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Tips

There are LOTS of resources out there to help you develop your Free Response Essays.

Here are a few of our main guidelines:

Always include the formula

Always include what each variable represents

Always include the values you are going to use for each variable

Always include the work you are doing with the formula and values

Never round calculations until the very end.

Always support your final answer with your calculations and vocabulary.

Always clearly state your conclusion to the question asked.

Below you will find a breakdown of different AP topics for this module. The sections include

expectations for answering questions over each topic and examples of how these areas

should be handled:

BASICS FOR Z TESTS AND Z CONFIDENCE INTERVALS

Actual AP Exam

Expectations

1. Define symbols

appropriately

Notes

Incorrect: = 75

Correct: = 75, where is the mean of the reading

test scores for

all students in this school

2. Use precise terminology

4. Represent graphs

completely

represents the

sample mean

If n<30 or the sample is not stated as a SRS, we must

say that we proceed with caution.

category/information they represent. Graph should

always have a title. The desired portion of the graph

should be shaded.

AP Statistics

Tips

It is best not to round numbers at intermediate steps in

a calculation. Wait until the end to round and then do

5. Save rounding for the last

not round too much. Do not use less than 4 places after

step

the decimal at all times. The more you round, the more

incorrect your answer becomes.

6. Include graphs when they statistics, and/or you are asked to sketch the graph.

are necessary

Boxplots are usually easiest check for outliers and

skewedness

distribution

CONFIDENCE INTERVALS

Actual AP Exam

Expectations

confidence interval

deviation

Use t when you are not given the population standard

deviation

and

MARGIN OF ERROR

Notes

_context of problem__"

2) Conditions

*SRS

*Normality If not stated then we must use the

CLT if n>30

*Independence population > 10n

Name the interval: One sample z interval

3) Show all work:

If you use you the formula, you must do all work

by hand and show the steps. If you use the

calculator, you must show the test/interval that

you selected, ALL inputted information, and ALL

output information

Sketch the graph if DATA is given

4) Interpret the results in the context of the problem

and make a connection to the given information.

AP Statistics

Tips

the statistical

procedure

the question.

Confidence Interval: We are _____% confident that

the true population mean of ___context____ will be

between lower value and upper value

Z interval:

sample size

4. Margin of error

confidence interval

n

critical value

This value shows how accurate we believe our guess is

and is based on the variability of the estimate

Using the calculator: Subtract the level of significance

from 1. So 1- and then divide that value by 2. On the

calculator DISTR-> INVNORM -> AREA: ((1-)/2)

:0

: 1 -> ENTER This will give you the critical value z*

population standard deviation () gets smaller, sample size (n) increases

Increasing the sample size decreases the width of a confidence interval.

Here is a video specific to this topic. It includes examples and how to be most

successful on the AP exam for the topic.

6.01-6.03: Confidence Intervals and Margin of Errors

https://sas.elluminate.com/p.jnlp?psid=2014-1229.1731.M.02B50E368656D296A2DCBFED1F5B9E.vcr&sid=679

TESTS OF SIGNIFICANCE

1. SHOW all steps of the

test or confidence

interval

_context of problem__"

2) Conditions

*SRS

*Normality If not stated then we must use

the CLT if n>30

*Independence population > 10n

Name the test: One sample z test

3) State the null (Ho) and alternative hypotheses

(Ha) in context.

AP Statistics

Tips

4) Show all work:

If you use you the formula, you must do all work by

hand and show the steps. If you use the calculator, you

must show the test/interval that you selected, ALL

inputted information, and ALL output information

Sketch the graph if DATA is given

5) Interpret the results in the context of the problem

and make a connection to the given information.

Conclusions should be given in terms of the context of

the question.

2. Interpret the results of a

statistical procedure

sample size

hypothesis that _____context of the problem___

because the p-value is < > level of significance.

There is/is not sufficient evidence to suggest that

____restate the null hypothesis______.

Z test:

P-value: The probability of seeing a result from a random sample that is as extreme

as or more extreme than the result you got from your random sample, if the null

hypothesis is true.

Errors:

Type 2 error: failing to reject Ho, when it is false

The power of a test is the probability of correctly rejecting the Ho

Increasing the sample size decreases the p-value of the test (making the rejection of

the null more convincing). As n increases, so does the power of the test.

Here are some videos specific to this topic. They include examples and how to be

most successful on the AP exam for the topic

AP Statistics

Tips

https://sas.elluminate.com/p.jnlp?psid=2015-0114.0718.M.02B50E368656D296A2DCBFED1F5B9E.vcr&sid=679

6.06, 6.07, 6.09: Carrying Out Significance Tests/Connecting Confidence Intervals to

Significance Tests

**STEP BY STEP PROCEDURES TO KNOW FOR AP EXAM

https://sas.elluminate.com/p.jnlp?psid=2015-0114.0739.M.02B50E368656D296A2DCBFED1F5B9E.vcr&sid=679

6.08: Using Inference to make decisions: Type I and II Errors

https://sas.elluminate.com/p.jnlp?psid=2015-0114.0842.M.02B50E368656D296A2DCBFED1F5B9E.vcr&sid=679

AP Statistics

Tips

AP Statistics

Tips

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