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MECH 311 Chapter 03 Notes

This chapter deals with 1D steady heat transfer problems. Note these assumptions unless specified otherwise

1. Cartesian coordinates (No heat generation)


Heat diffusion Eqn.
Temp distribution
2


() = (2 1 ) + 1
=
0

Heat Flux distribution

1 2
=
=

Analysis procedure for heat diffusion equation


Thermal resistance network (Valid only for 1D steady and no heat generation
Conduction in 1D Cartesian
Nodes -> surfaces -> temperatures

1 2

Temperature variation -> heat flux -> heat transfer


=
=
=

Temperatures are similar to voltage


Heat transfer is similar to current


Conduction in Cylinder
ln(1 2 )
In series: = 1 + 2 + +
=
2
In parallel: 1/ = 1/1 + 1/2 + + 1/

Overall heat transfer coefficient: = 1/

Contact resistance: Gap is filled by the fluid (air) with


a low conductivity material. Even though the
thickness may be small; one may observe large
temperature variation between touching surfaces.
This is represented by tabulated values of contact
resistance. ( Lookup values from tables)

Conduction in Sphere
1
1
1
=
( )
4 1 2
Convection
1
=

Radiation
1
=

2
= (2 +
)( + )

Alternative analysis for 1D, steady and no heat generation cases:


Energy balance
Temp distribution

= = () ()
()() = 1 ()

()

= = () ()

()
=

()

2. Cylindrical coordinates (No heat generation)


Heat diffusion Eqn.
Temp distribution
1

(1 2 )

( ) = 0
() =
ln ( ) + 2

ln(1 2 )
2

Heat distribution
2
( 2 )
=
ln(2 1 ) 1

3. Spherical coordinates (No heat generation)


Heat diffusion Eqn.
Temp distribution
1

1 1
( 2 ) = 0
() = 1 (1 2 ) [
]
2

1 1 2

Heat distribution
4
( 1 )
=
11 12 2

4. Cartesian coordinates (With uniform heat generation)


Heat diffusion Eqn.
Temp distribution
2


() = 2 + 1 + 2
+
=0
2
2

Heat flux

() = + 1

Coefficients, 1 and 2 , are found through boundary conditions


If exposed to same temperature on both sides, i.e. ( = ) = ( = ) = ; maximum
temperature appears at the mid-plane. This is equivalent to insulated BC at x=0.
When boundary conditions are convective (same on both sides); then apply energy balance to the
overall system to find = ( )

5. Cylindrical coordinates (With uniform heat generation)


Heat diffusion Eqn.
Temp distribution

1


() = 2 + 1 ln() + 2
( ) + = 0
4

Notes
1 =0; if complete cylinder
For hallow cylinder;
conditions should be applied
at 1

6. Extended surfaces
a) Generalized Fin Equation:

()
( ()
) ()(() ) = 0

b) Uniform cross-section:
2
2 = 0
2

where

() = 1 + 2
c) Boundary conditions:
Base
( = 0) = =

Tip
> 4.6 is considered long

A) Long
B) Adiabatic
C) Convection
D) Temp. specified

d) Fin resistance:

=
e) Effectiveness vs efficiency

=
=
=

Suggested > 2
Increase largely at first then slows down

f)

Overall efficiency: =

=1

= 2.3 yields maximum


Adiabatic with a corrected length:
= + 2 or as defined in figures
Use table 3.4

(1 )

Efficiency decrease with length


For adiabatic tip:
tanh()
=