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CHAPTER ONE:
WATER SUPPLY
TREATMENT

&

DBU, Institute of Technology


College of Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering
Abraham Atnafu

Course Content

Quantity of water

By:Abraham Atnafu

General

DBU

introduction
Water supply system planning
Population forecasting
Population density
Components of water demands
Variations in water consumption
Design periods for water supply system components
Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Course Content Cont


3

Sources of water supply

By:Abraham Atnafu

The

DBU

water cycle
Types of water sources
Water quality considerations
Source siting and selection
Reservoirs
Catchment

areas and reservoir sites


Volume of reservoirs
Impounded reservoirs
Catchment protection
Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Course Content Cont


4

Groundwater

By:Abraham Atnafu

Groundwater

DBU

flow
Hydraulics of water wells

Well construction and maintenance

Collection and distribution of water


Surface

water intakes
Water conveyance systems
Pipes and appurtenances
Distribution systems
Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Course Content Cont


5

By:Abraham Atnafu

Layout

DBU

of distribution systems
Distribution reservoirs
Design of distribution systems
Construction and maintenance of distribution systems
Pumps and pumping stations
Purpose and types of pumps
Centrifugal pumps
Pump

terms
Selection of pumps
Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Course Content Cont


6

Troubles

By:Abraham Atnafu

Pumping

DBU

and maintenance

stations

Waste water and storm water collection system


General

introduction
Sources and quantities of wastewater
Fluctuations in sewage flow
Sewerage system
Sewer materials and appurtenances
Design of sanitary sewer systems
Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Course Content Cont


7

By:Abraham Atnafu

Design

DBU

of storm sewers
Sewerage system construction and maintenance
Water Treatment
Coagulation and Flocculation
Filtration
Disinfection
Softening

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

References

Textbook: Elements of water supply Engineering by Tesfaye Nigussie

M.Hammar, Water and Wastewater Technology

E.W.Steel, Water Supply and Sewerage

A.C. Panchdhari, Water Supply and Sanitary Installation

Evaluation Mechanism

Assignments(Group and Individual),Quiz(s),


Attendance(participation) and Project...........................................................35%

Mid exam15%

Final exam...50%

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Chapter One:
QUANTITY OF WATER

Introduction
10

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Water is probably the most important natural resource in the world since
without it life cannot exist and industries cannot operate.
Unlike any other raw materials, there are no substitutes for water in any of its
uses.
Water plays a vital role in the development of communities since reliable supply
of water is an essential prerequisite for the establishment of a permanent
community.
Good quality, easily available, and safe water, makes a tremendous difference to
our quality of life.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Introduction

Body composition

By:Abraham Atnafu

Body,

DBU

65% water; blood, 83%; bones, 25%

Basic requirements for safe water


Drinking:

23 liters/day
Minimum acceptable standard for living (WHO)
2050 liters/capita/day for cooking and basic hygiene

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

Introduction

DBU

The estimated water supply coverage for Ethiopia is 41.2% for rural
and 78.8 % for urban and the countrys water supply coverage
47.3%.

Access to water-supply services is defined as the availability of at


least 20 liters per person per day from an "improved" source within
1 kilometer of the user's dwelling.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

improved source
By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

improved source is one that is likely to provide "safe" water, such


as a household connection, a borehole, etc.
An improved water supply is defined as:
Household connection
Public standpipe
Borehole
Protected dug well
Protected spring
Rainwater collection

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

Water Supply Engineering

DBU

deals with Planning, design, construction, operation and


maintenance of water supply systems.

Planning should be economical, socially acceptable, and


environmentally friendly that meet the present as well as future
requirement.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

Water Supply System Objectives

DBU

Safe and wholesome(healthy) water


Adequate quantity
Readily available to encourage personal
and household hygiene

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Water Supply System Planning

Water supply system planning involves

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

identification of service needs


evaluation of options
determination of optimal strategy to meet services
development of implementation strategies

The planning exercise involves


collection of pertinent data(Geological data, Hydrological data, Sanitary conditions of
the area, topography of the area, Legal requirements, public openion,Level of water demand
existing water supply system)

consideration of relevant factors, and


preparation of project documents and cost estimates

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Factors to be considered
(during preparation of the water supply design project)

By:Abraham Atnafu

Population. Factors affecting the future increase in the population are to be studied.
Per capita Requirement. the various factors and living standard and the number and
type of industries, number and type of the commercial establishments in the town etc.

Public places, parks, institutions etc. Water is required for the development of
parks, fire fighting and so many other purposes at public places.

Industries. existing industries as well as future industries should be thoroughly determined.


Sources of water. Detailed survey of the various sources of water available in the
vicinity of the area should be made.

Conveyance of water. from source to water treatment units depend on the relative levels
of the two points. It may flow directly by gravity, if source is at higher elevation. In case pumping is
required, then the capacity of the pumps should be determined.

DBU

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Factors to be considered

Quality of water. The analysis of the raw water quality should be made to know the various

By:Abraham Atnafu

impurities present in it, and to decide on the required treatment processes.

Treatment works. The various sizes and number of treatment units in the water works depend
on the quality and quantity of raw water and the limiting water quality standards.

Pumping units for treated water. The pump-house is designed by considering the future
population water demand. The required number of pumps is installed in the pump house for the
present water pumping requirement, with provision of 50% stand-by pumps for emergency.

Storage. The entire city or town should be divided into several pressure zones and storage facility
should be provided in each zone.

Distribution system. The distribution system should be designed according to the master plan
of the town, keeping in mind the future development.

Economy and reliability. should be economical and reliable. It should draw sufficient quantity
of water from the source at cheapest cost and the purification should meet desired limits.

DBU

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu
DBU

Population Forecasting
Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

20

DBU

Every country conducts an official enumeration of the population


called census every ten-years time (decennial census).In Ethiopia, all
the available census data are collected from the Central Statistical
Authority (CSA). The data is then used for the projection of the
future population of the area under consideration at the end of the
design period.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

21

DBU

Following are factors responsible for changes in population:


Birth rate
Death rate
Migration rate

There are various methods of projecting population. The methods utilize


different assumption and give different results Selection of method depends on
amount of data available, past population history and length of design periods.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Population Forecasting
Arithmetic method:

By:Abraham Atnafu

the rate of population growth is constant. Mathematically the hypothesis may be expressed as

dP
k
dt
k is determined graphically of from successive population figures.

And the future population is given by

Pt Po K * t

Where Pt = Future Population after t years

Po = Present Population (Base Population)


K = Arithmetic Growth constant
t= Period of Projection

DBU

dP P2 P1
K
dt t2 t1

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Population Forecasting
By:Abraham Atnafu

Geometric or uniform percentage method:


rate of increase which is proportional to the population.
dP
kP
dt

Integrating yields

ln Pt ln Po K * t
Where Pt = Future Population after t years
Po = Present Population (Base Population)
K = Geometric Growth constant
dP
ln P2 ln P1
K * P, K
dt
t2 t1

t= Period of Projection
DBU

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

24

Simple Graphical Method

By:Abraham Atnafu

In this method, a graph is plotted from the available data, between time and population. The curve
is then smoothly extended up to the desired year.

DBU

Comparative Graphical Method


In this method, the cities having conditions and characteristics similar to the city whose future
population is to be estimated are selected. It is then assumed that the city under consideration
will develop, as the selected similar cities have developed in the past.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

Population Forecasting

DBU

Ratio Method
In this method, the local population and the country's population for the last four to five decades
is obtained from the census records.
Geometric Increase Method
the average percentage of the last few decades/years is determined, and the forecasting is done on
the basis that percentage increase per decade/year will be same. Thus, the population at the
end of n years or decades is given as

Pn Po 1

100

Where, i = growth rate of the population


Pn = population at time n in the future
Po = present population
n = periods of projection
Chapter one: Quantity of Water

26

By:Abraham Atnafu

Decreasing Rate of Increasing


Population is assumed to reach some limiting value or saturation point
dP
K * Z P
dt

Following formula is used to estimate the population

Pt P2 Z P2 * 1 e K t t2

Where: Z = Saturation Population and is calculated as:

2 Po P1P2 P1 Po p2
2
Po P2 P1
2

P1, P2 and P3 = Population at times t1, t2 and t3 respectively.


K = Rate and calculated as: K

DBU

Z P2
1

ln

t 2 t1
Z

P
1

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

27

DBU

Logistic Curve Fitting Method


Population growth follows a logistic or mathematical relationship .the most common relationship is an
S-Curve.
Following formula is used to estimate the population
Pt

Z
1 a eb t to

Where: Z = Saturation Population and calculated as above


a, b = Constants and are calculated as follow
Z Po and
a

Po

P Z P1
1
b
ln o

n
P1 Z P o

n = Constant interval b/n years

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Example 1.1.

The census figure of a city shows population as follows

By:Abraham Atnafu

Present

DBU

population
Before one decade
Before two decades
Before three decades

50000
47100
43500
41000

Work out the probable population after one, two and three decades
using arithmetic increase and geometric increase method.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Solution

Arithmetic Increase
Increase in present and first decade

By:Abraham Atnafu

47100 - 43500= 3600

Increase in second and third decade

DBU

Increase in first and second decade

50000 47100 = 2900

43500 41000 = 2500

Average increase = (2900+3600+2500)/3 = 3000


Population after 1st decade = 50000 + 3000 = 53000
Population after 2nd decade = 50000 + 6000 = 56000
Population after 3rd decade = 50000 + 9000 = 59000
Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Solution

Geometric Increase
Percent increase in present and first decade

By:Abraham Atnafu

(3600/ 43500 )*100 = 8.26 %

Percent increase in second and third decade

DBU

Percent increase in first and second decade

(2900/ 47100)*100 = 6.16 %

(2500/ 41000)*100 = 6.09 %

Average increase = (6.16 + 8.26 + 6.09)/3 = 6.84 %


P after 1st decade = 50000 (1 + 6.84/100)1 = 50342
P after 2nd decade = 50000 (1 + 6.84/100)2 = 53786
P after 3rd decade = 50000 (1 + 6.84/100)3 = 57465
Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Example 1.2.
The Annual Growth Rate of a town in Ethiopia is 3.5%. Assuming
the present population of the town (in 2015) is 4500, what would
be the population in 2030?
Solution:
AGR = 3.5%; Po = 4500
n = 2030-2015 = 15
Pn = Po(1+AGR/100)n
P15 = 4500(1+3.5/100)15=7540

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Example 1.3.
By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

The following data shows the variation in population of a town


from 1944 to 2004. Estimate the population of the city in the year
2014 and 2019 by arithmetic and geometric increase methods.(Do
arithmetic increase method by your own.)

Year

1944

1954

1964

1974

1984

1994

2004

Population

40185

44522

60395

75614

98886

124230

158800

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

Solution 1.3.
Year

1944

1954

1964

1974

1984

Population

40185

44522

60395

75614

98886

124230 158800

4337
10.79

15873
35.65

15219
25.20

23272
30.78

25344
25.63

Change
% Change

1994

2004

34570
27.83

Average change = (4337+15873+15219+23272+25344+34570)/6 =19770 per decade


Average % change = (10.79+35.65+25.20=30.78+25.63+27.83)/6 = 25.98 % per decade

Using Arithmetic Method


P2014 = P04 + 1 x 19770 = 158800 + 19770 = 178570
P2019 = P04 + 1.5 x 19770 = 158800 + 1.5 x 19770 =188455
Using Geometric Method
P2014 = P04(1 + i/100)1 = 158800 (1 + 25.98/100)=200057
P2019 = P04 (1+ i/100)1.5=158800 (1 + 25.98/100)1.5=224545

DBU

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Exercise
34

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Estimate the population at 2000 using the following census results


Year

Population

1970

10,000

1980

15,000

1990

18,000

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

Population Density

DBU

It is information regarding the physical distribution of the


population.

It is important to know in order to estimate the flows and to design


the distribution network.

Population density varies widely within a city, depending on the


land use.

May be estimated from zoning master plan.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

Components of Water Demands

DBU

Water demand is defined as the volume of water required by users


to satisfy their needs.

Demand is the theoretical while consumption is actual.

Design of a water supply scheme requires knowledge of water


demand and its timely variations.

Various components of a water demand are

residential, commercial, industrial, public water uses, fire demand


and unaccounted for system losses.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Water Demand
Components

By:Abraham Atnafu

Domestics

Non domestic

Public uses

Losses and
leakage

Fire fighting

Commercial

Industrial

Institutional

Agricultural

DBU

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Residential (Domestic)Water Demand

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

This includes the water required in residential buildings for


drinking,cooking, bathing, lawn sprinkling, gardening, sanitary
purposes, etc.
The amount of domestic water consumption per person varies
according to the living standards of the consumers.
In most countries the residential demand constitutes 50 to 60% of
the total demand.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

Typical Average Domestic Water Demand

DBU

Town
House Connection

Unit
lpcd

Own Yard Connection

lpcd

Shared Yard Connection

lpcd

Public Tap

lpcd

2007

2017

2027

90

100

110.0

25.4

31.7

38.0

16.9

18.9

21.0

11.3

12.6

14.0

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Commercial and Industrial Water Demand


By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Commercial water demand: as hotels, shopping centres, service


stations, movie houses, airports, etc.
The commercial water demand may vary greatly depending on the
type and number of establishments.
Industrial water demand: tanning, brewery, dairy, etc.
The quantity of water required for commercial and industrial
purposes can be related to such factors as number of
employees, floor area of the establishment, or units produced.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Public Water Use

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

The quantity of water required for public utility purposes


Includes water for public institutions like schools, watering of
public parks, washing and sprinkling of roads, use of public
fountains, clearing wastewater conveyance, etc.
Usually the demand may range from 2-5% of the total demand.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Typical Public Water Demands

By:Abraham Atnafu

Category

DBU

Day schools
Boarding schools
Hospitals
Hostels
Mosques
Cinema houses
Offices
Public baths
Hotels
Restaurant/Bar
Camp
Prison

Typical rate of water use


per day
5
l/pupil
50
l/pupil
100
l/bed
80
l/bed
5
l/visitor
5
l/visitor
5
l/person
100
l/visitor
100
l/bed
10
l/seat
60
l/person
30
l/person
Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Fire Fighting Water Demand


43

This is the quantity of water required for extinguishing fires and is


always stored in storage reservoirs.
This demand is, therefore, taken care of by increasing the volume of
the storage tanks by 10%.
Quantity of water required for fire fighting can be calculated based
on the following formula.

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Fire Fighting Demand

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

National Board of Fire Underwriters (NBFU) (For communities less


than 200, 000)

QF 231.6 P (1 0.01 P )
Where, QF = is fire demand (m3/hr); P = Population in 1000s.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

45

By:Abraham Atnafu

Freemans Formula
P

Q f 57 * 10
5

Where: Qf = Fire flow rate in m3/hr


P = Population in thousands
Kuichlings Formula
Q f 159 P

Where: Qf = Fire flow rate in m3/hr


P = Population in thousands
DBU

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

46

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

All the above formula are literature recommendations based on the


standard of the concerned country and they are not recommended
to be applied for Ethiopian case.
This demand is generally taken care of by increasing the volume of
the storage tanks by 10%.
Considered to be met by stopping supply to consumers and
directing it for fire fighting purpose.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Unaccounted system losses and leakage


47

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

This includes water losses in the water supply system due to bad
plumbing, illegal connections and others.
The amount is usually expressed in percentage of the sum of
domestic demand, public demand and the industrial demand
covered from the water supply system. And it usually varies from
15% to 50% depending on the age of the pipelines in the systems
and the size of the distribution network.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

Example 1.4

DBU

For a town having population of 60,000 estimate average daily


demand of water. Assume industrial use 10%, institutional &
commercial use 15 %, public use 5% and live stock 10% of domestic
demand. Take per capita domestic consumption of 50 l/day and
leakage to be 5%.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Solution 1.4

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

P = 60,000
Domestic = 50 x 60,000 = 3000000 l/day= 3000 m3/day
Industrial = 0.10 x 3000 m3/day = 300 m3/day,
Inst & com. = 0.15 x 3000 m3/day = 450 m3/day
public = 0.05 x 3000 m3/day = 150 m3/day
live stock = 0.10 x 3000 m3/day = 300 m3/day
leakage = 0.05 x 3000 m3/day = 150 m3/day
Total average daily demand = 4350 m3/day
Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Factor Affecting Water Use

Climatic conditions:Rate of water consumption increases with the increase in temperature-

By:Abraham Atnafu

consumption in summer is higher than in winter.

Cost of water:The existence of meters and high costs of water limits the water consumption.
Living Standards: Rate of water consumption increase with higher standard of living.
Industries:
Metering water lines
Quality of water supply:water is consumed when quality of water is better.
Size of city: The bigger size of community makes an in-increase in industrial and municipal demands which
Increase rate of water consumption.

DBU

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Water Use Variation


4000
3500

Sunny day

By:Abraham Atnafu

3000
2500

Rainy day
2000

average
1500
1000
500
0
0

DBU

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Variations in water demand

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Annual average day demand (Qday-avg) the average daily demand over a
period of one year. For economical calculations and fire fighting.
Maximum day demand (Qday-max) the amount of water required during
the day of maximum consumption in a year. Important for water
treatment plants and water storages.
Peak hour demand (Qhr-max) the amount of water required during the
maximum hour in a given day. Important for design of distribution
systems.
Coincident draft (Qcd). the sum of maximum daily demand, Qday-max, and
the fire demand (QF).
Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

Typical Peak Factors

DBU

Population

Maximum Day
Factor

Peak Hour Factor

0 to 20,000

1.30

2.00

20,001 to 50,000

1.25

1.90

50,001 and above

1.20

1.70

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Water Supply Components


The system comprises the following major elements:
Source (groundwater or surface water)
Raw water collection structures (intake
structure, transmission line)
Treatment plant
Distribution systems (pipes, pumps, reservoir, different
appurtenances)

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

Water Supply Components

Source

Pipe I

LLP

Treatment
Plant

Pipe II

Storage

HLP

Pipe III

Distribution system

DBU

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Water Supply System Components

By:Abraham Atnafu

Component

DBU

Source:
Groundwater
Surface sources

Special
characteristics
Easy to expand

Design period

Design capacity

5-10
Qday-max

Uneasy to expand 20-50

Long life
Cost of material
Pipe mains (Type I
is only a small
and Type II)
portion of the
cost of
construction
Expansion is
Treatment plant
simple

>25

10-15

Qday-max
Suitable velocities under
all anticipated flow
conditions

Qday-max or 1.6Qday-avg whichever


is greater
Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Water Supply System Components

By:Abraham Atnafu

Component

DBU

Special
characteristics

Design
period

Pumping units

Easy to modify
and expand

10

Service reservoir

Long life
Easy to construct
Relatively
inexpensive

Very long

Long life
Type III pipe and
Replacement
is
distribution pipes
very expensive

Indefinite

Design capacity
LLP:
2Qday-avg or 4/3Qday-max
whichever is greater
HLP: 3Qday-avg or 4/3Qday-max,
whichever is greater
Design should consider:
Hourly fluctuations of flow
The emergency reserve
The provision required when
pumps satisfy the entire days
demand in less than 24 hrs.
The fire demand.
Qhr-max or Qday-max+QF , whichever is
greater (calculated for anticipated
maximum growth)

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

58

By:Abraham Atnafu

DBU

The pumping station is called low-lift or low-service because the


function of the pumps is to raise the water from the surface water
supply to the treatment facility. High-service pumps that supply
water to the distribution system are selected with the objective of
providing a high enough pressure to make water flow at a high rate
through service connections at various elevations throughout the
distribution system.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Design Period
By:Abraham Atnafu

59

DBU

Water supply system is generally designed to serve the needs of future population

Design Year: year when the facility is expected to reach its full design capacity and the
year at which future expansion may become necessary.
Selecting design period needs sound judgment and skills in developing future population
growth estimate from the past social and economic trends
Different factors considered to decide a design period for a water supply project
1.
useful time of different units
2.
convenience of future expansion
3.
anticipated changes in drinking water quality requirements
4.
anticipated changes in raw water quality
5.
growth pattern of the community, service area and region
6.
trends in interest rate
7.
present and future construction costs
8.
availability of funds

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

Example 1.5

DBU

Calculate the water requirements for a community that will reach a


population of 120,000 at the design year. The estimated municipal
water demand for the community is 300 l/c/d. Calculate the fire
flow, design capacity of the water treatment plant, and design
capacity of the water distribution system. Use NBFU formula for fire
flow.

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

Solution 1.5

By:Abraham Atnafu

P = 120,000
Qday-avg = 300 x 120,000 =36000000 L/d = 36000 m3/d
Take PF for Q day-max = 1.6 and 2.0 for Qpeak-hr
Q day-max =1.2 x 36000= 57,600 m3
Qpeak-hr= 1.7 x 36000 = 72,000 m3
Fire flow rate = QF 231.6 P (1 0.01 P )

QF 231.6 120(1 0.01 120) 2259.13 m3/hr = 54219 m3/day


Design capacity of treatment plant = 57,600 m3/day
Distribution system Design capacity = max(72,000 or 57600 + 54219) = 111819 m3/day

DBU

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

END of
chapter
By:Abraham
1:Quantity
Atnafu
of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

Visit aaucivil.wordpress.com/water-supply

DBU

END of Chapter 1

Chapter one: Quantity of Water

By:Abraham Atnafu

63

DBU

Visit aaucivil.wordpress.com/water-supply

END of
By:Abraham
chapter 1
Atnafu
END of Chapter 1

Chapter one: Quantity of Water