If
you became a king in 1788 it was entering into a new age, including the French
Revolution: Charles IV had gone into a new age.
Americas history is impossible to explain without Spain, but alas Charles 4 only cared
about hunting. People hated him, because he had appointed certain people. It was
said he didn't even like women. The gossip was that it was impossible to nd the right
woman for him.
Carlos iii (1770-1788) and bourbon Spain.
Carlos iv and Manuel godoy (1790s to 1809 Great reform, lover the
queen?) Absolutist ruling to popular revolt. Fernando VII.
The Catholics wanted to keep the world as it was. The war is changing the world,
however. They want to isolate Spain from these ideas, to isolate England and France.
They ght France to save themselves from England.
Revolutionary France - Manuel Godoy achieves peace with France. England is losing
colony in British America. Manuel Godoy is bae, until napoleon comes to power and
Manuel Godoy chills with napoleon.
Manuel Godoy was painted as a traitor - What had happened was that Spain said it
would allow Portugal to enter its territory. In exchange for that, Napoleon would
respect agreements. Manuel Godoy would get land and sovereignty in Spain and
France.
Motin De Aranjuez (March 17, 1808)
Napoleon invasion.

Some nobles decided Manuel Godoy was too powerful and they thus plotted against
him. These monarchical regimes, as you have studied in European history, if you have
studied it... Well, they supported different members of royalty.
Charles 4, as you know, was hunting and alive. The nobles, they revolted with
Ferdinand 7.
Manuel Godoy has many local enemies and is realizing that this is a mess. At some
point, Napoleon tries to take the kings from one house to another....The rumors start.
The nobles had spies in the masses and churches and they spread rumors. The
popular rumor was that Godoy had captured the kingdom. Before this, it is not Charles
who is the king.

Motin de Aranjuez (March 17 1808) revolt when Napoleon decides it is


enough. He decides he won't ght with this nobility in Spain, and he decides to break
all pacts with Manuel godoy and invades the Peninsula.
Godoy later said he knew that napoleon would invade - He wanted to send them to
Veracruz and whatever.
Bayona invasion. Napoleon drafts a constitution. He is a ruler of modern ideas.
He develops the constitution ideas and he appoints Jose I king of Spain, his brother.
A more liberal and democratic state is created. A parliamentary monarchy is created.
In order to do this napoleon forces the kings to abdicate.

The point:
Let's suppose president Obama is killed by some crazy teenager with a gun. Keep
doing that until you go down the line of succession, hundreds of people in the list. Vice
president Biden, gone. Nancy Pelosi. At the end of the day, you are the state. We the
people.
The system is such that it is established. The president runs with the vice president.
You know that the constitution establishes that Obama is not the symbol of the state.
Obama is the symbol of the government. The symbol of the state is constitution.
Nobody challenges the constitution. You play the game but the state is the state.
Obama is at time is the commander of state. The president may act as the state
because the constitution cannot act. The constitution allows states to act.
In this monarchical system the chief of state and shit is the king. The king is the
symbol of state. The king is there, and when I say we the people, all these people are
just wishy washy. That is how we give them power. That is what gives power to the
Democratic system. But do we really want to say that?
We have a very important symbolic system. I respect the constitution of th e us, but
the image of the king exists - All this investment in structures makes him the
representative of the state, the people, and the will of God.
It is not just there by totalitarianism. The good king is also there because of the will of
the people. The good king is there because he is a good king. If he becomes a bad
king the people have the right through the cortes system (check), the local
representatives, these bodies the king consults to make decisions.
It is absolutist and not democratic, but
Muammar gadda. Symbolically, not only to kill all the people here, if they were to leave
you all in orphan hood. Now, power is back to us. When you from the beginning
The origins of power is with the people.

Napoleon knows the system can't be changed. Appoints a new king. These things are
wishy washy. Imagine someone tells you here's a new constitution. Joseph ist .
Napoleon seemed a Catholic who was killing the old thing. Joseph is regarded as
imposition.
Charles 4 and Ferdijand 7 abdicated. Napoleon forced them to abdicate on behalf of
his brother. The kings were both messes and fought among themselves. They said the
king was Joseph ist.
There was a war. A revolt. There was an idea of a national liberation war for the rst
time in Spain. The masses revolt in the name of Ferdijand 7, and some are led by
military members of rhe old borbon king. They are revolting, spontaneously, against
the new situation. Further, the political class and nobility become affreecencados, and
those against become the resistance.

The resistance has a great ally.. There are no secondary characters.


Napoleon, Wellington (British army) fought for him guerilla. Imagine Syria Compared to now, less organized. Spanish and British militaries collaborated because
Britain tries to go against napoleon
In the Borbon monarchy, the idea is that people will ght. This war is generalized.
Napoleon must go himself to destroy the guerilla. They are reaching to Lisbon, and
they see ships far away. The king, the Queen, and 15000 noble people are escorted by
the British navy. This is the most important moment of the big bang because the
Peninsula is transformed. The entire society had revolted in guerilla wars against
everybody.
England face Spain Portugal involved. Local professionals began to talk about the
original king. Let's return sovereignty to the people .
Who are the people? Junta. They were the natural representations. Every town had a
municipality and cabildos, and these people were 'natural representatives' because
they won the respect of their fellows.
These juntas were like circles. They founded different people to federal juntas that
weren't just formed in the Peninsula they were formed everywhere.
The juntas got together in Cadiz, there in a massive junta, they wrote a new
constitution in 1812 asking for the return of Ferdinand 7, transforming the state into a
liberal monarchy.
Ferdinand 7 returns to absolutism. Napoleon leaves.
First thing he says us that we should not talk about the constitution.

Liberals and conservatives agreed - The juntas wanted a return to the


regime. Under 1812, Spain was a nation formed in both hemispheres.
If we in Spain were equal to Argentina,
Liberals and conservatives tried to eliminate Indians. The criollos and mestizos
revolted. They managed to eliminate representation of blacks. In terms of number, the
Spaniards would be out majorityed by the Americans. The borbons had always made
these people citizens.
The discussion is: What happened in 1812 so the liberals won?

- Junta to Cortes
- Cadiz constitution 1812.
Return of fernando vii, 1814-1833, absolutism.
- Pronunciatmientos Revolution of 1820, Constitutional regime,
1820-1823.

- Spain normatively was called a nation, where Spain had formed nations through
Europe and America - Establishing a parliamentary monarchy where the king was
appointed as chief of state and symbol of Spanish empire - But whose will was not
absolute but rather contingent upon the approval of the Cortes, the Spanish
parliament. In a way what the constitution established was that the king had to respect
the constitution, not call it whenever he wanted, but rather the parliament had to be
democratically elected and was closer to a parliamentary democracy.
- There was no freedom of religion. It declared the catholic religion the only ofcial
religion of Spain and its possessions. Not a liberal thing to do, but remember that
there were not many constitutions at the time, not many experiments - The catholic
anti clergy moved in the direction of the revolution - They had seen of course, the
American constitution - Which was an example of freedom of religion

Q: Does the constitution allow you freedom of religion?


A: Well no, they dont let atheism.
- There was no freedom of religion at the time - Not even the American constitution.
- The constitution had a very important problem in terms of representation in terms of
numbers - The Spaniards would always outnumber the Spaniards in the Americas if
the citizens in America were going to be part of the citizens there - The Americans
would always exceed the number of Spaniards in the peninsula.
Serious debates in the constitution of 1812 - To disenfranchise indians, only including
Criollos (Those born in America from Spanish parents) - This was considered not only
illegal, but it was a betrayal to 300-400 years of ruling because the indigenous people
were always subjects of his majesty.
As managed, they didnt manage to exclude the blacks from the Constitution - The
interesting thing is when Fernando 7 returns. The elite are part of the Cortes,
maneuvering so that the king can come back.
- By this point, this has been taking place. This takes place in Cadiz - Takes place in
Cadiz in Seville, where they had joined forces because Napoleon had invaded the
peninsula and escaped from the war and invasion of the peninsulas.
- The representatives of the juntas were coming here - The Americans - The
estrictosenso - The Americans are those who came from the Americas - People in
Buenos Aires appointed someone from Lisbon, Madrid, etc, and people would
sometimes go from Caracas to these juntas in Cadiz. As this went on with the guerrilla
wars in Spain with the support of the British, Napoleon was being defeated.
It was not that Napoleon was being defeated by the Spaniards - It was the We the
people who had help from the British - Remember Iraq, and remember Syria.
Those wars are wars where you cant lose - You dont have the power to win, or lose.
There are guerillas. This is always the same. This was a devastatingly weakening war
for Napoleon. He had opened up a war with Russia - The path to defeat.

When Ferdinand 7 comes back after the defeat of Napoleon, he comes back to the
Aldesaia (The wanted one) - The idea during the time was that Ferdinand 7 would ght
for the old institutions of Spain: They wanted him to come back and sign the
constitution. Ferdinand had come back and he had seen the representation and wishy
washy stuff - He decreed that the constitution had never existed, and he had not
signed.
An authoritarian regime is started.
An event happens that marks the rest of the 19th century.
1820 - Precisely in the troops that are preparing themselves to be sent to the
Americas to defeat. At the same time that guerrilla wars are happening, at the same
time these juntas are created and meeting in Barcelona and Toledo and in Calatajut They are doing the same thing in Cuzco, Lima, Buenos Aires, Cordova, etc - They are
all forming juntas.
There are juntas and wars - But most of these wars were not really for independence,
up until 1840. Ferdinand 7 the desired one. The last class showed that it was not
Ferdinand 7 that was important but rather what he symbolized - The authentic
institutions of Spain. When Ferdinand 7 rejects the constitution, he rules for a while,
and in 1820 1814 post, everything seemed pacied.

Pronunciamientos - Revolution of 1820, Constitutional regime, 1820-1823.


It is a movement taking place throughout the 19th century. A military man declares
himself in revolt against the regime, asking people to follow him to defeat the wrong
government. This was a revolt among the troops sent to Spain to defeat the guerrillas
in America. These people managed to force the king to sign the constitution of 1812.
From 1820-1823, there is a constitutional triennial: 3 years of constitutional monarchy.
The pronunciamento had made the king sign the constitution.
Here is not the class for messy politics - Remember simply the pronunciamentos.
Now, you call citizens, now we have the pronunciamentos, we say that we are sick of
this.
Lead the pronunciamentos toward the inevitable steps because of the messy situation
in Spain. Because there are debates among historians, historians unlike economists
dont have any other business or history - We dont get contracts or to do any
consulting. Instead, we get extra money - 100 years of constitution, what do we do?
We make a big buck to send our college.
New book, you need one centenarian or two - Because of the centennial of 1812, there
were these things. Historians everywhere were paid - Constitution was very liberal, and
the Americans were happy: They were going to be made citizens.
Some places in America, debate historians, they were not happy. Historians are saying
that they were illiberal - They wanted the authentic king back and some students
wanted to say that the criollo elites had corrupted - But even the Indian communities
and authorities they didnt enjoy liberalism because the system was full of privileges.
In the new system, they no longer were noble caciques - We wanted to say that they
are all equal But they decided that they didnt want to be equal. Some revolts,
according to some historians Well, Ferdinand said well lets get it out. Thats another
interpretation.

The closest interpretation is perhaps the most simple one. Its messy, and when its
messy then revolts can follow whatever logic - Its very messy.
Lets talk about the other town:
Couple of million people making fuss: The Portuguese.
The Portuguese follow in the big bang:
Jose I 1706-1750: Paradoxes of plenty.
Lots of gold, Lisbon is transformed.
1750s - Gold and misfortunes.

- A great decline, the economy collapses.


- Sebastio, Jose Carvalho e Melo, Marquez de Pombal.
Comes in this terrible crisis with liberal reforms The same ala Portuguese. Same
centralizing power was desired to make it more efcient. Desire to have the envoys of
the king taking care of the king to avoid corruption
- Wanted to make it free trade free with local Jewish communities in their places.
- They wanted to say well, if they are Jews we can do business with all.

1792 - Joao VI: Crisis of representation in Portugal.


It was not just gossip. Gossip is wonderful, but it was about matters of the state. Joao
VI was to become the king of Portugal, a crisis of representation existed because the
mother was supposed to be queen. The mother is crazy, you see - She could not rule.
Joao ruled as Regent King: He was a legal gure, a king in representation of shit - A
parenthesis that represents the king of Portugal that is going to end up living in RDJ.

Because of the crazy mother, etc, Joao becomes the rst major king of an empire
crowned in an America. Joao 6 who was a Regent King, while in RDJ his mother dies,
and thus he is crowned.
What is the meaning of the King that in Brazil, a Major European Emperor is crowned?
- In this war, Portugal followed a very different path because Napoleon invaded the
peninsula, with the opposition between the Francesados and other nobles - In
Portugal there was proxy wars and also the support of the British Napoleon was one of the two parties.
- There are two parties in the Portuguese nobility.
1) Ones in favor of asking the British to defend them, keeping the king alive as Spain
had done.
2) Others who proposed that the Portuguese army was not big enough to oppose
Napoleon, proposing that the kings and queens and noble classes should be sent
elsewhere in the empires.
One of the factions had won and they had decided to escape to RDJ.
The same characters, the same plot, it was a big bang. This was a different result,
where unlike in Spain where there was a serious crisis of legitimacy of political regime,
there was no crisis No crisis because the king was alive and kicking, in RDJ with
14000 noble people and the entire royal family, the elite of the army Everyone was in
RDJ.
1815 - Renaming of Brazil
Moreover, in 1815, Brazil would be renamed. Joao was crowned king, nally. Crazy
mother was dead. Crowning took place and the empire was called the Unied
kingdom of Brazil and Portugal. It became a kingdom within Kingdoms - All the
three kingdoms had a statue of kingdoms, whereas others were colonies. Kingdoms
were colonies, and the head of this huge empire was in RDJ. This was a fundamental
change that explains..

Although we call Brazil and etc Latin America The rest of the continent (including
the US) When you destroy the structures of the state and have to reconstruct its
risky. If you move to an independent nation but you dont destroy structures of the
state then not cool. If you reconstruct it, however you do it, its messy and violent.
But not Brazil.

Some pictures:
Wellington was heading east to support the Guerrilla wars. This was the great big
bang. This was big business - This is France trying to conquer the area so that France
could get to England, this is England in support of Spain and Portugal to defeat
Napoleon, and this was a ashpoint of invasions of many states throughout the
Americas.
This reminds us of pictures of the Wars of Independence, the guerrillas getting killed.
In being killed, showing the cruelty of the French against the Spaniards, portfolios of
Goya are very impressive: It was a violent war lled with blood.
1809 Francisco Goya - Continental blockade and the invasion of Portugal,
RDJ Capital of the Empire
The period of reection notes:
Tenorio waits, and waits. He waits for visits desperately, but receives pretty much
none But from now until the day of submission, so you cannot email him from here
to Monday. If you do, he will not respond. His Moratoria.
Imagine what would happen if he responded to every question. They would reproduce
like Rabbits. No questions are now here - That is for him. Your respective leaders of
section establish the rules.
Erin: OH tomorrow, last minute shit, nothing directly related.
Chris: Same thing. Logistics.
He knows, when you get older, you get experience, and he knows by now what he is
producing - Lots of tragedies will happen. From dead cats to grandmothers, people
start doing whenever he does this - Sometimes, it really happens. Of course, it
happens. But, nothing will happen until one of these tragedies, or that grandmother
dies - Dont tell him: Just come on Monday. You have to show your face and tell him on
Monday for extension or pity or condolences. Face in front of him. Everything will be
solved. If something happens, dont worry. Just show up on Monday and explain. But,

whatever happens. We agree that no news will be shown on Monday. We discuss what
to do in all particular cases.
Questions:
1.
The second question that asks about choosing 2 identitiesShould we
dedicate half the essay to one and half the essay to the other?
A: Normally yes, we want a balanced thing, but it doesnt have to be mathematically
the same - You can combine both of them simultaneously Balanced.
2.

Where is the traveler from?

A: You are from England, elsewhere, whatever.


3.
The concept is to explain the era, which is the entire 17th century. (Q4)

At the beginning process was it meant to be an independent nation? Why did


independence happen?
A: Too many outcomes were possible many differences in the movement - But it
seemed so clear. US became mexico, the US, etc, became like that.
No, its not the way we have seen it - This was a huge process of independence,
whereby Spain etc was affected by the Napoleonic wars. This was a process starting in
1808, stopping in 1830, the creation of mostly republics in a very real way in what
used to be Spanish/Portuguese America.

- This was like a clear path: A destiny that was meant to be. Moreover, the
Independence period worked like a huge map. Let s say you have
multiple trajectories,
(We talk about the Spanish empire, France, England, and too many things
happened in the past - Including Spanish societies such that there were
many trajectories of history: The creation of the nation state and stu,
happened like a beautiful map. Everything looked like a confusing stu.
The paths were rewritten to look at a certain moment. It starts to be
written, so it becomes the origins of Peru, Bolivia, etc.
Q: Why are the Aztecs nationalized?
A: Don t know. Why the Mayans nationalized and why not other states like
Guatemala?
The creation of the modern state arises - Our great moment in history:
Washington, Hidalgo, etc.
Q: Where are we in the US? Washington.
We can put together the entire history that you can put the pieces
around. That is the moment of magic for this important moment. The
creation of this history is very coherent - But it looks coherent.

The parameters that were happening around this time showed that they
were in turmoil. No single aspect by itself could explain what happened.
What happened was not destined to happen - Many things happened in the middle,
as he will show.
Every one of these aspects shows that by the end of this process in 1830 , These were
children who became men and women and they became independent.
How random Haiti had happened.
What are the causes of independence? Rather, what are the parameters people were
talking about at the time?
1. Bourbon reforms (Charles III-1759-1888)
Go back to the middle of the 18th century, with the Bourbons trying to implement
modernizing centralizing shit Here are some specic details:
- Policy of the empire to centralize the administration.
- Effect was that the envoy The gure of the visitor generale sent directly to the
king to report directly to the emperor, lots of antagonism.
- Administratively, the reformsMake from the point of view of Madrid, a lot better
control and more organized than it was:
a) Mining has recuperated to investment and research
b) Control of mercury revenue and from the shit to the empire are a thing
c) Commercial routes are available.
d) To avoid inefciencies, two new viceroyalties of ____PLata, and what is today
Colombia.

They get to exercise their own commerce.


Hence from the pos of the king, the reforms are working. Moreover, administration
changes so that at a local level, new gures are represented - Internal Contradictions

- At the core of local administration (criollos, spanish born in america from Spanish

lineage) make it directly accountable to viceroy and thus to the king.


But the empire has too many frontiers, New Mexico, California, different tribes and
Indian groups, interior of Argentina, there is always a ght for empire with
indigenous groups that have yet to be pacied.
Particular in this region as well, toward the North and in the Caribbean, there is a
presence of other empires near California, Colorado, etc, you are facing Indians who
are allies as well to British and French.
It is expensive to keep militarily the presence of the imperial army there.

One of the problems is the problem of lacking Spaniards. If you want to send Spanish
soldiers to cover the empire, impossible. Hence:

- New militias are created, establishing the Kingdoms of Americas must pay for their
own protection and thus must create their own armies. On the local, open new
militias that protect:
- 1) Border security
2)Tax themselves and serve themselves.
The empire cant send shit. Hence, the high ofcers of the militia who are peninsular
and criollos, including mulattos in the region, the militias formed from castas, these
people create an ethnic division.
From the POV of the king, this is working - We dont need to send soldiers. Its working
in that sense.

- The policy for a long time was a question:

Q: How shall we develop commerce and transport silver?

Modernly

Q: How will we make use of the Spanish stuff to help the peninsula to develop if in
Barcelona an incipient textile industry is starting - The textiles produced in Spain?
If there were such a wonderful market, an incentive for helping the peninsula,
policies would be established to stop French and Europeans from manufacturing
silk:

The rst prohibition of wine in America and stu that the Spanish can
produce.

- Wine from roja and other parts of Spain


As a result: Contraband begins.

- But the intention is to create an institution to protect Spanish Produce in order to


compete with other empires.
From the POV of the king, this seems like war.
It is a problem.
These policies are always considered to have something to do with
independence, because from the pos of the local elites in new spain, it s a
huge shock.
View in Spain is that: I love my king, but I love him far away

Because if the king is close by you have to behave.


The criollos by this while have dealt with the Baroque Empire for 2-3 centuries. The
Bourbons come by and say they will all be monitored: It is as if in academia, where we
complain about no time and stuff to write out book. When it is said Do what you
write in your sabbatical, etc, the academics would revolt.
King: Monitor the sabbatical.
Imagine in the modern age what would happen: No way.
At the level of mining, the king receives a percentage of the production. At the local
level, they have been misestimating the amount. We have been always done this with
the mine. When the silver is sent to veracruz and mexico city they all get a slice. If the
old empire was about dominance and stability it was a success. To have stability in
such a large scale is expensive - But of course the new king looks at that and says thats
a mess and they try to do this - They upset a lot of local elites in mining and
administration. The criollos are upset - Moreover, they know that the Bourbon reforms

were to re-establish the hierarchy of positions only being occupied by


peninsulares.
The suspicion is that at the local level those criollos are corrupt, hence
local envoys are sent
The elites and masses as well are upset about the centralizing power of the state of
absolutist policies, the king is a sovereign, the empire is the center, and everyone must
obey the same laws.
One of the most important policies is the expulsion of jesuits. In the middle of
18th century, orders of the catholic church did not respond to anyone but
the king. The jesuits were important with haciendas and plantations, but
they were also educators of the elite, important in frontier regions like
Paraguay and California, christianizing them an.
Expulsion created enmity: These people were being expelled. They were
great masters and the ones who had christianized: They had been
expelled. These policies did not produce the breakdown - New Spain did
not decide to leave spontaneously, there were coup d etats where people
took part in revolts.
Revolts in Peru, including Tupac Amaru, defendant of Indian nobility
revolts for new policies - The descendants of the last inca empire, the
armies and militias must repress these because of instability.
This is the internal policy of the empire - These empires are being
weakened - There is the attack of Buenos Aires and the parts of the
portuguese empire, creating problems of Northern frontiers of Spain and
alliance with Indians etc.
The growth of the British empire

- It is antagonism among the local elites and criollos everywhere.

- The buenos aires people, they recognize their power, and know that
they themselves had defeated the british - They had said if we can do
with the British, why have Spain?
2. Transformation of Internal Contradictions (Creole elites vs. eninsulares,
mestizos, Indians and Blacks. International, Intra-colonial, and between
colonies and the metropolis)
- Intendentes/alcaldes mayores - corregidores
- - Weakening the church
Well despite the fact it is Latin America, people are allergic to modern
ideas when in fact everything called enlightenment and modern ideas are
recirculated used and abused - By the time patriotic historians in 19th
centuyr, they write that Bolivar, Washington, Hidalgo, etc, they were great
readers of Locke, Montesquieu etc, modern ideas. This crazy priest in
Womanizer was reading Rousseau. The Spanish government they make
2 factual examples- 3 example.
French American Haitian revolutions. With that example Thats not what they did.
This started a movement with wars in 1808, all not for independence because of Haiti,
French, American.. These were examples to avoid. It looked like they were following the
French revolution - On contrary, the locals were fearful of this stuff with Haiti and
America. The American Revolution It was not beautiful. Those who wrote that saw
terrible thing - The Republicans wanted to liberate British America and the Canadians
had to escape because of persecution. There were slaves being led by the king, they
revolted because they didnt want to be taxed, and then they couldnt put their act
together, because that was not a great example. It was like saying that you dont want
to be a Haiti or Syria.
2. British Growth, Economic Empire - Industria revolution
3. Intellectual Trends (Enlightenment)

- War in 1812/
- 4. American Independence

- 5. Haiti
- 6. Napoleon
This is what starts the whole thing and catalyzes it because he invades
peninsula captures 2 Spanish king allows portuguese king to escape,
creates a domino eect where these aairs react - Napoleon is not
something that inuences - It is something that just creates this shit.

2. - Counter reform Charles IV 1788-1808 (Minister Manuel Godoy)


- Cuba is not independent at this point.
US becomes independent - 1867 colonies remains part of the majesty, and moreover
there is another nation state emerging.
- An emperor of Brazil comes out of nowhere.
First moment - 1807-1814/5
Supporting the Spanish Crown (Fernando VII)
1. Viva el Rey
Imagine handling more than 30 Washingtons. Divides this explanation into two
moments.

- First moment is most 1814-1815.


So many variations - Dishonest to speak of general patterns. How would you explain
everything?

- In the rst moment by and large what he wants to emphasize is that its not about
independence. The second moment it is.
1808 etc has to do with the invasion of the peninsula by Napoleon.
1814- Napoleon is defeated, Ferdinand VII returns to Spain, and breaks a moment: All
historians will say that by 1814 etc, all movements were defeated, this seems like a
good chronology. 1815-1830s, is messy. Everywhere revolted again, the temple and the
logic etc changes according to place.

- Why was it not about independence in the 1st movement:

- A: It had been about supporting the structures of the Spanish empire: Napoleon
had captured Spanish king. These juntas were getting together to support the
return of Ferdinand 7. All these juntas in Mexico and Buenos Aires etc, they would
send notice to junta in Cadiz, which eventually wrote the 1812 constitution.

- Didnt mean that at the local level the supporters were not using the opportunity to
deal with local issues.
- Junta in Mexico city, want to create a viceroy who is sympathetic to France because
they think current dude is not sympathetic to reforms. This is how the larger logic
acted out at the local level.
- As the movement goes on it becomes a second moment in which its not about long
live Ferdinand 7 or death the Napoleon, its about death to bad government, to
Spain, and independence of every single country.
Q: What is going to be independent?
A: The normal idea is that the former kingdom or colony has to be there - Or that Peru
and etc, was that well at the second moment it wasnt about saving structures of
empire, because it had become civil war among the different factions and groups
within every locality that had fought for power of the central government, or division
for sSpain. Instead of having one or a few countries, there are 4-5 countries. What is
supposed to have been one country, Buenos Aires, RDJ and shit came up.
Bolivar, a leader of the revolts (as from the letter from Jamaica) - When he attempted to
liberate la Grand Colombia, he comes back to liberate Argentina, and he leaves and
says that there is no way of saving themselves - The only thing nice to do is to exile
yourself.
This is a civil war not agains the Spaniards, but it is among the Americans for different
powers, sovereignties depending on the situation.
Finally in these moments we have a different phenomena, considered in a different
category: It is mandatory, we have to include Portugal and Brazil in the same plate.
From the beginning, the Napoleon and Pombal reforms, these movements
concluding in the exile of the Royal Family in Brazil, created a very different
phenomena that is not about independence because the king is here - The king was
there and there was no need for reform.

- There was a gradual consciousness of the inevitability of independence - Realizing


that inevitability instead of getting into a war because of the example of Haiti, US,
and what was happening in the Spanish Americas,
They decided to take another step.
Joseph Bonifacio, ocer of Joao VI - Decided well, doesn t matter as long
as Don Pedro, his son, leads it.
- It became inevitable because of Portuguese conict forcing kings to come back.
The king is forced after 1814 defeat of Napoleon, if the king returns to Lisbon, he
has made this area. But if he leaves, these criollos will y business class: They will
just make different things. The pressure is such that the Portuguese say well, we re
going to get the British etc, well if you leave. The King wanted to say well, its chill.
Portugal though is Europe, and symbolic - It is commanding India, China, and
Africa, so the king must return back.
He goes back - It is inevitable and thus it is inevitable that revolution should happen.
Machiavelli couldn t do this better
The Portuguese say well, hes leaving. Well, if hes leaving, he must leave collateral - His
son. Now, the question is When son is King of Brazil, he too must return to Brazil.
Dont want it as a kingdom rather a republic. What is the Brazilian history of
independence?
A: Don Pedro, son of Don Joo - The Brazilians are asking if he returns.
What Pedro had said. Elque - I will stay. Brazil is independent The son of the
emperor of Brazil, the grandson of In Brazil. El Fico.
- That was the origin of a new nation, new empire, completely different from the
others.
- The 1810 movement s
2. Muera Napoleon, but Vivan las Juntas and Las Cortes
3. Muera el Rey, Mueran las Cortas, Muera Espaa
4. Portuguese Formula: From a Mediterranean Kingdom, to a Tropical Empire.
Second moment 1815-1820s.