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Desember 2008

STRUCTURAL ELEMENT

Akmaluddin

ABSTRACT

Non-destructive test (NDT) method was preferred due to it has advantaged to solve the

problem when the structural elements constructed are questionable by the client. PUNDIT was one

of NDT equipment apptied to measure concrete modulus of elasticity non-destructively whilst

cornpression machine was used to obtain the modutus of elasticity of concrete destructively. For

more convenient with the NDT result, if needs to validate the result with the standard fest using

destructive methad.

Twenty seyen cylinder specimens together with nine beams of 150x250x2500 mm were

used. Prior fo assess the beam specimens, both non-destructive and destructive test apply to the

cylinder specimens for verifying the NDT equipment.

Resu/ts show that density of material affects the value of modulus of elasticity significantly.

A new retationship between static modulus of elasticity, E", and dynamic modulus of elasticity, E6,

was proposed. Applying the modet proposed fo assess the beam specimens produce strength

varies from 0.72 to 0.9A bward strength obtain using cylinder fest for normal weight concrete.

However, for tightvveight concrete the proposed model produced strength prediction varies from

1 .13 to 1 .22 toward cylinder strength.

Keywords: concrete, modulus of elasticity, compression strength, PUNDlTplus, NDT

ABSTRAK

Metode pengujian dengan cara tidak merusak benda uii (NDT) lebih disukai oleh karena

manfaatnya yang besar dalam mengevaluasi atau menilai kekuatan elemen struktur bangunan

yang diragukan kualitasnya karena kesalahan pengerjaan. PUNDIT merupakan salah satu

peralatan NDT yang digunakan untuk mengetahui nilai modulus e/asfls dengan cara tidak merusak

benda uji sedangkan mesin tekan digunakan untuk mengukur modulus e/astts dengan cara

merusak benda uji. Untuk membeikan hasil yang lebih memuaskan dan meyakinkan dari peralatan

NDT diperlukan verifikasi dan validasi has/ NDT terhadap hasil uji metode standar.

Silinder sebanyak 27 buah dan balok berukuran 150x250x2500 digunakan dalam pengujian

ini. Sebelum pengujian dilakukan untuk mengestimatsi kekuatan benda uii balok terlebih dahulu

dilakukan validasi alat tersebut pada benda uji silinder dengan menggunakan kedua metode

pengujian.

Hasil menunjukkan bahwa modulus e/asfls sangat tergantung dari nilai berat jenis atau

kepadatan bahan. Hubungan antara modulus e/asfls stafls, E", dan modulus e/astrs dinamis, E6,

diperkenalkan. Dengan menggunakan model tersebut dalam menilai kekuatan benda uii balok

diperoleh bahwa hasil prediksi kekuatan balok underestimate atau bervariasi dari 0,72 sampai 0.90

terhadap hasil uji silinder untuk balok beton normal. Namun untuk balok beton ringan hasil prediksi

overestimate kekuatan silinder yaitu bervariasi dari 1 .13 sampai 1.22.

Kata kunci : beton, modulus e/astisitas,kuat tekan,Pundit,NDT

'

93

Akmaluddin, ST., MSc (Eng), Ph.D., Pengajar pada Jurusan Teknik Sipil Teknik Universitas Mataram

Sanggahan dan diskusi tentang tulisan ini harus sudah diserahkan ke redaksi sebelum 30 Maret 2009

INTRODUCTION

effective method for quickly testing and

evaluating the properties of materials, which

does not destroy the physical, mechanical,

objective of this study is to investigate the

dynamic MOE of normal weight concrete

(NWC) and lightweight concrete (LWC) beam

obtained from Pundit aparatus in laboratory

only.

performance. This

method of NDT is preferred because of its

distinct advantage over the physical properties

test. Portable Ultrasonic Nondestructive

Digital lndicating Tester (PUNDIT) is one of

the NDT equipment specially designed for

and reliability of MOE evaluated by the NDT

techniques were discussed. The findings of

this study can provide scientific references for

quickly testing concrete structure.

no influence on future

material. The exploitation and application of

in concrete fields for its evident advantages.

ln civil engineering application, this

equipment has advantaged to solve the

problem when

the

structural

elements

modulus of elasticity (MOE) reading of

material tested. However, for more convenient

when utilising it in specific structural concrete

material, it should be validated. Figure 1

shows example application of the equipment

on beam structural element of Mataram Mall

LITERATURE REVIEW

Physical propertles of concrete can be

ultrasonic pulse propagation through the

concrete. The application of ultrasonic pulse

velocity (UPV) to the nondestructive

evaluation of concrete quality has been widely

investigated. However, their effects on the

ultrasound and the relationship between

compressive strength and UPV have received

little attention (Tanyildizi and Coskun, 2007).

The pulse velocity can be determined from the

following equation (BS 1881-203, 1986)

. . .. .... .....(1)

tr/ = Sr/f

where I/ is pulse velocity In km/s, S is path

length and t represent transit time (ps).

Car Park.

in

distortion. A higher value of MOE indicates

that the material is not easy to be distorted

and has a high rigidity. A prediction model of

By the

cement paste.

contractor request,

the

equipment was applied for assessment of the

car park building element due to construction

doubted as the material used to perform the

element did not compliance with specification

utilising the equipment, it has been done

beam specimens.

been

MOE increases more rapidty than strength.

The MOE of lightweight aggregate concrete is

usually between 40 and 80 per cent of the

MOE of normal weight concrete of the same

strength, and, in fact, is similar to that of the

standard test in laboratory namely static MOE,

8", whilst dynamic MOE, Ed, obtained from

PUNDlTplus

non-destructive

equipment is developed with consider to some

parameters such as path length, density and

poisson's ratio and dynamic MOD, Ed, is given

by equation below (BS 1BB1-203, 1986; CNS

Farnel Ltd, 2006).

test. The

g4

i,

!','t'L-

where,i =

6)(L

density, v

-2o.tli.l - 6)

velocitY and

(2)

poisson's ratio.

The relationship between static and dynamic

modulus of elasticity is given in the equation

below (Nevile and Brokes, 1987)

i:

1.15E:

1S .

...

'...

specimen. The equipment display value of

MOE in GPa.

Table

\l alel

tlgt

Sand

(LP)

327

r90

8r0

073

0.45

422

rqo

715

073

0.40

507.5

(3)

relation does not apply to concrete containing

more than 500 kg of cement per cubic metre

of concrete.

modulus to strength, the static modulus may

be estimated using equation (3) and

When

(irarcl

tkgr

PC

{lBt

0.5

Pttntie<

ID

r[1't

NW(

203

467.23

182.3

I-\\',C

for

lightweight concrete where applicable.

i, =.1i00.?

or

ir

= 0,75

{700..';,

.-

.(4a)

.'

. ..

(4b)

Modulus of elasticity obtained from cylinder

standard test n be obtained from the

where

following equation.

r _ ,'s,-:

- (.i,i i-.'" - 0.00005i -. . (5)

-! where 52 is stress about 40% of ultimate

stress (O 4 f,), 51 is stress at strain value of

0.00005 and ez is a strain value at the level

stress of

g;nure

Z-ffiamic

52.

METHODOLOGY

Iest specimens

Nine beams of 150x250x2500 mm

reinforced with three different reinforcement

ratio were prepared to be measured their

specimens of 150 x 300 mm length taken from

three different mix proportions. Each group

1 presents detail mix proportion to produce

two normalweight concrete of 17 and 30 MPa

and a lightweight concrete of 17 MPa as refers

to ACI 211.2'98.

Test procedure

Prior to destructive testing using UTM

machine, specimen was scaled and tested

nondestructively using Pundit equipment'

Figure 2 shows the application of the Pundit

95

Standard Compression machine as shown in

Figure

produced stress

and

strain

can be generated by applying equation (5).

Finally,

to

asses strength

of

beam,

the

technique to surface of the beam in three

places as shown in Figure 4 below.

and lightweight concrete were tested. Firstly,

non-destructive test method was applied

producing dynamic modulus of elasticity, E6

followed by destructive test producing static

modulus of elasticity E". Both test results are

compared and presented in Figure 5 below.

*,.,,,

#N

la.a

o

I

Pundit's

Transducer

Right

End

aparatus

destructive test on cylinder specimen of

normal weight and lightweight concrete are

presented in Figure 4. From the figure it can

be seen that normal weight concrete produce

higher strength than lightweight concrete. This

is

perform normal weight concrete has specific

marse aggregate. From the stress and strain

relationship as shown in Figure 4 it can be

calculated modulus of elasticity (MOE) using

equation (4).

there is a linear relationship between E. and

E6. For more convenient the relationship is

presented as Equation (5). This equation

produced results with trend similar to results

produced by the British Standard as given

previously by Equation (3).

trc = 1.038Eci - 11,'15. ..... .... ..(5)

For more comprehensive discussion the test

results obtained

is

concrete (LWC) and normal weight concrete

(NWC) were tested using static and dynamic

test method.

types

30

25

45000

{0000

e20

o-

35rOO

30mo

:15

=

o

o

o

L

a

{25ooo

$zoaN

-._

iU

ul15000

1rt00l

5t100

Figure

0000

0Cj10

Strsi n

4. Typical relationship of

0020

0 0030

Stress-Strain cylinder

specimen.

Figure 6. Conqete modulus of elasticity against density

in

96

PUNDIT

BEAM

SPECIMEN Left

(1)

NWC17 2

NWC17

NWC17

NWC30

NWC30

NWC30

LWC17

LWC17

LWC17

Ec

Ed (MPa)

3

5

2

3

5

2

3

5

End

Middle

ffi(Mpa)

(4)

(3)

(2)

34000 32000 34000

32s00 34900 35000

33000 34000 32000

34500 38300 35000

33800 35500 37400

34400 43400 33000

26400 27400

26700 28000 26000

26800 25200 27200

25AO0

fc

Plus

(Mpa)1

fc

Ratio

(Mpa)2

(8) (e)=(il(8)

(6)

(7)

($

33300 23100 24,16 28,50 0,85

0,89

34100 23900 25,86 29,02

33000 22800 23,53 29,25 0,80

35900 25800 30,13 40,69 0,74

0,72

35600 25500 29.44 41,05

0,90

36900 26900 32,76 36,23

1,13

26300 15800 20,09 17 ,83

1,22

26900 16500 21,91 17,90

1,14

26400 16000 20,60 18,',|1

2. Cylinder test

produced

higher value of E than the static one. However,

both methods have similar trend which is

increasing as concrete density increased. This

affect the values of modulus of elasticity.

Therefore it is reasonable to use PUNDIT plus

for assessing concrete beam.

Three places on beam surface as shown in

Figure 4 were scanned by the equipment

producing results (E6) as given in column (2),

(3) and (4) for left end, middle and right end of

the beam respectively. The average value of

the results was taken to represent dynamic

MOE of the beam as given in column (5) of

Table 1. ln addition, Equation (5) was used to

obtain E" values and results presented in

column (6) of Table 1. Furthermore, the

strength of concrete beam was obtained by

applying equation (4) and results shown in

compared with the strength obtained from

cylinder test (column (8) Table 1) and

represented in ratio between strength obtain

column (9) of Table 1.

From Table 1, it can be seen that the strength

normal weight concrete, gave value lower than

test. However, for light weight concrete

produce over estimate prediction when

compare to cylinder test results.

object tested ie beams and cylinder specimens

97

mix proportion to cylinder specimens, however

treatment given to the cylinder and the beam

specimens as a results the density could be

different. Therefore, the value of MOE

obtained from the beam tested give more

cylinder test, because the value obtained has

considered straightfonrvard the density of the

beam.

study:

1.

specimen tested. The more value of the

density the more modulus of elasticity

2.

varies trom 0.72 to 0.90 toward cylinder

strength for NWC but varies 1.13 to 1.22

for LWC.

Strength prediction using PUNDIT for

normal weight concrete underestimate

the strength given by the standard test.

3.

produced.

strength obtained using standard test.

it

is

the model proposed.

REFERENCES

Selecting Proportions

for

Structural

American Concrete

BS

lnstitute,

concrete.

of velocity of ultrasonrb pulses in

concrete, British Standards lnstitution.

Farnel, CNS, 2006, Manual instruction of

PUNDtTplus, CNS electronic ttd.

Technology, Longman

of

concrete made with scoia aggregate

and fly ash, lnternational earthquake

symposlum

Kocaeli

98

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