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Running head: PSYCHOLOGY

Substantive Psychological Area

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Psychological 2

Table of Contents
1.

2.

3.

TAQ1..................................................................................................................................3
1.

Part (a).........................................................................................................................3

21.

Part (b).........................................................................................................................4
TAQ2..................................................................................................................................4

2.1

Part (a) Lifespan Development.................................................................................4

2.2

Part (b) - Schizophrenia...............................................................................................6

TAQ3..................................................................................................................................8

References..................................................................................................................................9

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1. TAQ1
1.1

Part (a)
S.No

Concept

Explanation
Motherese is the model of speech and basically
used for the purpose of communication with the
preverbal children. It is found to draw the attention
of children more nicely because of different

1.

Motherese

attributes.
Mothers, utilize this communication by
conforming, their prosodic and linguistic parts of
speech which build the idea of motherese. Such as,
Japanese mothers adjust phonetic cues which that
are more pertinent in Japanese.
Scaffolding defines the nature of help given by the
person whos having more knowledge. It supports
the development of learner and by giving the
support will structure the learner to get him to the

2.

Scaffolding

next level or stage.


For example, the children who show poor
attention towards the regulation skills, it develops
that interaction between parent and child are
expected to verbally engage with their children.

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1.2

Part (b)
S.No

Concept

Explanation
Social norms deviation is the behavior which
deviates from values and norms of behavior of
society and which also deviates from what are the
expected and approved ways of behaving in the

1.

society is thought to be abnormal.

Deviation from
social norms

In few societies homosexuality is unacceptable


socially, while others have given more equivalent
rights. Britain as contrasted with other strict
religious nations, for example, the Arab countries
where homosexuals are imprisoned.
A person who is not able to handle demands of
ordinary life is considered as abnormal. They
might not able to carry out the behavior essential

2.

Failure to Function

for everyday living for e.g. interact with others

Adequately

meaningfully, hold down the job, make themselves


understood, self-care and self-consideration and so
forth. This is due to that they cannot experience the
emotions of normal range.

2. TAQ2
2.1

Part (a) Lifespan Development

Introduction
This article will look and assess the explanation and evidences in the chosen topic
which is Life-span Development. This is the complex discipline as we have to analyze it and
we have to look that how individuals change their lives, how the developmental
characteristics mould their ego, identity and personality. However in simple words, life-span
basically means change, it does not assess the main reason of why we change, for example
we change from numerous points of view by disliking one type of food eating continuously.
So we have to assess the more unpredictable context, in order to get the clear idea of why

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from early stages, youth and old age, we create the way we like to do, to empower further
knowledge into human development.
Discussion
Lifespan development deals with how person develop from origination into the old
age. The nature of individual, i.e. his/her biological, makeup and genetic predispositions and
also nurture, which is basically an environment where he/she exists (and there may be few
environments, for example, church, home, school) add to the persons development. The
procedure of development of individuals life is assessed as per various stages, which carries
its particular set of expectations with respect to social awareness, physical maturation,
psychological development and emotional growth. With this all phases will likewise come a
particular consideration of set of life-cycle as well as the set of self and socially imposed
pressures in order to participate in specific elements and rites of life cycle.
The lifespan development focuses to give you an overview of the essential normal
developmental stages which people go through: birth phase, infancy, adolescence, adulthood,
phase of old age and lastly death. As the specialists concentrate on the ways individuals
change and develop all through their lives, additionally they consider stability in life of an
individual. Specialists have focused on the periods and areas individuals show change and
development, and how and when their behavior shows the continuity and consistency as
compared to their prior behavior.
Developmental specialists assume that the development procedure holds the all
aspects of individuals' lives, starting with the moment of origination and proceeding until
death. Specialists believe that in several ways individuals keep on growing and change right
as their lives are going to end, whereas in other regards their behavior stays stable. In the
meantime, specialists trust that no single, particular period of life represents all development.
Rather, they trust that each period of life includes potential for both development and
decrease in abilities. These people maintain the limit for substantial change and growth
throughout their lives.
Many elements can influence lifespan development of human and this involves
developmental procedures in 3 main areas namely sociaemotional, cognitive and biological.
These three procedures work as one in development of a person's integrated with the brain
and body which are associated.

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For example, people who face failure of goals or perceive lacking of progress in
achieving the goals are more likely to understand emotional distress. Moreover, an
undesirable change can affect behaviors in direction of goals which even cause to the
termination. One of the scenarios we have faced describes the evidence with connection of
this topic. A girl with the age of 16, her biological mother relocated to England when her
daughter was just 5 years of age. She is currently living with grandparents. She doesnt know
her father, and her mother contacted her only four times since she moved. The little girl is
experiencing symptoms of anxiety, tearfulness and withdrawal. So shes feeling the loss of
connection, as it is the strong affection which is tied between children and their guardians.
Conclusion
Adaption all through life depends upon how we negotiate external as well as internal
factors which enhance our abilities in order to achieve our true abilities. The essence of
human's lifespan development is how we expand our qualities to rise above these restrictions
over time. Lifespan development is the psychological study from origination until death.
Development can be seen through the dynamic statements starting with one stage then onto
the next. The procedure of aging is continuous and the other processes starting with one
period then to other appear to be gradual and steady. Every period of life can be seen
independently and can be examined within divided classifications but every period of life
stays interconnected in one lifespan.

2.2

Part (b) - Schizophrenia


Introduction
There are numerous theories of psychology which describes the concept of

schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a serious illness or mental condition, it is mostly known as


"split" of 'mind'. At the point when a person is classified as a schizophrenic, usually it is
believed that he/she has a critical loss or failure of contact with the reality and they face
mental, social and emotional disturbance. Schizophrenia is the consequence of a solid
relationship between environmental and genetic factors which trigger the condition of the
suffering of an individual. There are around 3 biological classifications for schizophrenia;
brain structure, biochemical factors and genetic factors. This article will help us in exploring

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the evidences for the schizophrenia and in the last we will sum up the discussion under the
heading of conclusion.
Discussion
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder. It is primarily described by the deformation to
both perception and thinking; a person suffering from this type of illness will face behavioral
and cognitive impairment. Patient tries to develop the array of negative and positive
symptoms which can leave an individual withdrawn from society totally. Schizophrenia can
be further characterized by two sorts of symptoms which are positive symptom and negative
symptom. In positive symptom the individual manifest through delusions, hallucinations and
thought disorder. In negative symptom individual manifest through disorganized thinking,
speech or paranoia. Schizophrenia affects women and men equally, it appears in every single
ethic groups, also in teenagers specially for males and after five years of age in females and
can be a long lasting disease causing the relationships breakdown in both home and working
situations.
In family studies, the studies of twin hold strong evidence as it clearly look at the
people who share literally the same DNA. It was discovered that the rates of concordance are
around 26.5% when its about monozygotic twin and almost 0% in dizygotic. So therefore
this proposes that genes assume to be a very significant part in developing of schizophrenia.
Likewise, it also has been viewed that the study of twins in between 1920 and 1987 the
concordance rates were almost 46% in monozygotic twins. It was the situation when twins
were raised in different families. So it has been observed that factors like family environment
have a small relevance to whether an individual develops schizophrenia.
Currently there is no treatment or cure available for this disease. However, there are
nonstop changes happening regarding identification of advanced medications and full
permanent cure etc. One of the aspects about Schizophrenia which is truly fascinating is that
individuals suffering with this disease improve well also they respond to medicines and other
treatments too. Schizophrenia affects the individuals social aspect that is experiencing it and
it has been recorded that this disorder has affected just 1% of the entire globe. From
hallucinations to accusing people falsely who are around them and paranoid schizophrenics
also have the end of stick in the matter of most psychosis.

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Schizophrenias some of the effects are relationship issues, drugs and alcohol abuse,
interruption to normal day to day activities and increased risk of suicide. This disorder often
isolates and withdraws themselves from loved ones. Normal day to day activities like
running, eating or bathing become difficult because of illusions, hallucinations or delusions.
Few individuals with this disorder create issues with drugs or liquor and additionally may
turn out to be a heavy smoker. Individuals are likely to commit the suicide during these
episodes of psychotic, also during depression period. It should be seriously considered and
must be treated promptly. There is still a hope for this disorder. Schizophrenics try to recover
at some degree, or if nothing else they learn to cope with this illness.
Conclusion
In conclusion it has been analyzed that evidence for schizophrenia has being mostly
caused by biological dysfunction. This disease causes the patients social, emotion and
cognitive skills which gives the driving force to examine on the reasons for this illness to
foresee and build up the effective treatment potentially with few reactions. But other than
medication, the psychological interventions are really essential in treating the schizophrenia.
These interventions involve family psycho-instruction, social skills training, supported
employment, substance abuse treatment and assertive community treatment. Individuals that
experience the ill effects of schizophrenia can have more inspirational point of view toward
their life. Now hospitalization is not an only alternative and numerous manifestations can be
mostly, if not completely, relieved by some new neuroleptic medications.
3. TAQ3

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References
Moran, J. M. (2013). Lifespan development: The effects of typical aging on theory of
mind. Behavioural brain research, 237, 32-40.
Kber, C., Schmiedek, F., & Habermas, T. (2015). Characterizing lifespan development
of three aspects of coherence in life narratives: A cohort-sequential
study. Developmental psychology, 51(2), 260.
Li, S. C., Hmmerer, D., Mller, V., Hommel, B., & Lindenberger, U. (2009). Lifespan
development of stimulus-response conflict cost: Similarities and differences
between maturation and senescence. Psychological Research PRPF, 73(6), 777785.
Mesholam-Gately, R. I., Giuliano, A. J., Goff, K. P., Faraone, S. V., & Seidman, L. J.
(2009). Neurocognition in first-episode schizophrenia: a meta-analytic
review. Neuropsychology, 23(3), 315.
Myers, N. L. (2010). Culture, stress and recovery from schizophrenia: Lessons from the
field for global mental health. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 34(3), 500-528.
Cochrane, M., Petch, I., & Pickering, A. D. (2012). Aspects of cognitive functioning in
schizotypy and schizophrenia: evidence for a continuum model.Psychiatry
Research, 196(2), 230-234.
Hollis, C., Palaniyappan, L., Thapar, A., Pine, D. S., Leckman, J. F., Scott, S., ... &
Taylor, E. (2015). Schizophrenia and psychosis. Rutter's Child and Adolescent
Psychiatry, 774-792.