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ID Number: 1130598

Column occupies an important position for the structural engineers, as a kind of important

component in architectural structures. For high-rise buildings, although structure systems are

divers, columns are still essential vertical bearing components and lateral resistance components.

And, the form has being changed, from the normal reinforced concrete column, a steel reinforced

concrete column, steel tube concrete column, to the composite column, mega columns. This report

only introduces the related contents concerning concrete filled steel tube (CFST) column and

concrete filled steel tube composite column (hereinafter referred to as the composite column).

1. BASIC CONCEPT

1.1 Concrete filled steel tube column: filling the high strength concrete into the steel pipe, is an

economic efficient way to overcome the high strength concrete brittleness, by combining steel

tube concrete technology with high strength concrete technology. This is because: 1) steel tubes

hoop constraint effect to core high strength concrete can effectively overcome the high strength

concrete brittleness; 2) steel tube can be used as a template, and has both longitudinal

reinforcement and the transverse stirrup function, and facilitates to place high strength concrete,

especially can use advanced pump concrete pouring process, because inside steel reinforced

skeleton is not needed; 3) without concrete cover outside, makes full use of the capacity of high

strength concrete.

1.2 Composite column: consists of the core CFST and the concrete outside, can be as square section,

rectangular section or circular cross section. Composite column inside and outside parts can be

constructed in different period, or in the same period. Construction in different period means first

casting inside concrete to form CFST, bearing part of the vertical load during the period of construction,

then the outside concrete. Construction in the same period means casting the inside and outside

concrete at the same time.

The comparison shows that both consist of high strength concrete and steel tube, and the

hoop sets effect gives full play to the role of high strength materials. The main difference is that,

no concrete cover outside the CFST but composite column RC outside the pipe, also the inside

and outside concrete can be casted in different periods. In short, CFST composite column is the

development of concrete filled steel tube column.

The second and third class high-rise building maximum height using composite column

structure, for frame structure and 9 degree seismic fortification, is the same with A level height

high-rise buildings largest height according to the current industry standard concrete structures of

tall building technical regulation JGJ3-2010 ; in the non-seismic design and seismic fortification

intensity6,7,8 area, except the frame structure, the maximum height for other structure is the same

with B level height high-rise buildings largest height according to the current industry standard

concrete structures of tall building technical regulation JGJ3-2010 .

Table 1 comparison of building maximum height of CFST with composite column structures

Structure system

non-seismic

design (CFST/

composite

column)

column)

intensity 6

intensity 7

intensity 8

intensity 9

frame

70

60

55

45

25

Frame-shear wall

170

160

140

120

50

Partial

frame-supported

shear wall

150

140

120

100

No allowed

frame core-tube

240/220

260/210

210/180

160/140

80/70

Tube in tube

300/300

280/280

230/230

170/170

80/90

The table data shows that, both the maximum height in tube structure are equal, it is

important to note that the maximum height in the frame- core tube structure for composite column

is smaller.

3. CAPACITY CALCULATION

Confinement effect greatly improves CFSTs bearing capacity (30% ~ 50%), and the

materials stress under service conditions improved with the same amplitude corresponding. Test

and theoretical analysis shows that, when the confinement index is within 3 and procedures set by

safety level, CFST still in elastic stage under test load, which satisfy with the basic requirements

of the limit state design principle.

Take the CFST as the research object, and contrast the similarities and differences between

the two on axial bearing capacity calculation.

It can be seen from the form above

1. The formulas about CFST axial compression capacity are basically agreed.

2. Processes are different when considers the different confinement effect. Generally the high strength

concrete in the composite column is within C55 ~ C80 range or even larger, thus the CFST

compression bearing capacity design value

can be smaller than that of CFST composite column.

3. Composite column does not consider eccentricity axis pressure to the influence of bearing capacity,

only consider the effect of slenderness ratios. Although the CFST is set in the composite column

section center, mainly carrying axial compression, but when the steel pipe diameter to the column

section side length ration is large, the CFST should bear the a small amount of bending moment. To

make sure there are certain reserves, fully axial compression bearing capacity cant be used, therefore,

limit the axial pressure. The reduction coefficient can be taken as 1.0 because of the RC outside

accordance with the relevant provisions of the CECS28-90. Both of the two consider the

constraint condition and column bending moment distribution gradient effect.

Table 2 comparison of axial compression capacity of CFST with the CFST in composite column

types

CFST column

Axis pressure

design value

N Nu

N cc 0.9 N u

Axial

pressure

bearing

capacity

N u 0.9 l e Ac f c (1 f ( ))

N u 1 f cc Acc (1 1.8 )

l 1 0.115 Le / D 4

1 1 0.115(l e / d a 4)1 / 2

( Le / D 4)

(l e / d a 4 )

reduction

coefficient(sl

enderness

ratio)

reduction

coefficient

eccentricity

ratio

l 1Le / D 4

e

1 1.0l e / d a 4

1

e0 / rc 1.55

1 1.85e0 / rc

without consideration

0 .3

e0 / rc 1.55

e0 / rc 0.4

Equivalent

calculation

Le kL

l e H

length

Note: L-the actual length of the column; H- length of the cantilever column.

types

axial

compressio

n capacity

effective

length

CFST column

composite column

Le kL

Bottom columns1.0Hothers1.25H

Note: H for the bottom column can be taken the height from foundation top face to the first layer, H for

the others each layer can be taken the height between the two top of the floor layer.

Both the concrete inside and outside contribute the composite column axial compression

capacity, and the interior CFST reduction coefficient is taken as 1.0. So the bearing capacity of

composite column of is higher than that of CFST column.

4. SHEAR CAPACITY

The steel tube in CFST column, is a kind of special form of reinforcement, and the three

dimensional continuous reinforcement field, acting as both longitudinal reinforcement and lateral

stirrup. Usually, CFST mainly bears compression-bending effect, and the shear reinforcement

field correspond is determined after the determination of the steel pipe specifications and hoop

index according to the compression-bending member, so shear reinforcement design is not needed

the other reinforced concrete member does. Previous test observation shows that failures are

bending type when shear span to column diameter ratio a/D is larger than 2, and in the general

construction project ,the value is greater than 3. In some cases, such as large-span overloaded

beam joints area, small shear span problem, which will influence the design of CFST, should be

considered. In order to solve the problem, China construction science research institute carried out

the special shearing test research, which is applicable to transverse shear act on the pipe outer wall

in pressure.

Table 4 comparison of shear capacity of CFST with composite column

types

CFST

composite column

shear

capacity

V0 0.2 Ac f c (1 3 )

conditions

pipe outer wall in pressure

others

Applicable

5. LOCAL COMPRESSION

In addition, there are related regulations about local compression and tension and moment

capacity for the CFST, but nothing for composite columns.

6.COMPOSITE RATIO

In the composite column constructed in different period, the core CFST has been under part

vertical load, before the RC outside casted. CFSTs vertical load value to the composite columns axial

compression value ratio called composite ratio.

The strength of empty steel pipe should be checked according to the construction stage load

for the laminated column constructed in different period, and the maximum compressive stress

value is unsuitable more than 0.6fa(fa is steel pipe steel the compressive strength of the design

value). Composite than can be through the test are determined, usually desirable 0.3-0.6.

composite ratio m N i / N

NComposite column axis pressure design value.

Niaxis compression design value act on the CFST before the outer RC casted

If Composite ratio is too large, the requirements of the composite bearing capacity cannot be

satisfied; If too small, the characteristics of composite column cannot be given full play.

Table 5 beam-column joints types of CFST and composite column

types

CFST column

1 outer strengthen rings (smaller

column diameter)

2. inner strengthen rings (larger

column diameter)

Transfer shear: 1 ring bracket

2. Bearing pin

Transfer

RC beam-column connection

bending moment:

2. ring beam 3. wear muscle

single-girder

4. various width beam

composite column

1. only one steel beam, see

figure 5

2. all the steel beams, see

figure 6

1. Steel pipe breakthrough type

2. Steel plate fin transformation

3. Steel pipe reinforced

transformation (Construction in the

same period)

Note: the shear transfer and moment transfer forms are introduced respectively in the CFST

structure, and Suitable forms combination is need in practice.

7.1 CFST structure

7.1.1 Steel beam-column connection

Bearing pin

Ring Beam

3Additional inclined bars

Ring beam1CFST column2the ring bars of ring beam3longitudinal reinforcements of

frame beam4stirrups of ring beam

7.2.1 Steel beam-column connection

7.2.2 RC beam-column connection

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