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MESIN KONVERSI ENERGI

MESIN REFRIGERASI

Prof. Ir. Amiral Aziz, MS.c. APU

MESIN REFRIGERASI

9/4/2015

Principles of Refrigeration
Refrigeration means to
COOL AN OBJECT BELOW ITS
SURROUNDING TEMPERATURE

Vapour Compression Cycle


Basic Components of the vapour
compression refrigeration system
3

Compressor
Condenser
Throttling Device
Evaporator

2
CONDENSER

EXPANSION VALVE

COMPRESSOR

EVAPORATOR

Vapour Compression Cycle


PRESSUR
KN/m2E

CONDENSER HEAT REJECTION

CONDENSATION

Pd

2
CONDENSER

2
COMPRESSION
THROTTLING

EXPANSION VALVE

Pe

EVAPORATION

COMPRESSOR

EVAPORATOR

ENTHALPY
REFRIGERATION EFFECT

WORK DONE

KJ/Kg

Ideal Vapour Compression Cycle

Ideal Vapour Compression Cycle

Actual Vapour Compression Cycle

VAPOUR COMPRESSION CYCLE


COMPONENTS

REFRIGERANTS
CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS (CFC)
R-11
R-12
HYDROCHLOROFLUOROCARBONS (HCFC)
R- 22
R-123
HYDROFLUOROCARBONS (HFC)
R-32
R-125
R-134a
R-143a
INORGANIC COMPOUNDS
R- 717
R- 718
R- 729
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Unit of Refrigeration
The unit of refrigeration is
TON OF REFRIGERATION ( TR )
1 TR = 12000 Btu/hr BRITISH UNITS
1 TR = 3.517 KW SI UNITS

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Refrigeration Cycle Efficiency


The refrigeration cycle efficiency is known as
COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (COPREF)
(COPREF) = Refrigeration Effect KJ/Kg
Work Done

KJ/Kg

(COPHP) = Condenser Heat Rejection


Work Done KJ/Kg

KJ/Kg

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Refrigeration Equipment
Efficiency
The equipment efficiency is given as EER or kW/TR
ENERGY EFFICIENCY RATIO (EER)
Use for smaller capacity equipment such as Window type & Split type
equipment

(EER) = Capacity
Power Input

kW/TR

Btu/hr
Watts

Use for large capacity equipment such as Chillers

(kW/TR) = Power Input


Capacity TR

kW

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P-h DIAGRAM FOR REFRIGERANT 134a

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MONTRAL PROTOCOL OBLIGATIONS

1.
2.

3.

Face-out of CFC in year 2005


Introduction of Quota for HCFC in
year 2015
Face-out of HCFC in year 2040

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ASHRAE Standard 34-1992


Refrigerant Safety Classifications

Lower
Flammability

No Flame
Propagation

INCREASING FLAMMABILITY

Higher
Flammability

Group A3

Group B3

Group A2

Group B2

Group A1

Group B1

INCREASING TOXICITY

Lower
Toxicity

Higher
Toxicity
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Refrigerant Data &


Safety Classifications
REFRIGERANT

CHEMICAL
FORMULA

CHEMICAL
NAME

REFRIGERANT
SAFETY
CLASSIFICATION

AMOUNT OF
REFRIGERANT
PER OCCUPIED
SPACE (ppm)

TLV-TWA
(ppm)

R-11

CCl3

Trichlorofluoromethane

A1

4000

C1000

R-12

CCl2F2

Dichlorodifluoromethane

A1

40000

1000

R-22

CHClF2

Chlorodifluoromethane

A1

42000

1000

R-134a

CH2FCF

1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane

A1

60000

1000

Ammonia

B2

500

25

R-717

NH3

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AMMONIA (NH3) R-717

In-expensive Refrigerant best suited for industrial


use
Higher refrigeration effect 474 Btu/lb,
comparison; R-12 = 50 Btu/lb , R-22 = 70 Btu/lb,
R-134a = 64 Btu/lb, R-404A = 48 Btu/lb
7- times higher refrigeration effect!!!
Specific volume of suction gas is high 8 ft3/lb
compare to 1.2 ft3/lb of R-22, needs larger pipes,
compressors
Higher delivery temperatures 210 F, needs water
cooled heads for compressor

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COOLING TOWER (CT)


INDUCED DRAUGHT

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COOLING TOWER (CT)


CROSS FLOW

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COOLING TOWER (CT)


FORCED DRAUGHT

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WATER PUMPS
VERTICAL IN-LINE

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COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEMS

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Compressed air system provides..

Provides air under


compression to pneumatic
drives
Use reciprocating or screw
compressors with storage
receiver
Use pressure regulators at
the air user point to reduce
the air pressure
Use water separators to
prevent water vapour
entering the air user
equipment

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ROTARY SCREW
COMPRESSORS

Pulsation free air


100% continuous duty
Quiet operation
Energy efficient at full load
Extended service intervals
Reliable long life
Improved air quality

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The temperature limits of an ammonia refrigerating system are 25 C


and - 10 C. If the gas is dry at the end of compression, calculate the
coefficient of performance of the cycle assuming no undercooling of
the liquid ammonia. Use the following table for properties of ammonia
:

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Since the entropy at point 1 is equal to entropy at point 2, therefore


equating equations (i) and (ii),
0.5443 + 4.934 Z1 = 5.04

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A water cooltr using R-12 works on the condensing and evaporating


temperatures of 26 C and 2 C respectively. The vapour leaves the
evaporator saturated and dry. The average output of cold water is 100
kgjhr cooled from 26 C to 6C. Allowing 20% of useful heat into water
cooler and the volumetric efficiency of the compressor as 80% and
mechanical efficiency of the compressor and the electric motor as 85%
and 95% respectively, find (a) volumetric displacement of the compressor,
and (b) power of the motor. Data for R-12 is given below

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T-s
and p-H diagrams
are shown in Fig. 4-12 (a) and (b)
respectively. Since 20% of the usefJ heat is lost into water
cooler therefore, actual heat extracted from the water cooler

We know that
heat
per kg of the refrigerant

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extracted or the net refrigerating effect

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(b) Power of the motor


First of all, let us 8nd the temperature at point 2 (T2).
entropy at point 2,

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We know that

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A vapour compression refrigeration plant works between pressure


limits of 5-3 bar and 2'1 bar. The, vapour is superheated at the end
of compression, its temperature being 37 C. The vapour is
superheated by 5 C before entering the compressor. If the specific
heat of superheated vapour is 0,63 kJjkg.K, find the coefficient of
performance of the plant. Use the data given below :

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The T-s and p-H diagrams are shown in Fig. 4-14 (a) and
(b) respectively

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A food storage lorkcr requires a refrigeration capacity of 12 TR and


works between the evaporating temperature of 8C and
condensing temperature of 30 C, The refrigerant R-12 is subcooled
by 5 C before entry to expansion valve and the vapour is
superheated to2 C before leaving the evaporator coils. Assuming
a two cylinder single acting compressor operating at WOO r p.m.
with stroke equal to 1-5 times the bore, determine (a) coefficient of
performance, (b) theoretical power per ton of refrigeration, and (c)
bore and stroke of compressor when (i) there is no clearance, and(ii) there is a clearance of 2%.
Use the following data for R-12

The specific heat of liquid R-12 is 1-235 kJ/kg K, and of


vapour R-12 is 0'733 kJ/kg K
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The T-s and p-H diagrams are shown in Fig. 4.26 (a) and (b)
respectively,
(a) Coefficient of performance
First of all, let us find the temperature of superheated vapour at
point 2 (T2).

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We know that entropy at point 1

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Since the entropy at point 1 is equal to entropy at point


therefore equating equations (i) and (ii),

2,

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(b) Theoretical power per ton of refrigeration


We know that the heat extracted or refrigerating effect per kg of the
refrigerant,

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First of all, let us find the specific volume at suction to the


compressor, i.e. at point 1. Applying Charles1 law

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(i) When there is no clearance


We know that theoretical suction volume or piston displacement per
minute

= 0.0245 m3/kg
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We know that volumetric efficiency of the compressor,

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THANK YOU

Prof.

Ir. Amiral Aziz, MS.c. APU


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