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2016,28(1):84-94

DOI: 10.1016/S1001-6058(16)60610-8

with Reynolds model viscosity*

Samuel S. OKOYA

Department of Mathematics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, E-mail: sokoya@oauife.edu.ng

(Received September 5, 2014, Revised January 22, 2015)

Abstract: Neglecting the consumption of the material, a steady incompressible flow of an exothermic reacting third-grade fluid with

viscous heating in a circular cylindrical pipe is numerically studied for both cases of constant viscosity and Reynolds viscosity

model. The coupled ordinary differential equations governing the flow in cylindrical coordinates, are transformed into dimensionless

forms using appropriate transformations, and then solved numerically. Solutions using Maple are presented in tabular form and given

in terms of dimensionless central fluid velocity and temperature, skin friction and heat transfer rate for three parametric values in the

Reynolds case. The numerical results for the velocity and temperature fields are also presented through graphs. Bifurcations are

discussed using shooting method. Comparisons are also made between the present results and those of previous work, and thus verify

the validity of the provided numerical solutions. Important properties of thermal criticality are provided for variable viscosity parameter and reaction order. Further numerical results are presented in the form of tables and graphs for transition of physical parameters, while varying certain flow and fluid material parameters. Also, the flow behaviour of the reactive fluid of third-grade is compared with those of the Newtonian reactive fluid.

Key words: non-Newtonian fluids, third-grade fluid, thermal transition, heat generation, temperature dependent viscosity, numerical

solutions

Introduction

The phenomenon of Newtonian flow and heat

transfer in a cylinder on physically reasonable assumptions has been analyzed by a number of authors[1]

and the references therein. It is now generally known

in industrial applications that the non-Newtonian fluids, particularly the fluid of third-grade, are more suitable than Newtonian fluids. Some of the applications in

processing industries include food processing, polymer processing and petrochemical applications. For

problems involving heat transfer processes in fluids of

third-grade, a complete thermodynamics analysis of

the constitutive function has been performed (see related work by some authors[2,3] etc.). In this specialthe

case of third grade fluids, the governing equations reduces to that which one would get for an appropriate

generalized Newtonian fluid.

0F

Professor

effects of variable viscosity and heat transfer on the

flow. Some other studies involving variable viscosity

models have no consideration of heat generation in the

system, see for example Massoudi and Christe[4].

Reference [4] solved and analyzed numerically, the

effects of temperature dependent viscosity for

Reynolds and Vogels model cases for a pipe. Approximate analytical solutions for Reynolds and Vogels

model cases for a pipe were revisited using perturbation technique, while the criteria for which the solutions are valid were determined by Yrsoy and

Pakdemirli[5]. The problem of Reynolds and Vogels

temperature dependent viscosity models for third

grade fluids in a cylindrical pipe is studied using homotopy analysis method by Ellahi et al.[6].

Most of these studies mentioned above, are based

on non-reactive flow properties. More accurate prediction for the flow and heat transfer can be achieved by

including exothermic reaction under Arrhenius kinetics, but we have neglected reactant consumption of the

materials. Some of the earlier investigations on criticality and disappearance of criticality of a reactive

85

viscous fluid with or without flow are: A new numerical method was employed to calculate criticality and

transition (disappearance of criticality) for a range of

Biot number for Arrhenius and Bimolecular temperature dependence in the cases of infinite slab, infinite

cylinder and sphere in the absence of flow, see

Boddington et al.[7]. Also, Zaturska[8] considered plane

Couette flow, Poiseuille pipe flow, axial and rotating

flows between concentric circular cylinders using

power series and assuming the Frank-Kamenetskii exponential approximation to the Arrhenius term. Furthermore, Shonhiwa and Zaturska[9] adopted the shooting method and solved numerically for the disappearance of criticality, for the reactive viscous flows studied in Ref.[8]. Quite recently, Britz et al.[10] provided

numerical solutions to the equation for thermal expansion of a reacting gas, exploring both steady state and

time-marching solutions for the infinite slab, cylinder

and sphere. It is worthy of attention that the critical

conditions of the form described above are significant

in providing safety criteria both for storage and for

handling.

A number of studies in the literature do not explain the effects of variable viscosity, heat transfer and

generation of reaction heat inside the pipe on the nonNewtonian fluid. In fact, very little work has been reported, which deals with flow of a reacting non-linear

fluid. Bridges and Rajagopal[11], by direct integration,

investigated the pulsatile pipe flow of a chemicallyreacting fluid whose viscosity depends on the concentration of a species (constituent) that is governed by a

convective-reaction diffusion and the velocity gradient.

Approximate solutions are constructed for the problem with heat source term, using regular perturbation

techniques together with a special type of HermitePade approximants, while important properties of the

velocity and temperature fields including thermal criticality conditions are discussed in Makinde[12] for isothermal wall. Other numerical studies involving the

competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation for the flow of non-linear fluids

are contained in Massoudi and Phuoc[13] and the references contained therein. Ajadi[14] studied the criticality of a one-step exothermic, reactive third-grade liquid

flowing steadily through a cylindrical pipe with isothermal wall for a variable spatial dependent viscosity

via homotopy analysis method and variational technique on the momentum and energy equations, respectively. Recently, Chinyoka and Makinde[15] derived the

coupled nonlinear equations in cylindrical coordinates

governing pressure-driven unsteady flow of a reactive

fluid of viscosity with an exponentially decreasing

function of temperature, and solved numerically,

using semi-implicit finite difference schemes, under

axisymmetric conditions. Also, Chinyoka and

Makinde[16] solved numerically, using an unconditionally stable and convergent semi-implicit finite diffe-

viscosity third-grade fluid in a cylindrical pipe with

convective heat exchange at the pipe surface. More recently, Ireka and Chinyoka[17] studied numerically,

using semi-implicit finite difference techniques, the

effect of wall slip on the flow and heat transfer for the

reactive Johnson-Segalman fluid in a lubricated pipe

with exponential viscosity.

The works carried out by Ajadi[14], Bridges and

Rajagopal[11], Makinde[12], Massoudi and Phuoc[13] are

obviously a major step towards understanding the role

of non-linear fluids with (or without) variable viscosity under heat generation with Arrhenius kinetics,

while restricting their analysis up to thermal explosion

(critical value). It should be conceded that a realistic

mathematical description of thermal explosion needs

to include the effects of Arrhenius temperature dependence with variable pre-exponential factor (see, for

example Adegbie[18] and Okoya[19]) and Reynolds viscosity model (see Massoudi and Christe[4], Ireka and

Chinyoka[17] and Jayeoba and Okoya[20]).

In this study, reactive generalized Newtonian

fluid flow in pipe is considered while fluid friction

and Nusselt number are formulated. The coupled dimensionless governing equations of momentum and

energy are solved numerically by using Maple routine

codes. A third-grade fluid model is accommodated,

while Reynolds model accounted for the temperaturedependent viscosity in the analysis. The central velocity and temperature, fluid friction and Nusselt number are presented in tabular form, while the velocity

and temperature profiles are presented graphically.

Thermal critical values are computed for various values of viscosity parameter and reaction order while

competing effects of non-Newtonian parameter, pressure gradient parameter, viscous dissipation parameter and index of the pre-exponential factor on constant

viscosity and Reynolds model viscosity (cases) are

treated separately. The solutions for reactive NavierStokes fluid can be deduced as a limiting case of our

solutions.

1. Governing equations

Consider the fully developed laminar motion through a circular Poiseuille device. We employ cylindrical coordinates (r , , z ) , with the z - axis coinci-

86

measured radially, such that r = R is the radius of the

pipe and is the azimuthal angle (see Fig.1).

Assuming incompressible flow, in the absence of

chemical reactions and electromagnetic effects, the

equations of motion are the continuity, linear momentum and energy equations,

div v = 0

dv

= divT + b

dt

(1)

(2)

dt

(3)

where is the density, b is the body force consisting of negligible electrical field and gravity, denotes the specific internal energy, q is the heat flux vector, r1 is the radiant energy assumed to be negligible,

Q is the heat of reaction, C0 is the initial concentra-

tion of the reactant species, k0 is the reaction rate expression that is a function of temperature, L is the

velocity gradient, d / dt denotes the material time differentiation, t is the time, T is the Cauchy stress

tensor and v is the velocity vector. It can be seen that

the heat of reaction appears as a source term in the

energy equation.

For the heat flux vector we adopt the classical

Fouriers law of heat conduction, so that

q = K T

(4)

conductivity, K , is generally assumed to be constant.

It is a well known fact that majority of the previous studies have dealt with systems having constant

viscosity as a good approximation (i.e. = 0 ). On

the other hand, important issues related to systems possessing temperature dependent viscosities are scientifically appealing and challenging, with a wide range

of industrial applications. Our review of literature has

been based on fluid viscosity, which usually has a strong dependence on temperature. There have been several studies involving, in particular, Reynolds model

viscosity, for example in the case where the function

(T ) takes the form,

= 0 exp[b(T T0 )]

b may take positive values for liquids such as water,

benzene, or crude oil. In some gases like air, helium,

or methane b may be negative, i.e., the coefficient

viscosity increases with temperature. Clearly, the special case of b = 0 corresponds to the constant viscosity model.

We assume that k0 is given by (see Boddington

et al.[7], Adegbie[18] and Okoya[19])

kT

E

k0 = A0

exp

v

RT

and

d

rr

= T L div q + r1 + QC0 k0

(5)

(6)

energy, R is the universal gas constant, is the

Plancks number, k is the Boltzmanns constant, v is

the vibration frequency and m is a numerical exponent. It may be mentioned that m {2, 0, 0.5} corresponds to sensitized temperature dependence, Arrhenius

or zero-order reaction and bimolecular temperature

dependence, respectively.

The constitutive equation for a third-grade fluid

is

T = p I + A2 + 1 A2 + 2 A12 + 2 ( A1 A2 + A2 A1 ) +

3 (trace A12 ) A1

(7)

the dynamic shear viscosity. Here 1 , 2 , 2 and

on the temperature but assumed to be constant in this

paper. Here , 1 , 2 , 2 and 3 obey the following relations for thermodynamical compatibility

0 , 1 0 , 2 0 , 3 0 , 1 + 2 24 3

(8)

The kinematic tensors A1 and A2 are given by

the relations

A1 = ( v ) + ( v )T , A2 =

d

A1 + A1 ( v ) + ( v )T A1

dt

(9)

T is the transpose. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the model, represented by several material variables in Eq.(8), is given in Massoudi and Christe[4].

87

For the problem under consideration, we seek velocity and temperature fields of the form:

v = (0, 0, w(r )) , T = T (r )

(10)

in Ref.[7] that for an exothermic reaction obeying the

generalized Arrhenius law in the situation in which

heat flow is steady (purely conductive), critical conditions for thermal explosion are fulfilled when the activation energy is large or initial temperature is small

(i.e. RT0 / E 0 1 ). With this assumption, the continuity equation is automatically satisfied, and in the absence of body force, the components of Eq.(2) along the

directions of r , and z take the following form:

2

1 d

dw p

r

(2

+

)

1

2

=

r dr

dr r

(11)

p

=0

(12)

dw

dT

(0) =

(0) = 0 ,

dr

dr

3

1 d

dw 1 d

dw p

r

+

2r 3

=

r dr

dr r dr

dr z

(13)

1 d dT

K

r

r dr dr

dw

dw

+ 2 3

+

+

dr

dr

m

kT

E

QC0 A0

exp

RT

v

=0

(14)

where Q is the heat of reaction, C0 is the initial concentration of the reactant species, p / r and p / z

are the emerging pressure gradients in the radial and

axial directions, respectively. In studying the fluid dynamics, the coupled Eqs.(5), (13), (14) are to be integrated for a given value of p / z . After this crucial

step, the velocity field is determined and reintroduced

into Eq.(11) to obtain p / r . Once these pressure

gradients have been computed, the actual pressure

gradient can be obtained after simple algebra from

Eqs.(11) and (13). In this paper, as similar arguments

support (see e.g., Refs.[4] and [6]), only the simplest

model flow problem containing the ingredients necessary to understand the phenomena is presented.

pipe walls are maintained at the constant temperature

T , then the natural boundary conditions are clearly

w( R ) = 0 , T ( R ) = T0 ,

dw

dT

(0) =

(0) = 0

dr

dr

(15)

The problem is simplified by writing the equations in the non-dimensional form. We define the following non-dimensional quantities,

r=

4 w2

RT

r

w

, w=

, = 0, = 0 0 ,

E

R

w0

kT0

(T T0 ) E

w2

, = 3 02 , = b b T0 , =

,

2

RT0

0 r0

0

E

QEA0 R 2 C0 k mT0m 2

R2 dp

exp

, c =

m m

v h RK

0 w0 dz

RT0

where w0 is a reference velocity. Here r is the dimensionless perpendicular distance from the pipe axis,

w is the dimensionless velocity, is the viscous

heating parameter, is the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, is the dimensionless temperature excess,

is the activation energy, C is the pressure gradient

parameter and is the non-Newtonian material parameter of the fluid. Although the material constant 3

and hence may also depend on temperature, they

are taken as constants for simplicity in this study.

In terms of the above non-dimensional variables

and parameters, Eqs.(13)-(15) take the form

d dw dw

d2 w

+r 2 +

+

dr dr r dr

dr

2

dw dw

r dr dr

+ 3r

d2 w

=C

dr 2

(16)

2

2

d 2 1 d

dw

dw

+

+

dr

dr +

dr 2 r dr

=0

1 +

(1 + )m exp

w(1) = (1) = 0 ,

dw

d

(0) =

(0) = 0

dr

dr

(17)

(18)

where

( ) = exp( )

(19)

88

Table 1 Values wmax and max are compared with Massoudi and Christe[4]

C = 1

=1

Ref.[10]

Present paper

Ref.[10]

Present paper

max

wmax

max

wmax

max

wmax

max

wmax

0.014

0.230

0.014480

0.229908

0.016

0.253

0.015811

0.252650

0.054

0.404

0.051084

0.404170

0.012

0.192

0.012149

0.192455

0.102

0.541

0.010245

0.541341

10

0.011

0.011

0.010810

0.171515

0.165

0.656

0.164897

0.641341

15

0.010

0.010

0.009989

0.158764

max

max

(1)

wmax

max

0.259444

0.300548

0.423854

0.605501

0.260955

0.315951

0.423854

0.625501

0.262736

0.334126

0.423854

0.648764

0.263757

0.344562

0.423854

0.661954

0.229908

0.014480

0.423854

0.055783

0.244339

0.157655

0.423854

0.330809

0.263757

0.344562

0.423854

0.661954

0.292398

0.613435

0.423854

1.094035

0.263242

0.339595

0.423854

0.654706

0.1

0.263498

0.342060

0.423854

0.658309

0.2

0.263757

0.344562

0.423854

0.661955

0.3

0.264020

0.347100

0.423854

0.665640

2.0

1.0

0

0.2

0.5

0

0.5

0.5

1.0

0.2

1.5

0.5

1.0

equations cannot be integrated analytically, and it is

very important to develop efficient numerical method

to solve them. Evidently, the special case of = 0 corresponds to constant viscosity case.

2. Particular cases

(1) In the absence of non-Newtonian field, reaction order and constant viscosity i.e. = 0 , m = 0

and = 0 , respectively, the results for critical values

with = 0 and disappearance of criticality of the present paper are reduced to Zaturska[8] and Shonhiwa

and Zaturska[9], respectively.

(2) In the absence of reaction order and constant

viscosity i.e. m = 0 and = 0 , respectively, the results of the present paper are reduced to the critical

values obtained by Makinde[12].

(3) In the absence of heat source i.e , the results of the present paper are reduced to those studied by

Yrsoy and Pakdemirli[5].

3. Numerical solution

To start the integration of the differential

Eqs.(16), (17) by Maple standard solver, poses a problem since it contains a singularity in the neighbourhood of the axis of the pipe (i.e. r 0 ). This problem is handled numerically by developing equations

that do not contain a singularity. Applying LHospital

rule[4] (or Maclaurin expansion[9,10]) we have

lim r 0

1 dw d 2 w

1 d d 2

= 2 , lim r 0

=

r dr dr 2

r dr dr

(20)

2

2

d2 w

d dw

dw d w

+ 2 2 + 6

=C

2

dr dr

dr dr

dr

(21)

89

d 2

+

dr 2

2

2

dw

dw

+

dr

dr +

1

+

(1 + )m exp

=0

(22)

0. It is evident that the boundary conditions at r = 1

are specified in a straightforward manner. Such methods have been used successfully for thermal explosion problems (see for example, Shonhiwa and

Zaturska[9] and Britz et al.[10]), and non-reactive thirdgrade fluid (see e.g., Massoudi and Christe[4]).

( ) when C = 1 , = 10 , = = = 0.1 and

m = 0.5

when C = 1 , = 10 , = = 0.1 and = m = 0.5

parameter ( ) when C = 1 , = 10 , = = =

0.1 and m = 0.5

Fig.3 Temperature profile for various non-Newtonian parameter ( ) when when C = 1 , = 10 , = = 0.1 and

= m = 0.5

equations together with the boundary conditions (i.e.

Eqs.(16)-(19), (21), (22)) were solved numerically following procedure based on the Maple. Maple uses the

Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth fifth order (RFK45) method as one of its standard numerical solvers to generate the numerical solution of a boundary value problem. Practical tests indicate that the neighborhood of

the axis of the pipe (to start the integration) for the

constant viscosity case, has been taken small enough

and kept invariant throughout the run of the program,

the calculations, the finite length of the device is ignored and the computations performed for infinitely long

cylinders. For comparison of the results, numerical values are recorded in Table 1 for wmax and max . Here

wmax and max are the values of the maximum velocity and temperature at the pipe axis. It is observed

from Table 1 that the numerical values of wmax and

90

Table 3 Values of cr for different values of and are compared with results obtained by Makinde[12] when = ,

= 0 , C = 1

Ref.[12]

Ours

cr ( = 0)

Ref.[12]

Ours

cr ( = 0.1)

Difference

Difference

1.945436

1.946194

7.58104

2.206838

2.207681

8.43104

0.1

1.946071

1.946778

7.07104

2.207476

2.208268

7.92104

0.2

1.946755

1.947322

5.67104

2.208161

2.208812

6.51104

0.3

1.947482

1.947828

3.46104

2.208889

2.209319

4.29104

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

C=m=0

C = 2 and m = 0

C = 0 and m = 0.5

Ref.[7]

Ours

Ref.[9]

Ours

Ref.[7]

Ours

tr

0.242107

0.242109

0.24211

0.24211

0.331561

0.331566

tr

3.009122

3.007690

3.00630

3.00888

2.699915

2.699664

max tr

5.943354

5.936756

5.94325

5.93236

6.259328

6.247736

tr max tr

1.439000

1.437000

1.43900

1.43600

2.075000

2.072000

Massoudi and Christe[4]. These authors have used finite difference technique as compared to our Maple solver.

Two other quantities of interest are the skin-friction at the wall and Heat transfer rate which is estimated in terms of Nusselt number ( Nu ) . The skin-friction, related to the shear stress at the wall, is related

to dw / dr r =1 = w(1) and the Nusselt number is related to d / dr r =1 = (1) . There are basically three in-

which were not considered in Massoudi and Christe[4],

but in our present work we will only study the influences of this triplet. The table of values of wmax , max ,

w(1) and (1) are presented in Table 2. In addition,

Figs.2-5 present the results showing few representative figures of the velocity distributions and temperature profiles across the pipe, for different values of the

governing parameters.

It is worth noting that the steady state velocity

and temperature distributions in Figs.2-5 may only depend on certain physical parameter range. Consequently, the reaction term , will need to be carefully

controlled as large values can lead to disappearance

of steady solution, as illustrated in Fig.6.

We next solve the systems of non-linear differential equations together with the boundary conditions

(i.e. Eqs.(16)-(19), (21), (22)) by the method based on

extent to cope with singularity and non-linearity, with

the unknown parameter taken to be . For = 0

there are solutions only for cr , the critical modified

Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, and in this range there

exist two solutions for the steady state. Criticality signifies the onset of the nonexistence of a steady state

solution. When < cr for 0 there are three solutions of the problem corresponding to a maximum

and a minimum (i.e. explosion and extinction, respectively). As a result of the disappearance of criticality

(i.e. transition) = tr , the three solutions merge into

one. The mathematical expression for criticality corresponds to dd / d max = 0 , while the disappearance of

2

criticality corresponds to dd / d max = d 2d / d max

= 0.

To see if the program runs correctly for critical

values, and to make quantitative comparisons between

this and other established methods, we consider the

following simplified problems. The important findings

are highlighted in Tables 3, 4 below.

For illustration of the results of criticality and

disappearance of criticality, numerical values are plotted in Fig.7 for Reynolds case and various .

It is worthy of mention that the velocity Eq.(16)

and the energy Eq.(17) are different from Eqs.(1), (2)

in Makinde[12] due to the terms associated with variable viscosity parameter and the reaction order m .

91

Since the effects of , and on the distribution of dimensionless velocity and energy have been

discussed in Makinde[12], in our present work, we will

only investigate the effect of and m on the flow

equations. To perform this, we keep = 5 , = 1 ,

C = 2 and = 0.1 . Figures 8, 9 show the effect of

variable viscosity parameter and reaction order on the

dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles obtained using the standard Maple routine.

when C = 2 , = 4 , = 0.2 and = m = 0

index of the pre-exponential factor (m) and viscous

dissipation ( ) , so as to investigate the effects on the

disappearance of criticality (transition). The study encompasses within its realm both reactive third grade

and first grade (Newtonian) fluids, while results are

displayed graphically, and in some cases, depicted in

tabular form. Also, results are presented for constant

viscosity and Reynolds viscosity model in Figs.10-15

and Tables 5, 6.

when C = 2 and m = 0 : effects of and

Fig.11 tr versus viscous heating parameter

when C =

Furthermore, computation through employed numerical code has been carried out for various non-dimensional values of non-Newtonian parameter ( ) ,

2 and m = 0 : effects of and

92

when = 2.5 and m = 0 : effects of C and

when = 2.5 and m = 0 : effects of C and

2.5 and m = 0 : effects of C and

whereas when increases, there are tremendous increases in the values of wmax , max and absolute values of the temperature gradient. The latter happens

generally in heating systems. When the studies with

heat flow problem in absence of activation energy parameter, = 0 , are compared, one finds that the heat

flow is slightly stronger in the present case.

The influence of non-Newtonian parameter ( )

on the flow distribution is displayed in Figs.2, 3. It is

evident from Figs.2, 3 that the fluid velocity and temperature generally decrease due to increase in . Invariably the solution for the Newtonian case ( = 0)

corresponds to the upper solution. Also, the effect of

Frank-Kamenetskii parameter ( ) , due to the generalized Arrhenius kinetics on the fluid velocity and temperature, is displayed in Figs.4, 5. It is shown that

fluid velocity and temperature increase due to increase

in . The effect of is more pronounced for the

temperature field than the velocity distribution, as expected on physical grounds. It is worth noting that

non-Newtonian parameter ( ) has opposed behaviour,

as compared to the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter.

Figure 8 reveals that cr decreases, while max cr

slightly increases with increasing viscosity parameter

. The cr and max cr tend to decrease rapidly with

at the same pothe increment of the reaction order

sition, as shown in Fig.9.

In Fig.10 (or Fig.11), we have plotted tr (or tr )

profiles, showing the effects of non-Newtonian parameter , viscous heating and the viscosity parameter (in the case of Arrhenius reaction model

when the pressure is kept constant) on the flow setup.

In the former, it can be seen that tr decreases when

the viscous heating parameter (or viscosity parameter ) increases, but increases with increase in the

non-Newtonian parameter . Similar behavior was

observed for tr in the latter. It is evident that for

0.

In Fig.12, plots of max tr profile show the effect

of , and , when m = 0 and C = 2 . It can

4. Analysis of results

Table 2 shows the influences of m , and

on the velocity and temperature at the axis of the cylinder, as well as velocity and temperature gradients at

the wall. We observed that as each of the triplet increases, the velocity gradient remains constant. It can

be seen that when m and increase there is no significant incremental change in the values of wmax and

max absolute values of the temperature gradient,

heating parameter increases, but increases slowly

as the viscosity parameter increases. Furthermore,

as the non-Newtonian parameter increases, tr decreases. It is noted that for = = 0 , max tr is an

upper limit of 0 and 0 . In fact, typical values

of are indeed small for such reactant flows: values

of around 50 or 80 are not usual, but are included

for completeness (see e.g., Ref.[9]).

93

Reynolds model = 0.3

Constant viscosity

tr

tr

max tr

tr

tr

max tr

2.0

0.13046

3.81075

6.20568

0.13047

3.80686

6.19972

0.24186

3.00232

5.94960

0.24190

2.99934

5.94172

0.5

0.33110

2.69276

6.27576

0.33117

2.69119

6.25736

values of Shonhiwa and Zaturska[9] for reactive

Newtonian fluid, the triplet reaction parameters (in

Figs.10-12) have exactly the same pattern, though tr

and tr in the case of reactive non-Newtonian fluid

are higher except for max tr .

It is expedient to note from Figs.2, 3 (or Figs.1012) that the influence of on velocity and temperature (or tr , tr and max tr ) is similar to that of

Newtonian model qualitatively, but differs quantitatively with Refs.[10] (or [16]).

The influence of pressure gradient variation C ,

the viscous heating parameter and the viscosity parameter , on the triplet ( tr , tr and max cr ) is

shown in Figs.13-15 for Arrhenius reaction model in

the non-Newtonian case. For given values of , it is

clearly seen that tr and tr (or max cr ) increase (or

decreases) with an increase in pressure gradient parameter C , while for a given C , the variation of

and have opposite effects on the triplet parameters.

Table 6 Some transitional values when C = 0.25 , = 5 ,

= 0.3 and m = 0.5

tr

tr

max tr

0.33161

2.69276

6.30728

0.25

0.33149

2.69221

6.28369

0.50

0.33141

2.69188

6.27266

1.00

0.33131

2.69150

6.26256

2.50

0.33117

2.69119

6.25736

shows the variation of tr , tr and max cr with index

of the pre-exponential factor (m) for 2 = = 5 .

For a significant practical case, we focus our attention

on m {2, 0, 0.5} . It is evident that tr (or tr ) is increasing (decreasing) with m , while max cr is a concave function of m . Also, we observed that the parameters tr and max cr (or tr are monotonically decreasing (or slightly increasing) with the viscosity pa-

the non-Newtonian reactive flow), tr (or tr ) for the

case of Sensitized reaction is smallest (or biggest)

when compared with the Arrhenius and Bimolecular,

while max cr , for the Arrhenius case is smallest when

compared with the others.

In order to illustrate the effects on the triplet parameters for Bimolecular model reaction, see Table 6.

It can be noted from the table that an augment in

yields a diminution in the triplet ( tr , tr and max cr ).

5. Conclusions

This parametric study investigates the heat transfer characteristics for pipe flow of a reactive thirdgrade fluid with Reynolds model viscosity with applications in processing industries. The independent dimensionless numbers which are varied are C , , ,

m and . The following concluding remarks emerge

from this study.

(1) As increases, wmax , max and Nu increase accordingly.

(2) Fluid velocity and temperature decrease due

to increase in , while the reverse effect is observed

with respect to .

(3) In general, there are two critical values (explosion and extinction) and with the disappearance of

criticality (transition), the critical values merge, corresponding to a point of inflexion, and thereafter the

graph grows continuously. But in our model, we see a

minor exception to this general rule in the Reynolds

viscosity model with respect to the viscous dissipation

parameter, . In the max plane, we found that

the curve has a third critical value at max = 16.18156

and cr = 2.54327 when = 0.23 . However, at transition ( tr = 0.23516) and larger values of , the

new critical value persists.

(4) It is found that the investigated third-grade

non-Newtonian fluid transition shows a larger apparent viscosity than the corresponding Newtonian fluid

transition. In fact, as the non-Newtonian property increases (or deceases), the transitional values of and

94

variable viscosity models.

(5) It should be pointed out that as the pressure

gradient C tends to zero for the Newtonian case, the

triplet, as a function of , tends to be parallel to the

axis. However, this is not the case for the nonNewtonian scenario. These results and observations

may have interesting implications for the experimentalist studying (non)-Newtonian reactive flows.

(6) It is clearly evident that non-Newtonian material parameter appears to be a relevant phenomenon

and cannot be ignored.

(7) The results on the triplet parameters, as a function of , for the Bimolecular reaction (m = 0.5) is

also fascinating. As increases from 0 to 0.3, the

triplet decreases gradually, whereas the reverse is the

case in the Arrhenius reaction for max tr only.

(8) The influence of the viscosity parameter

on the transitional values of the triplet is more pronounced as becomes larger, and the opposite is true

for increasing the exponent m .

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Pastor E. A.

Adeboye endowed Professorial Chair and conducted

at the Department of Mathematics, University of

Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria while on leave from Obafemi

Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Also, the author

appreciates the helpful comments of two reviewers

which led to the improvement of the paper.

References

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