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Penugasan ini akan membahas tentang desain struktural dari Toll Gate Koja yang memiliki dimensi

sebagai berikut:

Ukuran: 16,2 m x 12,7 m


Tinggi: 9,5 m

Adapun toll gate ini didesain dengan menggunakan material baja yang disusun membentuk truss yang
menumpu pada girder IWF dan kolom profil H pada kedua ujungnya. Spesifikasi dari material dan
penampang baja yang digunakan disajikan pada gambar di bawah ini.

Gambar 1 Properties material baja

Gambar 2 Profil baja H 350x350x9x14

Gambar 3 Profil IWF 600x200x11x17

Gambar 4 Profil IWF 500x200x10x16

Gambar 5 Profil Double Angle 60x60x5

Gambar 6 Profil CNP 150x50x20x2,3

Gambar 7 Profil CNP 100x50x20x2,3

Beban yang diberikan pada pemodelan dengan menggunakan program SAP 2000 meliputi:
1. Beban mati (dead Load)
Beban mati merupakan beban yang berasal dari berat material struktur yang akan dihitung
secara otomatis oleh program SAP 2000. Adapun berat jenis baja yang digunakan pada
konstruksi ini adalah 7850 kg/m3.
2. Beban superimposed (superimposed dead load)
Beban superimposed diaplikasikan pada model struktur berdasarkan metode tributary area,
yaitu untuk purlin sebesar 6,76 kg/m2, roof sheeting sebesar 7 kg/m2, dan ME (Mechanical &
Electrical) sebesar 20 kg/m2.
3

3. Beban hidup (live load)


Beban hidup yang diaplikasikan meliputi beban hujan sebesar 20 kg/m2 dan beban pekerja
beserta alat sebesar 100 kg/m2.
4. Beban gempa (seismic load)
Beban gempa yang diaplikasikan pada model struktur didasarkan pada kategori risiko struktur
yang bernilai 2 dan faktor keutamaan gempa yang bernilai 1. Analisis dengan respon spektra
digunakan untuk menentukan besar percepatan gempa yang akan diberikan pada model
struktur. Berdasarkan data lokasi pembangunan struktur dan peta gempa Indonesia, maka
ditentukan beberapa parameter pembentuk respon spektra yang disajikan pada tabel di
bawah ini.
Tabel 1 Parameter desain respon spektra

Parameter Desain Respon Spektra


TOLL GATE (BANGUNAN INDUSTRI)
Jenis Pemanfaatan
JAKARTA
Wilayah Gempa
2
Kategori Risiko
Kelas Situs
SD
Tanah Sedang
Faktor Keutamaan Gempa (I e )
1
Ss

1.0-1.2 g

0,726618705

S1
Koefisien Situs (Fa )
Koefisien Situs (Fv)
SMS

0.4-0.5 g
SD
SD
0,909

0,4675
1,251
1,8

SM1
SDS
SD1
T0
Ts

0,8415
0,606
0,561
0,185148515
0,925742574

Gambar 8 Respon Spektra

Tabel 2 Hasil perhitungan pembebanan struktur

Gambar 9 Pembebanan SDL

Gambar 10 Pembebanan Live Load

Gambar 11 Pembebanan Wind Load

Gambar 12 Pemodelan 3D struktur

Kombinasi pembebanan untuk analisis dan desain struktur baja adalah sebagai berikut:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

1.0 (DL + SDL)


1.0 (DL + SDL) + 1.0 LL + 1.0 (Lr or H)
1.0 (DL + SDL) 1.0 WL
1.0 (DL + SDL) + 0,75 LL + 0,75 (Lr or H) 1 Ex 0,3 Ey
1.0 (DL + SDL) + 0,75 LL + 0,75 (Lr or H) 1 Ey 0,3 Ex

Berdasarkan analisis struktur dengan menggunakan bantuan program SAP 2000, diperoleh gaya
dalam dan deformasi elemen-elemen pada struktur sebagai berikut:

Gambar 13 Output M-33 dari kombinasi beban maksimum

Gambar 14 Output M-22 dari kombinasi beban maksimum

Gambar 15 Output V-22 dari kombinasi beban maksimum

Gambar 16 Output gaya aksial dari kombinasi beban maksimum

Gambar 17 Output reaksi perletakan

10

Gambar 18 Reaksi perletakan maksimum

Gambar 19 Deformasi akibat Dead Load

11

Gambar 20 Deformasi akibat SDL

Gambar 21 Deformasi akibat Live Load

12

Gambar 22 Deformasi akibat Wind Load

Langkah berikutnya adalah menentukan gaya dalam maksimum yang terjadi untuk elemen-elemen
struktur. Gambar di bawah ini menampilkan gaya dalam maksimum yang terjadi pada elemen-elemen
model ini.

Gambar 23 Output M-33 dan V-22 maksimum kolom H 350x350x9x14

13

Gambar 24 Output M-22 dan V-33 maksimum kolom H-350x350x9x14

Gambar 25 Output gaya aksial maksimum kolom H-350x350x9x14

14

Gambar 26 Output M-33 dan V-22 maksimum balok H-350x350x9x14

Gambar 27 Output M-33 dan V-22 maksimum balok IWF-600x200x11x17

15

Gambar 28 Output M-33 dan V-22 maksimum balok IWF-500x200x10x16

Gambar 29 Output M-33 dan V-22 maksimum Double L-60x60x5

16

Gambar 30 Output tegangan maksimum pada IWF-600x200x11x17

Gaya dalam maksimum yang diterima oleh masing-masing elemen struktur diperbandingkan dengan
kapasitas profil baja dalam menahan tekan, lentur, kombinasi tekan lentur, dan geser. Berikut ini
adalah hasil perhitungan kapasitas profil baja dan sambungan.

Column H-350x350x9x14
Leg length
Flange thickness

bf
tf

350
14

Web height

350

Web thickness

tw

20

fy

240

fr

70

E
G

200000
80000

Mux
Muy
Max
Mbx

14176988,1
1408006,29
9376122,83
5582795,24

yield stress

Elastic modulus
Shear modulus
Moment
Ultimate
1/4 point
midpoint

Inertia momen
Elastic Section
Modulus
Plastic section
modulus
Resistance factor for
flexure
Area

Ix
Iy

301794952,7
100061228,2

Sx

1724542,59

Sy

571778,45

Zx

1879689

Zy

864020,5

0,9

As

12698

17

3/4 point
Axial
Shear

Mcx
Pu
Vu

1640957,2
146123,74
7851,7

Compression member of steel section


Lbx
8246
unbrace length
Lby
8246
Kx
0,65
Effective length factor
Ky
0,65
ry
88,76980243
Radius of gyration
rx
154,1659008
Ky.Lby/ry 60,37976714
Kx.Lbx/rx 34,76709164
Critical elastic buckliing
fe
541,4356819
stress
fy/fe
0,443265946
Critical stress
fcr
202,9450521
Nominal Compression
Pn
2576996,271
Pn
2319296,644

Flexural member of steel section


Capacity moment at major axis x-x
Modification factor for
non-uniform bending
Cbx
1,951143004
moment
Check whether steel section compact or noncompact
f
12,5
flang section
pf
10,96965511
rf
28,86751346
flange checking
Noncompact
w
31,33333333
Web section
pw
108,5418506
rw
164,5448267
web checking
Compact
Check condition of lateral-torsional buckling of
beams
center gravity of flange
ho
336
Torsional section
Js
623859,3333
properties
Torsional wraping
Cw
2,82413E+12
constant
Radius gyration
ry
88,76980243
rts
98,73033108
Coefficient
cl
1
18

Lr
Lp
Lbx
Check lateral torsional

13581,847
4510,111701
8246
Inelastic

Nominal moment strength


Mpx
451125360
Mrx
293172240,3
Y
359640296,2
y
0,585805644
Mnx
701709647,9
Mnx
406012824
Capacity moment at minor axis y-y
Mny
207364920
Mny
186628428
Shear Strength
Distance between
transversal stiffener
Z
kv
X
U
u
Vn
Vn
Summary
Mnx /Mux
Mny /Muy
Pn /Pu
Vn /Vu
3

Axial and momen


combination
x
Axial moment
Check

8246
0,005847653
5
6,408442734
1027906,261
88,43311974
365472
328924,8

28,63886
132,548
15,87214
41,89218

0,073963759
0,073963759
OK

19

Beam H-350x350x9x14
Leg length
Flange thickness

bf
tf

350
14

Web height

350

Web thickness

tw

20

fy

240

yield stress

Elastic modulus
Shear modulus

Ultimate
1/4 point
midpoint
3/4 point
Axial
Shear
1

fr

70

E
G

200000
80000

Moment
Mux
Muy
Max
Mbx
Mcx
Pu
Vu

Inertia momen
Elastic Section
Modulus
Plastic section
modulus
Resistance
factor for
flexure
Area

Ix
Iy

301794952,7
100061228,2

Sx

1724542,59

Sy

571778,45

Zx

1879689

Zy

864020,5

0,9

As

12698

6862108,75
2377,29
3263113,86
1777037,93
1894536,36
2953,85
4518,47

Compression member of steel section


unbrace length
Lbx
5137,68
Lby
5137,68
Effective length factor
Kx
1
Ky
1
Radius of gyration
ry
88,76980243
rx
154,1659008
Ky.Lby/ry 57,87643838
Kx.Lbx/rx 33,32565746
Critical elastic buckliing
fe
589,2860307
stress
fy/fe
0,407272509
Critical stress
fcr
205,7275853
Nominal Compression
Pn
2612328,878
Pn
2351095,99

20

Flexural member of steel section


Capacity moment at major axis x-x
Modification factor for
non-uniform bending
Cbx
2,158635784
moment
Check whether steel section compact or non-compact
f
12,5
flang section
pf
10,96965511
rf
28,86751346
flange checking
Noncompact
w
31,33333333
Web section
pw
108,5418506
rw
164,5448267
web checking
Compact
Check condition of lateral-torsional buckling of beams
center gravity of flange
ho
336
Torsional section
Js
623859,3333
properties
Torsional wraping
Cw
2,82413E+12
constant
Radius gyration
ry
88,76980243
rts
98,73033108
Coefficient
cl
1
Lr
13581,847
Lp
4510,111701
Lbx
5137,68
Check lateral torsional
Inelastic
Nominal moment strength
Mpx
451125360
Mrx
293172240,3
Y
304337789,5
y
0,227405515
Mnx
656954442,8
Mnx
406012824

Shear Strength
Distance between
a
transversal stiffener
Z
kv
X
U
u

5137,68
0,015063785
5
6,408442734
1027906,261
88,43311974
21

Vn
Vn
Summary
Mnx /Mux
Pn /Pu
Vn /Vu

IWF 600X200X11X17
Flange width
Flange thickness

59,16735
795,9429
72,79561

bf
tf

200
17

Web height
Web thickness

h
tw

600
11

yield stress

r
fy

22
240

Elastic modulus
Shear modulus
Moment
Ultimate
1/4 point
midpoint
3/4 point
Axial
Shear
1

365472
328924,8

fr
E
G

70
200000
80000

Mux
Muy
Max
Mbx
Mcx
Pu
Vu

215645844,5
1700307,22
158388409,8
215644737,8
158385926,4
11109,09
91194,9

Inertia momen
Elastic Section
Modulus
Plastic section
modulus
Resistance factor
for flexure
Area

Ix
Iy

744186438
22729445,5

Sx
Sy

2480621,46
227294,46

Zx
Zy

2863179
357121,5

b
As

0,9
13026

Compression member of steel section


unbrace length
Lbx
2610
Lby
2610
Effective length factor
Kx
1
Ky
1
Radius of gyration
ry
41,77234763
rx
239,0206035
Ky.Lby/ry 62,48152541
Kx.Lbx/rx 10,91956075
Critical elastic buckliing
stress
fe
505,6226186
fy/fe
0,47466231
22

Critical stress
Nominal Compression

fcr
Pn
Pn

200,5486528
2612346,751
2351112,076

Flexural member of steel section


Capacity moment at major axis x-x
Modification factor for
non-uniform bending
moment
Cbx
1,146068905
Check whether steel section compact or noncompact
flang section
f
5,882352941
pf
10,96965511
rf
28,86751346
flange checking
Compact
Web section
w
47,45454545
pw
108,5418506
rw
164,5448267
web checking
Compact
Check condition of lateral-torsional buckling of
beams
center gravity of flange
ho
583
Torsional section
properties
Js
620660,6667
Torsional wraping constant
Cw
1,93137E+12
Radius gyration
ry
41,77234763
rts
51,68130266
Coefficient
cl
1
Lr
6181,80868
Lp
2122,320301
Lbx
2610
Check lateral torsional
Inelastic
Nominal moment strength
Mpx
687162960
Mrx
421705648,2
Y
454191919,1
y
0,085375623
Mnx
520535235,5
Mnx
468481711,9
Capacity moment at minor axis y-y
Mny
85709160
Mny
77138244
23

Shear Strength
Distance between
transversal stiffener
a
Z
kv
X
U
u
Vn
Vn
Summary
Mnx /Mux
Mny /Muy
Pn /Pu
Vn /Vu

2610
0,2
5
2,793894932
1422052,644
88,43311974
826848
744163,2

2,172459
45,36724
211,6386
8,160141

IWF 500x200x10x16
Flange width
Flange thickness

bf
tf

200
16

Web height

500

Web thickness

tw

10

yield stress

Elastic modulus
Shear modulus

20

fy

240

fr

70

E
G

200000
80000

Mux
Muy
Max
Mbx
Mcx
Pu
Vu

82375863
8033008
31080252,3
19331467,4
31066403,4
45568,88
27793,48

Inertia momen
Elastic Section
Modulus
Plastic section
modulus
Resistance factor
for flexure
Area

Ix
Iy

460365493
21372333,33

Sx

1841461,97

Sy

213723,33

Zx

1879689

Zy

331700

0,9

As

11080

Moment
Ultimate
1/4 point
midpoint
3/4 point
Axial
Shear
1

Compression member of steel section


unbrace length
Lbx
2000
Lby
2000
Effective length factor
Kx
1
24

Ky
ry
rx
Ky.Lby/ry
Kx.Lbx/rx

1
43,91936874
203,8362878
45,53799514
9,811795641

Critical elastic buckliing


stress

fe

951,8794002

Critical stress
Nominal Compression

fy/fe
fcr
Pn
Pn

0,252132781
218,1641813
2417259,129
2175533,216

Radius of gyration

Flexural member of steel section


Capacity moment at major axis x-x
Modification factor for nonCbx
2,192221084
uniform bending moment
Check whether steel section compact or non-compact
flang section
f
6,25
pf
10,96965511
rf
28,86751346
flange checking
Compact
Web section
w
42,8
pw
108,5418506
rw
164,5448267
web checking
Compact
Check condition of lateral-torsional buckling of beams
center gravity of flange
ho
484
Torsional section properties
Js
522300
Torsional wraping constant
Cw
1,25165E+12
Radius gyration
ry
43,91936874
rts
52,99712071
Coefficient
cl
1
Lr
6564,811509
Lp
2231,403624
Lbx
2000
Check lateral torsional
Plastic
Nominal moment strength
Mpx
Mrx
Y
y
Mnx
Mnx

451125360
313048534,9
305478576
0,065097147
451125360
406012824
25

Shear Strength
Distance between
a
transversal stiffener
Z
kv
X
U
u
Vn
Vn
Summary
Mnx /Mux
Vn /Vu

Double L-60x60x5
Leg length
Leg thickness
Distance between
section

2000
0,22898
5
3,434615833
1194471,499
88,43311974
616320
554688

4,928784
19,95749

df
tf

60
5

T1

Inertia momen
Elastic Section
Modulus
Plastic section
modulus

Yield stress

Radius of gyration
Elastic modulus
Shear modulus
Moment
Ultimate
1/4 point
midpoint
3/4 point
Axial
Shear

fy

240

fr

70

ry
rx
E
G

26,01412912
18,74868297
200000
80000

Mux
Muy
Max
Mbx
Mcx
Pu
Vu

3185833,02
2262134,13
442905,87
19711,25
96521,73
105575,7
6066,21

Resistance factor for


flexure
Area

Ix
Iy

388421,99
747792,08

Sx

9124,77

Sy

12463,2

Zx

16512,44

Zy

21748,75

0,9

As

1105

26

Flexural member of steel section


Capacity moment at major axis x-x
Modification factor
for non-uniform
Cbx
4,121724965
bending moment
Section properties
checking
flang section

flange checking
Stem section

Stem checking
Yield Condition
For stem in tension
For stem in
compression

f
pf
rf

6
10,96965511
28,86751346
Compact
s
12
pw
24,24871131
rw
29,73353886
Compact

Mny1

3962985,6

Mny2

2189944,8

Lateral torsional buckling condition


Unbraced length of
Lb
1366,4
beam
Torsional section
Js
15348,96
properties
B1
0,704940052
B2
0,704940052
For stem in tension
MLTB1 60085126,22
For stem in
MLTB2 16156856,17
compression
Stem lateral buckling
fcr
240
MSLB
2189944,8

Momen capacity
Mn
Mnx

Shear Strength
Distance between
a
transversal stiffener
kv

2189944,8
1970950,32

1366,4
5
27

X
Y
Vn
Vn
Summary
Mnx /Mux
Vn /Vu

2177884,615
255616,9008
37440
33696

0,618661
5,554704

Connection
IWF 500x200x10x16
Section Properties
Flange width
bf
Flange thickness
tf

200
16

Web height
Web thickness

h
tw

500
10

yield stress

r
fy

20
240

Elastic modulus
Shear modulus

fr
E
G

70
200000
80000

Connection plate
flange
bpf
tpf
Area flange plate
Apf
Total bolts in a row
n
Bolt diameter
Db
Bolt hole
Hb
Net area
Anf
Yield condition
Fracture
Bolt
Tensile strength
Diameter
Area
shear plane

Inertia momen
Elastic Section
Modulus
Plastic section
modulus
Resistance factor
for flexure
Area

Ix
Iy

460365493
21372333,33

Sx
Sy

1841461,97
213723,33

Zx
Zy

1879689
331700

b
As
Mu

0,9
11080
82375863

250
12
3000
2
25,4
27
2352

Tny
Tnf

2393280
652680

fub
Db
Ab
mb

825
25,4
506,7075
1

28

Connection at flange
number of bolt
nbf
Shear strength
Rns
Tension strength
Rnt
Bearing strength
Rnb
Nominal strength
Tn
Bottom flange stress fb
Tu
Ration
Tn/Tu

10
1567626
2351439
2029968
652680
44,73395
143148,6
4,559457

IWF
600x200x11x17
Section Properties
Flange width
bf
Flange thickness
tf
Web height
h
Web thickness
tw
r
yield stress
fy
fr
Elastic modulus
E
Shear modulus
G

200
17
600
11
22
240
70
200000
80000

Connection Plate
Flange
bpf
tpf
Area flange plate
Apf
Total bolts in a row n
Bolt diameter
Db
Bolt hole
Hb
Net area
Anf
Anw
Yield condition
Tny
Tnf

1000
19
19000
10
25,4
27
13870
13870
2813616
3848925

Inertia momen
Elastic Section Modulus
Plastic section modulus
Resistance factor for flexure
Area

Web

Ix
Iy
Sx
Sy
Zx
Zy
b
As

7,44E+08
22729446
2480621
227294,5
2863179
357121,5
0,9
13026

bpw
tpw
Apw

1000
19
19000

Bolt
Tensile strength
Diameter
Area
shear plane

fub
Db
Ab
mb

Connection at flange
Number of bolt
nbf
Shear strength
Rns

825
25,4
506,707
1

40
6270505
29

Tension strength
Bearing strength
Nominal strength
Ultimate tension
Ratio

Rnt
Rnb
Tn
Tu
Tn/Tu

9405758
1,3E+07
2813616
816000
3,44806

Connection at web
Number of bolt
nbw
50
Shear strength
Rnsw
7838131
Tension strength
Rntw
1,2E+07
Bearing strength
Rnw
1,6E+07
Nominal strength
Tnw
2813616
Ultimate tension
Tuw
689040
Ratio
Tnw/Tuw 4,08339

Connection at B
Base material
IWF 600x200x11x17
Flange thickness
Flange width
Web height
Web thickness
Area
Yield stress
Young modulus
Weld properties
Electrode type E70
Tensile strength
Groove weld
Throat dimension
Effective throat dimension
Nominal strength of weld per mm
Length of groove weld
web area
flange area
Total length of weld
Nominal tension compression strength
Nominal tension of base material
Nominal compression of base material
Nominal strength connection at A
Ultimate tension

tf
df
h
tw
r
As
fy
E

17
200
600
11
22
13440
240
200000

fuw

482,63

tmin
te
Rnw

6
4,242
982,711901

Lweb
Lflange
Lw
Pnw
Tn
Pn
Tn A
fy

1044
778
1822
1790501,08
2903040
3224000
1790501,08
1,435
30

Check

Tu
Tn A /Tu
OK

Load at conection B
Maximum tension due moment of base
Tu
material
moment
Maximum compression due to moment
Pu
of base material
moment
Axial load
Pud
Maximum load
Pu
Check ratio
Pn/Pu

24954,65
71,7501982

1612800
1612800
1000000
1612800
1,50173611

IWF 500x200x10x16 - Double L 60x60x5


Base material
Leg thickness
Leg length
Yield stress
Young modulus

t1
h1
fy
E

6
60
240
200000

Weld properties
electrode type E60
Tensile strength

fuw

413,68

tmin
te
Rnw
Lw
Ip
x
y
Mu
ew
Pu
Rv
Rx
Ry
Ru
Rnw/Ru

3
2,121
394,836876
2980
70256604,2
372,5
20
259916
4491,5
57,8684181
0,01941893
0,07399048
1,37807273
1,39944901
282,13738

Fillet weld
Throat dimension
Effective throat dimension
Nominal strength of weld per mm
Length of weld
Polar moment of inertia
Centroid of weld configuration
Ultimate moment
Eccentricity
Axial Load
Stress due to direct shear
Stress due to torsional moment
Resultant
Ratio

31

Column base plate 550mm x 900mm


Concrete column
Compressive strength
Area of column

fc'
A2

21,75
1200000

fy
A1
tp
np
mp

240
495000
25
100
250

Base plates
Yield strength
Area of base plate
Thickness of base plate

Nominal bearing strength provided by base plate


Pp1
9151312,5
Pp2
14248574,2
Pp
5490787,5
2

Column base plate fasteners (bolt)


Tensile strength of the bolt material
fub
Diameter of unthreaded portion
Dbg
Gross cross-sectional area of one bolt
Tensile stress area
Number of bolt
Nominal tensile strength of fasteners

Ag
An
nb
Rn

Maximum allowable axial load Pu


Pu
Axial force
Cek
3

Column base plate 600mm x 650mm


Concrete column
Compressive strength
Area of column

825
32
804,247719
603,185789
8
2985769,66

528000
116032,68
OK

fc'
A2

21,75
390000

fy
A1
tp
np
mp

240
330000
25
125
125

Base plates
Yield strength
Area of base plate
Thickness of base plate

Nominal bearing strength provided by base plate


Pp1
6100875
Pp2
6632350,36
32

Pp

3660525

Column base plate fasteners (bolt)


Tensile strength of the bolt material
fub
Diameter of unthreaded portion
Dbg
Gross cross-sectional area of one bolt
Ag
Tensile stress area
An
Number of bolt
nb
Nominal tensile strength of fasteners
Rn

825
32
804,247719
603,185789
8
2985769,66

Maximum allowable axial load Pu


Pu
Axial force
Cek

1408000
470261,97
OK

Kesimpulan

Berdasarkan analisis dan perhitungan yang telah dilakukan, diperoleh hasil bahwa elemen kolom dan
balok H 350x350x9x14 tidak kompak pada pengecekan bagian flange. Solusi yang ditawarkan adalah
memperbesar penampang, misalnya menggunakan kolom H 350x350x12x19. Pada pengecekan
elemen double L 60x60x5, diperoleh hasil bahwa kapasitas momen penampang lebih kecil daripada
beban ultimate yang diterima oleh elemen tersebut. Solusi yang ditawarkan adalah memperbesar
penampang elemen double L tersebut.

33