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CHAPTER ONE:

WATER SUPPLY

TREATMENT

&

College of Engineering

Department of Civil Engineering

Abraham Atnafu

Course Content

Quantity of water

By:Abraham Atnafu

General

DBU

introduction

Water supply system planning

Population forecasting

Population density

Components of water demands

Variations in water consumption

Design periods for water supply system components

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

3

By:Abraham Atnafu

The

DBU

water cycle

Types of water sources

Water quality considerations

Source siting and selection

Reservoirs

Catchment

Volume of reservoirs

Impounded reservoirs

Catchment protection

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

4

Groundwater

By:Abraham Atnafu

Groundwater

DBU

flow

Hydraulics of water wells

Surface

water intakes

Water conveyance systems

Pipes and appurtenances

Distribution systems

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

5

By:Abraham Atnafu

Layout

DBU

of distribution systems

Distribution reservoirs

Design of distribution systems

Construction and maintenance of distribution systems

Pumps and pumping stations

Purpose and types of pumps

Centrifugal pumps

Pump

terms

Selection of pumps

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

6

Troubles

By:Abraham Atnafu

Pumping

DBU

and maintenance

stations

General

introduction

Sources and quantities of wastewater

Fluctuations in sewage flow

Sewerage system

Sewer materials and appurtenances

Design of sanitary sewer systems

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

7

By:Abraham Atnafu

Design

DBU

of storm sewers

Sewerage system construction and maintenance

Water Treatment

Coagulation and Flocculation

Filtration

Disinfection

Softening

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

References

Evaluation Mechanism

Attendance(participation) and Project...........................................................35%

Mid exam15%

Final exam...50%

Chapter One:

QUANTITY OF WATER

Introduction

10

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Water is probably the most important natural resource in the world since

without it life cannot exist and industries cannot operate.

Unlike any other raw materials, there are no substitutes for water in any of its

uses.

Water plays a vital role in the development of communities since reliable supply

of water is an essential prerequisite for the establishment of a permanent

community.

Good quality, easily available, and safe water, makes a tremendous difference to

our quality of life.

Introduction

Body composition

By:Abraham Atnafu

Body,

DBU

Drinking:

23 liters/day

Minimum acceptable standard for living (WHO)

2050 liters/capita/day for cooking and basic hygiene

By:Abraham Atnafu

Introduction

DBU

The estimated water supply coverage for Ethiopia is 41.2% for rural

and 78.8 % for urban and the countrys water supply coverage

47.3%.

least 20 liters per person per day from an "improved" source within

1 kilometer of the user's dwelling.

improved source

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

as a household connection, a borehole, etc.

An improved water supply is defined as:

Household connection

Public standpipe

Borehole

Protected dug well

Protected spring

Rainwater collection

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

maintenance of water supply systems.

environmentally friendly that meet the present as well as future

requirement.

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Adequate quantity

Readily available to encourage personal

and household hygiene

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

evaluation of options

determination of optimal strategy to meet services

development of implementation strategies

collection of pertinent data(Geological data, Hydrological data, Sanitary conditions of

the area, topography of the area, Legal requirements, public openion,Level of water demand

existing water supply system)

preparation of project documents and cost estimates

Factors to be considered

(during preparation of the water supply design project)

By:Abraham Atnafu

Population. Factors affecting the future increase in the population are to be studied.

Per capita Requirement. the various factors and living standard and the number and

type of industries, number and type of the commercial establishments in the town etc.

Public places, parks, institutions etc. Water is required for the development of

parks, fire fighting and so many other purposes at public places.

Sources of water. Detailed survey of the various sources of water available in the

vicinity of the area should be made.

Conveyance of water. from source to water treatment units depend on the relative levels

of the two points. It may flow directly by gravity, if source is at higher elevation. In case pumping is

required, then the capacity of the pumps should be determined.

DBU

Factors to be considered

Quality of water. The analysis of the raw water quality should be made to know the various

By:Abraham Atnafu

Treatment works. The various sizes and number of treatment units in the water works depend

on the quality and quantity of raw water and the limiting water quality standards.

Pumping units for treated water. The pump-house is designed by considering the future

population water demand. The required number of pumps is installed in the pump house for the

present water pumping requirement, with provision of 50% stand-by pumps for emergency.

Storage. The entire city or town should be divided into several pressure zones and storage facility

should be provided in each zone.

Distribution system. The distribution system should be designed according to the master plan

of the town, keeping in mind the future development.

Economy and reliability. should be economical and reliable. It should draw sufficient quantity

of water from the source at cheapest cost and the purification should meet desired limits.

DBU

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Population Forecasting

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

20

DBU

called census every ten-years time (decennial census).In Ethiopia, all

the available census data are collected from the Central Statistical

Authority (CSA). The data is then used for the projection of the

future population of the area under consideration at the end of the

design period.

By:Abraham Atnafu

21

DBU

Birth rate

Death rate

Migration rate

different assumption and give different results Selection of method depends on

amount of data available, past population history and length of design periods.

Population Forecasting

Arithmetic method:

By:Abraham Atnafu

the rate of population growth is constant. Mathematically the hypothesis may be expressed as

dP

k

dt

k is determined graphically of from successive population figures.

Pt Po K * t

K = Arithmetic Growth constant

t= Period of Projection

DBU

dP P2 P1

K

dt t2 t1

Population Forecasting

By:Abraham Atnafu

rate of increase which is proportional to the population.

dP

kP

dt

Integrating yields

ln Pt ln Po K * t

Where Pt = Future Population after t years

Po = Present Population (Base Population)

K = Geometric Growth constant

dP

ln P2 ln P1

K * P, K

dt

t2 t1

t= Period of Projection

DBU

24

By:Abraham Atnafu

In this method, a graph is plotted from the available data, between time and population. The curve

is then smoothly extended up to the desired year.

DBU

In this method, the cities having conditions and characteristics similar to the city whose future

population is to be estimated are selected. It is then assumed that the city under consideration

will develop, as the selected similar cities have developed in the past.

By:Abraham Atnafu

Population Forecasting

DBU

Ratio Method

In this method, the local population and the country's population for the last four to five decades

is obtained from the census records.

Geometric Increase Method

the average percentage of the last few decades/years is determined, and the forecasting is done on

the basis that percentage increase per decade/year will be same. Thus, the population at the

end of n years or decades is given as

Pn Po 1

100

Pn = population at time n in the future

Po = present population

n = periods of projection

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

26

By:Abraham Atnafu

Population is assumed to reach some limiting value or saturation point

dP

K * Z P

dt

Pt P2 Z P2 * 1 e K t t2

2 Po P1P2 P1 Po p2

2

Po P2 P1

2

K = Rate and calculated as: K

DBU

Z P2

1

ln

t 2 t1

Z

P

1

By:Abraham Atnafu

27

DBU

Population growth follows a logistic or mathematical relationship .the most common relationship is an

S-Curve.

Following formula is used to estimate the population

Pt

Z

1 a eb t to

a, b = Constants and are calculated as follow

Z Po and

a

Po

P Z P1

1

b

ln o

n

P1 Z P o

Example 1.1.

By:Abraham Atnafu

Present

DBU

population

Before one decade

Before two decades

Before three decades

50000

47100

43500

41000

Work out the probable population after one, two and three decades

using arithmetic increase and geometric increase method.

Solution

Arithmetic Increase

Increase in present and first decade

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Population after 1st decade = 50000 + 3000 = 53000

Population after 2nd decade = 50000 + 6000 = 56000

Population after 3rd decade = 50000 + 9000 = 59000

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Solution

Geometric Increase

Percent increase in present and first decade

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

P after 1st decade = 50000 (1 + 6.84/100)1 = 50342

P after 2nd decade = 50000 (1 + 6.84/100)2 = 53786

P after 3rd decade = 50000 (1 + 6.84/100)3 = 57465

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Example 1.2.

The Annual Growth Rate of a town in Ethiopia is 3.5%. Assuming

the present population of the town (in 2015) is 4500, what would

be the population in 2030?

Solution:

AGR = 3.5%; Po = 4500

n = 2030-2015 = 15

Pn = Po(1+AGR/100)n

P15 = 4500(1+3.5/100)15=7540

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Example 1.3.

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

from 1944 to 2004. Estimate the population of the city in the year

2014 and 2019 by arithmetic and geometric increase methods.(Do

arithmetic increase method by your own.)

Year

1944

1954

1964

1974

1984

1994

2004

Population

40185

44522

60395

75614

98886

124230

158800

By:Abraham Atnafu

Solution 1.3.

Year

1944

1954

1964

1974

1984

Population

40185

44522

60395

75614

98886

124230 158800

4337

10.79

15873

35.65

15219

25.20

23272

30.78

25344

25.63

Change

% Change

1994

2004

34570

27.83

Average % change = (10.79+35.65+25.20=30.78+25.63+27.83)/6 = 25.98 % per decade

P2014 = P04 + 1 x 19770 = 158800 + 19770 = 178570

P2019 = P04 + 1.5 x 19770 = 158800 + 1.5 x 19770 =188455

Using Geometric Method

P2014 = P04(1 + i/100)1 = 158800 (1 + 25.98/100)=200057

P2019 = P04 (1+ i/100)1.5=158800 (1 + 25.98/100)1.5=224545

DBU

Exercise

34

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Year

Population

1970

10,000

1980

15,000

1990

18,000

By:Abraham Atnafu

Population Density

DBU

population.

the distribution network.

land use.

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

to satisfy their needs.

demand and its timely variations.

and unaccounted for system losses.

Water Demand

Components

By:Abraham Atnafu

Domestics

Non domestic

Public uses

Losses and

leakage

Fire fighting

Commercial

Industrial

Institutional

Agricultural

DBU

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

drinking,cooking, bathing, lawn sprinkling, gardening, sanitary

purposes, etc.

The amount of domestic water consumption per person varies

according to the living standards of the consumers.

In most countries the residential demand constitutes 50 to 60% of

the total demand.

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Town

House Connection

Unit

lpcd

lpcd

lpcd

Public Tap

lpcd

2007

2017

2027

90

100

110.0

25.4

31.7

38.0

16.9

18.9

21.0

11.3

12.6

14.0

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

stations, movie houses, airports, etc.

The commercial water demand may vary greatly depending on the

type and number of establishments.

Industrial water demand: tanning, brewery, dairy, etc.

The quantity of water required for commercial and industrial

purposes can be related to such factors as number of

employees, floor area of the establishment, or units produced.

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Includes water for public institutions like schools, watering of

public parks, washing and sprinkling of roads, use of public

fountains, clearing wastewater conveyance, etc.

Usually the demand may range from 2-5% of the total demand.

By:Abraham Atnafu

Category

DBU

Day schools

Boarding schools

Hospitals

Hostels

Mosques

Cinema houses

Offices

Public baths

Hotels

Restaurant/Bar

Camp

Prison

per day

5

l/pupil

50

l/pupil

100

l/bed

80

l/bed

5

l/visitor

5

l/visitor

5

l/person

100

l/visitor

100

l/bed

10

l/seat

60

l/person

30

l/person

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

43

always stored in storage reservoirs.

This demand is, therefore, taken care of by increasing the volume of

the storage tanks by 10%.

Quantity of water required for fire fighting can be calculated based

on the following formula.

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

than 200, 000)

QF 231.6 P (1 0.01 P )

Where, QF = is fire demand (m3/hr); P = Population in 1000s.

45

By:Abraham Atnafu

Freemans Formula

P

Q f 57 * 10

5

P = Population in thousands

Kuichlings Formula

Q f 159 P

P = Population in thousands

DBU

46

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

standard of the concerned country and they are not recommended

to be applied for Ethiopian case.

This demand is generally taken care of by increasing the volume of

the storage tanks by 10%.

Considered to be met by stopping supply to consumers and

directing it for fire fighting purpose.

47

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

This includes water losses in the water supply system due to bad

plumbing, illegal connections and others.

The amount is usually expressed in percentage of the sum of

domestic demand, public demand and the industrial demand

covered from the water supply system. And it usually varies from

15% to 50% depending on the age of the pipelines in the systems

and the size of the distribution network.

By:Abraham Atnafu

Example 1.4

DBU

demand of water. Assume industrial use 10%, institutional &

commercial use 15 %, public use 5% and live stock 10% of domestic

demand. Take per capita domestic consumption of 50 l/day and

leakage to be 5%.

Solution 1.4

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

P = 60,000

Domestic = 50 x 60,000 = 3000000 l/day= 3000 m3/day

Industrial = 0.10 x 3000 m3/day = 300 m3/day,

Inst & com. = 0.15 x 3000 m3/day = 450 m3/day

public = 0.05 x 3000 m3/day = 150 m3/day

live stock = 0.10 x 3000 m3/day = 300 m3/day

leakage = 0.05 x 3000 m3/day = 150 m3/day

Total average daily demand = 4350 m3/day

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

Cost of water:The existence of meters and high costs of water limits the water consumption.

Living Standards: Rate of water consumption increase with higher standard of living.

Industries:

Metering water lines

Quality of water supply:water is consumed when quality of water is better.

Size of city: The bigger size of community makes an in-increase in industrial and municipal demands which

Increase rate of water consumption.

DBU

4000

3500

Sunny day

By:Abraham Atnafu

3000

2500

Rainy day

2000

average

1500

1000

500

0

0

DBU

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Annual average day demand (Qday-avg) the average daily demand over a

period of one year. For economical calculations and fire fighting.

Maximum day demand (Qday-max) the amount of water required during

the day of maximum consumption in a year. Important for water

treatment plants and water storages.

Peak hour demand (Qhr-max) the amount of water required during the

maximum hour in a given day. Important for design of distribution

systems.

Coincident draft (Qcd). the sum of maximum daily demand, Qday-max, and

the fire demand (QF).

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Population

Maximum Day

Factor

0 to 20,000

1.30

2.00

20,001 to 50,000

1.25

1.90

1.20

1.70

The system comprises the following major elements:

Source (groundwater or surface water)

Raw water collection structures (intake

structure, transmission line)

Treatment plant

Distribution systems (pipes, pumps, reservoir, different

appurtenances)

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

By:Abraham Atnafu

Source

Pipe I

LLP

Treatment

Plant

Pipe II

Storage

HLP

Pipe III

Distribution system

DBU

By:Abraham Atnafu

Component

DBU

Source:

Groundwater

Surface sources

Special

characteristics

Easy to expand

Design period

Design capacity

5-10

Qday-max

Long life

Cost of material

Pipe mains (Type I

is only a small

and Type II)

portion of the

cost of

construction

Expansion is

Treatment plant

simple

>25

10-15

Qday-max

Suitable velocities under

all anticipated flow

conditions

is greater

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

Component

DBU

Special

characteristics

Design

period

Pumping units

Easy to modify

and expand

10

Service reservoir

Long life

Easy to construct

Relatively

inexpensive

Very long

Long life

Type III pipe and

Replacement

is

distribution pipes

very expensive

Indefinite

Design capacity

LLP:

2Qday-avg or 4/3Qday-max

whichever is greater

HLP: 3Qday-avg or 4/3Qday-max,

whichever is greater

Design should consider:

Hourly fluctuations of flow

The emergency reserve

The provision required when

pumps satisfy the entire days

demand in less than 24 hrs.

The fire demand.

Qhr-max or Qday-max+QF , whichever is

greater (calculated for anticipated

maximum growth)

58

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

function of the pumps is to raise the water from the surface water

supply to the treatment facility. High-service pumps that supply

water to the distribution system are selected with the objective of

providing a high enough pressure to make water flow at a high rate

through service connections at various elevations throughout the

distribution system.

Design Period

By:Abraham Atnafu

59

DBU

Water supply system is generally designed to serve the needs of future population

Design Year: year when the facility is expected to reach its full design capacity and the

year at which future expansion may become necessary.

Selecting design period needs sound judgment and skills in developing future population

growth estimate from the past social and economic trends

Different factors considered to decide a design period for a water supply project

1.

useful time of different units

2.

convenience of future expansion

3.

anticipated changes in drinking water quality requirements

4.

anticipated changes in raw water quality

5.

growth pattern of the community, service area and region

6.

trends in interest rate

7.

present and future construction costs

8.

availability of funds

By:Abraham Atnafu

Example 1.5

DBU

population of 120,000 at the design year. The estimated municipal

water demand for the community is 300 l/c/d. Calculate the fire

flow, design capacity of the water treatment plant, and design

capacity of the water distribution system. Use NBFU formula for fire

flow.

Solution 1.5

By:Abraham Atnafu

P = 120,000

Qday-avg = 300 x 120,000 =36000000 L/d = 36000 m3/d

Take PF for Q day-max = 1.6 and 2.0 for Qpeak-hr

Q day-max =1.2 x 36000= 57,600 m3

Qpeak-hr= 1.7 x 36000 = 72,000 m3

Fire flow rate = QF 231.6 P (1 0.01 P )

Design capacity of treatment plant = 57,600 m3/day

Distribution system Design capacity = max(72,000 or 57600 + 54219) = 111819 m3/day

DBU

END of

chapter

By:Abraham

1:Quantity

Atnafu

of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

Visit aaucivil.wordpress.com/water-supply

DBU

END of Chapter 1

By:Abraham Atnafu

63

DBU

Visit aaucivil.wordpress.com/water-supply

END of

By:Abraham

chapter 1

Atnafu

END of Chapter 1

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