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Turbofan Engine

Seminar Report 2015 - 2016

A seminar report on

TURBOFAN ENGINE
Seminar Report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements
For the award of

Diploma In Mechanical Engineering


Of

Department of Technical Education


Government of Kerala
By

ABIN.B
Under the guidance of

Lt. SANIL KUMAR.S

MARCH 2016
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Dept of Mechanical engineering


SNPTC, Kottiyam

Turbofan Engine
Seminar Report 2015 - 2016

SREE NARAYANA POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE


Kottiyam (P.O), Kollam 691571

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


SREE NARAYANA POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE
Kottiyam (P.O), Kollam 691571

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the seminar report entitled
TURBOFAN ENGINE being submitted by ABIN.B ( 13020070
)

for

the

award

of

the

Diploma

in

Mechanical

Engineering of Department of Technical Education


Government of Kerala is a bonafide account of the work
carried out by him in this department during the
academic year 2015-2016 under our supervision.

Dept of Mechanical engineering


SNPTC, Kottiyam

Turbofan Engine
Seminar Report 2015 - 2016

Lt. SANIL KUMAR.S


Lecturer, Mechanical Dept.
(Seminar guide)

Er. VINOD KUMAR V.M


Head of the Dept, Mechanical
SNPTC Kotttyam

External examiner
.
.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all I humbly remember the grace and blessings that The
Almighty God bestowed on me, without which my attempt would not have
been a success
This seminar would not have been possible without the sincere assistance
of a number of eminent people. I take this opportunity to acknowledge my
heartfelt gratitude to my respected principal Mr. Ajith V for providing all the
necessary facilities in this institution.
I express profound and sincere thank to Mr.Vinod Kumar V.M Head of
the Department of Mechanical Engineering for giving me the opportunity to
undertake this seminar
Next I would like to thank my seminar coordinators Mr.D.Monilal,
lecturer in Department of Mechanical Engineering for his valuable advices and
suggestions which helped me in the success of this seminar work.

Dept of Mechanical engineering


SNPTC, Kottiyam

Turbofan Engine
Seminar Report 2015 - 2016

I would like to thank my seminar guide Lt. Sanil Kumar.S lecturer in


Department of Mechanical Engineering for his valuable advice and guidance
I would also like to thank all faculty members of Department of
Mechanical Engineering for their help and cooperation.
I owe my incalculable debt to my parents, friends and all others for their
insightful support and suggestions and cooperation.

ABSTRACT
To make an aircraft move forward we need
a pushing force called thrust which is created by making air
accelerated between the front and rear of the engine with the
help of a giant fan, compressors, turbines, etc... Different types
of engine exist but the most efficient among them is the
turbofan engine because of their low fuel consumption and high
thrust.
century
engines
engines
exhaust

Engines used in the earlier parts of 20th


had deficiencies in spite of their advantages. The
used in those times were Turboprop engines. These
could produce only 10% of their thrust from the
jet. They could not attain high speed.

Researches were conducted further,


which led to the developments of Turbofan engines. The word
turbofan is a combination of turbine and fan. The turbo portion
refers to a gas turbine which takes mechanical energy from the
combustion and the fan that uses the mechanical energy from

Dept of Mechanical engineering


SNPTC, Kottiyam

Turbofan Engine
Seminar Report 2015 - 2016

the gas turbine to accelerate the air rearwards to the core of


engine. Turbofan engines combined the hot air jet with
bypassed air from a fan.
The air passing through the giant fan
split up into two; major portion moves through the bypass port
while the remain enters the compressors that compresses the
air which increases its pressure and delivers it to the
combustion chamber where it burns with the fuel that further
increases the pressure. The pressurised air then enters the
turbine which helps in the working of compressor and the giant
fan. The air leaving the turbine combines with the air from
bypass port which produces the thrust for the moving of
aircraft.
A turbofan engine is a quieter engine
with greater boost at low speeds, making it a popular choice for
commercial airplanes. Due to generation of more thrust for
nearly the same amount of fuel, it is highly fuel-efficient. With a
better all-around performance at a lower rate of fuel
consumption turbofan engines are now widely used.

CONTENTS
CHAPTERS
PAGE NO

LIST

OF

FIGURES

6
LIST

OF

ABBREVIATIONS

Dept of Mechanical engineering


SNPTC, Kottiyam

Turbofan Engine
Seminar Report 2015 - 2016

1.
8

INTRODUCTION

2.
10

HISTORY

3.
13

THEORY

4.
15

JET

5.
17
6.
20
7.
23
8.
28

ENGINE

THRUST

WORKING
PARTS

OF

WORKING

A
OF

CLASSIFICATION

PRINCIPLE
TURBOFAN
TURBOFAN

OF

TURBOFAN

ENGINE
ENGINE
ENGINE

8.1. LOW BYPASS TURBOFAN ENGINE


28
8.2. HIGH BYPASS TURBOFAN ENGINE
29
8.3. SINGLE SPOOL TURBOFAN ENGINE
30
8.4. DOUBLE/TWO SPOOL TURBOFAN ENGINE
31
8.5. THREE SPOOL TURBOFAN ENGINE
32

Dept of Mechanical engineering


SNPTC, Kottiyam

Turbofan Engine
Seminar Report 2015 - 2016

9.
33

ROLLS-ROYCE

10.
35

TAY

ADVANTAGES

TURBOFAN
AND

ENGINE

DISADVANTAGES

11.
36

CONCLUSION

LIST OF FIGURES
Fig NO
Page No

3.1
13

Schematic diagram of turbofan engine

5.1
18

Thrust of a turbofan engine

6.1
20

Parts of a turbofan engine

7.1
23

Working of turbofan engine


7.1.1

Air entering to interior core of engine

7.1.2

Air bypassing the engine core

7.1.3

Fuel injecting from the injector

24
24
25

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SNPTC, Kottiyam

Turbofan Engine
Seminar Report 2015 - 2016

7.1.4

Fuel and air mixture ignites

7.1.5

Exhaust gas turn the turbine

7.1.6

Thrust of the air moves the plane forward

25
26
27
8.1
28

Low bypass turbofan engine

8.2
29

High bypass turbofan engine

8.3
30

Single spool turbofan engine

8.4
31

Double/two spool turbofan engine

8.5
32

Three spool turbofan engine

9.1
33

Rolls-Royce Tay turbofan engine

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
LPC
: LOW PRESSURE
COMPRESSOR
HPC : HIGH PRESSURE
COMPRESSOR

Dept of Mechanical engineering


SNPTC, Kottiyam

Turbofan Engine
Seminar Report 2015 - 2016

1.

Dept of Mechanical engineering


SNPTC, Kottiyam

LPS

LOW PRESSURE SHAFT

HPS

HIGH PRESSURE SHAFT

LPT

LOW PRESSURE TURBINE

HPT

HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE

INTRODUCTION

Turbofan Engine
Seminar Report 2015 - 2016

Jet Propulsion is the thrust imparting


forward motion to an object, as a reaction to the rearward
expulsion of a high-velocity liquid or gaseous stream.
A simple example of jet propulsion is the
motion of an inflated balloon when the air is suddenly discharged.
While the opening is held closed, the air pressure within the
balloon is equal in all directions; when the stem is released, the
internal pressure is less at the open end than at the opposite end,
causing the balloon to dart forward. Not the pressure of the
escaping air pushing against the outside atmosphere but the
difference between high and low pressures inside the balloon
propels it.
An actual jet engine does not operate
quite as simply as a balloon, although the basic principle is the
same. More important than pressure imbalance is the
acceleration due to high velocities of the jet leaving the engine.
This is achieved by forces in the engine that enable the gas to
flow backward forming the jet. Newton's second law shows that
these forces are proportional to the rate at which the momentum
of the gas is increased. For a jet engine, this is related to the rate
of mass flow multiplied by the rearward-leaving jet velocity.
Newton's third law which states that Every force must have an
equal and opposite reaction, shows that the rearward force is
balanced by a forward reaction, known as thrust. This thrusting
action is similar to the recoil of a gun, which increases as both
the mass of the projectile and its muzzle velocity are increased.
High-thrust engines, therefore, require both large rates of mass
flow and high jet-exit velocities, which can only be achieved by
increasing internal engine pressures and by increasing the
volume of the gas by means of combustion.
Jet-propulsion devices are used primarily
in high-speed, high-altitude aircraft, in missiles, and in spacecraft.
The source of power is a high-energy fuel that is burned at

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intense pressures to produce the large gas volume needed for


high jet-exit velocities. The oxidizer required for the combustion
may be the oxygen in the air that is drawn into the engine and
compressed, or the oxidizer may be carried in the vehicle, so that
the engine is independent of a surrounding atmosphere. Engines
that depend on the atmosphere for oxygen include turbojets,
turbofans, turboprops, ramjets, and pulse jets. Non atmospheric
engines are usually called rocket engines.

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2.

HISTORY

Jet power as a form of propulsion has


been known for hundreds of years, although its use for
propelling vehicles that carry loads is comparatively recent. The
earliest known reaction engine was an experimental, steamoperated device developed about the first century B.C. by the
Greek mathematician and scientist Hero of Alexandria known as
the Aeolipile, Hero's device did no practical work, although it
demonstrated that a jet of steam escaping to the rear drives its
generator forward. The aeolipile consisted of a spherical
chamber into which steam was fed through hollow supports.
The steam was allowed to escape from two bent tubes on
opposite sides of the sphere, and the reaction to the force of
the escaping steam caused the sphere to rotate.
The development of the steam turbine
is credited to the Italian engineer Giovanni Branca, who
directed a steam jet against a turbine wheel, which in turn
powered a stamp mill in 1629. The first recorded patent for a
gas turbine was obtained in 1791 by the British inventor John
Barber.
In 1910, seven years after the first
flights by the American inventors Orville and Wilbur Wright, the
French scientist Henri Marie Coanda designed and built a jetpropelled biplane, which took off and flew under its own power
with Coanda as pilot. Coanda used an engine that he termed a
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reaction motor, but, discouraged by the lack of public


acceptance of his aircraft, he abandoned his experiments.
During the next 20 years the gas
turbine was developed further in both the United States and
Europe. One result of the experimental work of that period was
the perfection in 1918 of a turbo supercharger driver by an
exhaust gas turbine for conventional aircraft engines. In the
early 1930s many patents covering gas turbines were awarded
to a number of European engineers. The patent granted the
British aeronautical engineer Sir Frank Whittle in 1930 is
generally conceded to have outlined the first practical form of
the modern gas turbine. In 1935 Whittle applied his basic
design to the development of the W-1 turbojet engine, which
made its first flight in 1941.
Meanwhile, the French aeronautical
engineer Ren Leduc had exhibited (1938) a model of the
ramjet in Paris, and a jet airplane that was powered by an axialflow turbojet designed by the German engineer Hans Joachim
Pabst von Ohain made its first flight in 1939. In the following
year, under the direction of the aeronautical engineer Secundo
Campini, the Italians developed an airplane powered by a
turboprop engine with a Reciprocating - engine driven
compressor. The first American-built jet airplane, the Bell XP-59,
was powered by the General Electric 1-16 turbojet, adapted
from Whittle's design in 1942. The first jet engine of exclusively
American design was produced by Westinghouse Electric Corp.
for the U.S. Navy in 1944.
From a principle first described in
1906, the pulse jet was developed by the German engineer Paul
Schmidt, who received his first patent in 1931. The V-1, or buzz
bomb, first flown in 1942, was powered by pulse jet. Also in the
mid-1940s the first commercial airline flights using turboprop
engines occurred. In 1947 the Bell X-1 experimental airplane,

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powered by a four-chambered liquid-rocket engine and carried


to the stratosphere in the belly of a bomber for launching, was
the first pilot-operated craft to break the sound barrier.
Subsequently the Douglas Skyrocket experimental airplane,
powered by a jet engine in addition to a liquid-rocket engine,
broke the sound barrier at low altitude after taking off under its
own power.
The first commercial jet airplane, the
British Comet, was flown in 1952, but this service was stopped
after two serious accidents in 1954. In the U.S., the Boeing 707
jet was the first jet airplane to be tested commercially, in 1954.
Commercial flights began in 1958.
Improved materials and introduction of
twin compressors such us in Bristol Olympus and the later Pratt
& Whitney JTC3 engine, increased the thermodynamic
efficiency of engines. But they also led to a poor propulsive
efficiency by reducing the exhaust velocity to a valve closer to
that of the aircraft.
The Rolls Royse convey the worlds
first production turbofan, had a bypass ratio of 0.3 similar to
the modern engines. Civilian turbofans of the 1960s such us
Pratt & Whitney and the Rolls Royse Spey had bypass ratio
closer to 1.0 but where not similar to military equivalents. The
unusual electric CF700 turbofan engine was developed with a
2.0 bypass ratio. This was derived from the general electric
turbojet to power the larger model aircrafts.
The CF700 was the worlds first
smallest turbofan engine to be certified by the Federal Aviation
Administration. There are now over a four hundred CF700
aircrafts in operation around the world with an experience base
of over 10 million service hours. The CF700 was also used to
train moon-bound asrtronents in project Appolo as the power

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plant for the lunar landing research vehicle. The CI80-53 was
similar but larger in design.
The continuous development of jet
propulsion for air power has resulted in such advances as
piloted aircraft capable of attaining speeds several times
greater than the speed of sound, and intercontinental ballistic
missiles and artificial satellites launched by powerful rockets

3.

THEORY

What is propulsion?

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The word is derived from two Latin


words: pro meaning before or forwards and pellere means to
drive. Propulsion means to push forward or drive an object
forward. A propulsion system is a machine that produces thrust
to push an object forward. On airplanes, thrust is usually
generated through some application of Newton's third law of
action and reaction. The engine accelerates a gas or working
fluid, and the reaction to this acceleration produces a force on
the engine. A general derivation of the thrust equation shows
that the amount of thrust generated depends on the mass flow
through the engine and the exit velocity of the gas. Different
propulsion systems generate thrust in slightly different ways.

What is a Turbofan Engine?


A turbofan engine is the most
modern variation of the basic gas turbine engine. As with other
gas turbines, there is a core engine. In the turbofan engine, a
fan in the front and an additional turbine at the rear surrounds
the core engine. The fan and fan turbine are composed of many
blades, like the core compressor and core turbine, and are
connected to an additional shaft. All of this additional turbo
machinery is coloured green on the schematic diagram as
shown in the figure below:-

Fig 3.1 Schematic diagram of turbofan engine

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As with the core compressor and turbine, some of the fan


blades turn with the shaft and some blades remain
stationary. The fan shaft passes through the core shaft for
mechanical reasons. This type of arrangement is called a
two-spool engine (one "spool" for the fan, one "spool" for the
core.) Some advanced engines have additional spools for
sections of the compressor, which provides for even higher
compressor efficiency.

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4.

Jet Engine Thrust

The force produced by a jet engine


is expressed in terms of kilograms of thrust. This is a measure
of the mass or weight of air moved by an engine times the
acceleration of the air as it goes through the engine.
Technically, if the aircraft were to stand still and the pressure at
the exit plane of the jet engine was the same as the
atmospheric pressure, the formula for the jet engine thrust
would be:

Weight of air in kilograms per second *


velocity
Thrust = ______________________________________________________
9.81 (normal acceleration due to gravity, in
meter per second 2)
Imagine an aircraft standing still,
capable of handling 97.522 kilograms of air per second.
Assume the velocity of the exhaust gases to be 1,500 feet per
second. The thrust would then be:
97.522 kg of air per second * 457.2 m /s
Thrust = ____________________________________
9.81 m / s^2

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Turbofan Engine
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= 9.941 * 457.2

Thrust = 4545.025 kg.

If the pressure at the exit plane is


not the same as the atmospheric pressure and the aircraft were
not standing still, the formula would be somewhat different.
It is not very practical to try to
compare jet engine output in terms of horsepower. As a rule of
thumb, however, it may be noted that that at 375 miles per
hour (mph), one pound of thrust equals one horsepower; at 750
mph one pound of thrust equals two horsepower.

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5.

WORKING PRINCIPLE

The scientific principle on which the


jet engine operates was first started in scientific terms by Sir
Isaac Newton in 1687. Turbofan engines works under the
Newtons Second and Third law.
Third law states that For every action there is an equal and
opposite reaction. This is the basic principle of all jet engines.
So by the thrust produced by the engine the plane moves
forward.
Second law states that Acceleration is produced when a force
acts on a mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the
amount of force needed (to accelerate the object).
F = ma

Thrust of a Turbofan engine


The engine inlet captures the
incoming air. Some of the incoming air passes through the fan
and continues on into the core compressor and then the burner,

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Turbofan Engine
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where it is mixed with fuel and combustion occurs. The hot


exhaust passes through the core and fan turbines and then out
the nozzle, as in a basic turbojet. This airflow is called the core
airflow and is denoted by m.
The rest of the incoming air, coloured blue on the figure, passes
through the fan and bypasses, or goes around the engine, just
like the air through a propeller. The air that goes through the
fan has a velocity that is slightly increased from free stream.
This airflow is called the fan flow, or bypass flow, and is
denoted by m.
The ratio of m to m is called the bypass ratio. So a turbofan
gets some of its thrust from the core and some of its thrust
from the fan. The ratio of the air that goes around the engine to
the air that goes through the core is called the bypass ratio.
The total mass flow rate through the inlet is the sum of the core
and fan flows
m=m+m
A turbofan gets some of its thrust
from the core and some of its thrust from the fan. If we denote
the exit of the core as station "e", the exit of the fan as station
"f", and the free stream as station "0", we can use the basic
thrust equation for each stream to obtain the total thrust:
F = m - m * V0 + (m * V) e - m * V0

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Fig 5.1 Thrust of a turbofan engine

We can combine the terms


multiplying V0 and use the definition of the bypass ratio bpr to
obtain the final thrust equation:
F = (m * V) e + bpr * m * V f - (m * V)0

Because the fuel flow rate for the


core is changed only a small amount by the addition of the fan,
a turbofan generates more thrust for nearly the same amount
of fuel used by the core. This means that a turbofan is very fuel
efficient. In fact, high bypass ratio turbofans are nearly as fuel
efficient as turboprops. Because the fan is enclosed by the inlet
and is composed of many blades, it can operate efficiently at
higher speeds than a simple propeller. That is why turbofans
are found on high speed transports and propellers are used on
low speed transports.
Low bypass ratio turbofans are still more fuel efficient than
basic turbojets. Many modern fighter planes actually use low

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bypass ratio turbofans equipped with afterburners. They can


then cruise efficiently but still have high thrust when dog
fighting.
Even though the fighter plane can fly much faster than the
speed of sound, the air going into the engine must travel less
than the speed of sound for high efficiency. Therefore, the
airplane inlet slows the air down from supersonic speeds.

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6.

PARTS OF A TURBOFAN
ENGINE

The different parts of a Turbofan engine are as shown in the


figure below:-

6.1 Parts of a turbofan engine

Fan - The fan is the first component in a turbofan. The fan pulls
air into the engine. The large spinning fan sucks in large
quantities of air. It then, speeds the air up and splits it into two
parts. One part continues through the "core" or centre of the
engine, where it is acted upon by the other engine components.
The second part "bypasses" the core of the engine, instead
travelling through a duct that surrounds the core to the back of
the engine where it produces much of the force that propels the
airplane forward.111

Compressor - The compressor is the first component in the


engine core. The compressor squeezes the air that enters it into
smaller areas, resulting in an increase in the air pressure. This

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Turbofan Engine
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results in an increase in the energy potential of the air. The


squashed air is forced into the combustion chamber.

Combustor - In the combustor the air is mixed with fuel and


then ignited. This process results in high temperature and high
energy airflow. The fuel burns with the oxygen in the
compressed air, producing hot expanding gases.

Turbine - The high energy airflow coming out of the combustor


goes into the turbine, causing the turbine blades to rotate. This
rotation extracts some energy from the high-energy flow that is
used to drive the fan and the compressor. The gases produced
in the combustion chamber move through the turbine and spin
its blades. The task of a turbine is to convert gas energy into
mechanical work to drive the compressor.

Nozzle - The nozzle is the exhaust duct of the engine. The


energy depleted airflow that passed the turbine, in addition to
the colder air that bypassed the engine core, produces a force

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when exiting the nozzle that acts to propel the engine, and
therefore the airplane, forward. The combination of the hot air
and the cold air are expelled and produce an exhaust which
causes a forward thrust. The nozzle may be preceded by a
mixer, which combines the high temperature air coming from
the engine core with the lower temperature air that was
bypassed in the fan. This result in a quieter engine than if the
mixer was not present.

Afterburner - In addition to the basic components of a gas


turbine engine, one other process is occasionally employed to
increase the thrust of a given engine. Afterburning (or reheat) is
a method of augmenting the basic thrust of an engine to
improve the aircraft takeoff, climb and (for military aircraft)
combat performance. Afterburning consists of the introduction
and burning of raw fuel between the engine turbine and the jet
pipe propelling nozzle, utilizing the unburned oxygen in the
exhaust gas to support combustion. The increase in the
temperature of the exhaust gas increases the velocity of the jet
leaving the propelling nozzle and therefore increases the
engine thrust.
This increased thrust could be obtained by the use of a larger
engine, but this would increase the weight and overall fuel
consumption. In other words Afterburner is a device for
increasing the thrust (forward-directed force) of a gas turbine
(jet) airplane engine.

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7.

WORKING OF TURBOFAN
ENGINE

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Fig 7.1 Working of turbofan engine

The engine initially starts as


follows; through the opening of bleed air valves, bleed air is
sent to an air turbine starter. This devise typically use the high
pressure bleed air to spin and engage a centrifugal clutch
connected to the engine accessory drive. This in turn causes
the high pressure shaft within the engine to rotate. With the
high pressure shaft, high pressure compressor and turbine are
spinning. This begins to force the air through the engine from
front to back. With the accessory shaft and high pressure shaft
spinning, accessories should also start working. With the
increased high pressure shaft rotation ignition will be turned on.
These igniters are located in the hot section of the engine and
produce small sparks. There should be increase in shaft rotation
and fuel is introduced. Now the fire burning in the hot section
supplied by air from the compressor is thrust across high
pressure and low pressure shafts. As the speed of high pressure
shaft increases, the air turbine starter will close and the starter
disengages. Then the engine will settle into a stable idle thrust
setting condition. This is how turbofan engine initially starts.
The first component of the engine is
a huge nine foot titanium fan which rotates at 2800rpm at the

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time of takeoff. The giant titanium fan sucks in enough air to


vacuum out the air in less than half a second. As the air rises
through the massive fan and is separated into two streams.
Some of the air enters the interior core of engine while majority
of the air bypasses the engine core and is forced through a
narrowing space taking up speed along the way. The ratio of air
bypasses the core to the air passing through the core is called
bypass ratio. Because of its huge body the bypass air only
needs to accelerate of small amount in order to develop
enormous amount of thrust.

Fig 7.1.1 Air entering to interior core of engine

Fig 7.1.2 Air bypassing the engine core

The small amount of air enters


the core first enters the core firstly reaches the low pressure
compressor which initially compresses the air forcing its
pressure and temperature to rise. Then it enters the high
pressure compressor which rotates faster and is responsible for

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the 75% of the total compression. After it passes through both


the compressors it is 35 times than the outside pressure and
1000 C than outside temperature.
The compressed air is now at right
pressure but it is moving very fast so that a diffuser is provided
to slow down the air. The air then enters the combustor where
the energy level is greatly increased. This is accomplished by
adding fuel through a serious of injectors to the compressed air
which will cause ignition.

Fig 7.1.3 Fuel injecting from injector

Fig 7.1.4 Fuel and air mixture ignites

This will further increase the


temperature by 1600 C and pressure increases to 35 bar. The
more the temperature and pressure of the air, the more energy
will be added during the combustion and more efficient the
process become. This is why the compressor is used to increase

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the air pressure. Now the superheated and compressed air


mixture is ready for the next stage.
Blasting through the high
pressure turbine the high energy air spins the blades over
10000rpm. These blades are connected to a shaft named high
pressure shaft that drives through the centre of the engine and
drives the high pressure compressor. The only purpose of the
high pressure turbine is to extract enough energy from the air
to drive the high pressure compressor. Together these two
components make up the high spool.
After that the air passes to the
larger high pressure turbine. This turbine has two purposes.
First it extracts enough energy from the air to power the low
pressure compressor at the front of the engine core. The
second and important job of the low pressure turbine is to turn
the large titanium fan blades at the front. The fan and low
pressure compressor are connected to the low pressure turbine
using a same shaft named low pressure shaft which is passing
through the centre of the high spool. Together these three
components make the low spool.

7.1.5 Exhaust gas turns the turbines

Finally the compressed air rises out


through the nozzle at the back of the engine which is

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accelerated one last time by the bypassed air which further


increases the thrust and it helps to reduce the sound of the
engine. The high thrust air finally goes out through the nozzle.
The exhaust nozzle is located directly at downstream of the low
pressure turbine and it is the last component that the air flow
touches before exiting the engine. The exhaust nozzle is
stationary, like the combustion chamber. The purpose of the
exhaust nozzle is to propel the core flow out of the engine,
providing additional thrust. This is accomplished by way of its
geometry or shape. The nozzle also helps regulate pressures
within the engine to keep the other components functioning
properly and efficiently. The speed at which the gas exits the
nozzle is called jet velocity. The exhaust stream produces the
20% of the engines total thrust, remaining 80% is produced by
the large value of accelerated bypassed air.

7.1.6 Thrust of air moves the plane forward

In short, this entire process can be broken down into steps as


follows:
1. Air enters the engine through the fan, which is being
driven by the low pressure turbine.
2. Most of the air is accelerated out of the back of the engine
through bypass port, creating thrust.
3. A portion of the air enters the core of the engine where it
travels through the low pressure and high pressure
compressors.

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4. This compressed air is then mixed with fuel and ignited in


the combustor where heat energy is added.
5. Heat energy and pressure energy cause the air to expand
through the turbines, spinning the high pressure and low
pressure turbines which in turn spin the fan and the
compressors.
6. Air exits the turbines and exits the engine through the
exhaust nozzle, which also generates thrust, propelling
the engine and vehicle forward.
This process is continuous, with each component doing a
specific task to keep the engine as a whole running.

8.

CLASSIFICATION OF
TURBOFAN ENGINE

The turbofan engines are generally classified into two;


1. According to amount of air bypasses the engine core
Low bypass turbofan engine
High bypass turbofan engine
2. According to spool of engine
Single spool turbofan engine
Double / Two spool turbofan engine

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Three spool turbofan engine

8.1

Low Bypass Turbofan Engine

Fig 8.1 Low bypass turbofan engine

A high specific thrust or low bypass


ratio turbofan normally has a multi-stage fan, developing a
relatively high pressure ratio and thus yielding a high (mixed or
cold) exhaust velocity. The core airflow needs to be large
enough to give sufficient core power to drive the fan. A smaller
core flow/higher bypass ratio cycle can be achieved by raising
the (HP) turbine rotor inlet temperature.
A bypass flow can only be
introduced if the turbine inlet temperature is allowed to
increase, to compensate for a correspondingly smaller core
flow. Improvements in turbine cooling/material technology
would facilitate the use of a higher turbine inlet temperature,
despite increases in cooling air temperature, resulting from a
probable increase in overall pressure ratio.
Efficiently done, the resulting
turbofan would probably operate at a higher nozzle pressure
ratio than the turbojet, but with a lower exhaust temperature to

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retain net thrust. Since the temperature rise across the whole
engine (intake to nozzle) would be lower, the (dry power) fuel
flow would also be reduced, resulting in better specific fuel
consumption (SFC).

8.2 High Bypass Turbofan Engine

8.2 High bypass turbofan engine

The low specific thrust or high


bypass ratio turbofans used in today's civil jetliners and some
military transport aircraft evolved from the high specific
thrust/low bypass ratio turbofans used in such [production]
aircraft back in the 1960s. Low specific thrust is achieved by
replacing the multi-stage fan with a single-stage unit. Unlike
some military engines, modern civil turbofans do not have any
stationary inlet guide vanes in front of the fan rotor. The fan is
scaled to achieve the desired net thrust.
The core or gas generator of the
engine must generate sufficient core power to at least drive the
fan at its design flow and pressure ratio. Through improvements
in turbine cooling/material technology, a higher (HP) turbine
rotor inlet temperature can be used, thus facilitating a smaller
(and lighter) core and (potentially) improving the core thermal

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efficiency. Reducing the core mass flow tends to increase the


load on the LP turbine, so this unit may require additional
stages to reduce the average stage loading and to maintain LP
turbine efficiency. Reducing core flow also increases bypass
ratio.
Further improvements in core
thermal efficiency can be achieved by raising the overall
pressure ratio of the core. Improved blade aerodynamics
reduces the number of extra compressor stages required. With
multiple compressors dramatic increases in overall pressure
ratio have become possible. Variable geometry (i.e., stators)
enable high-pressure-ratio compressors to work surge-free at all
throttle settings.

8.3 Single Spool Turbofan Engine

8.3 Single spool turbofan Engine

The single-shaft turbofan is


probably the simplest type of turbofan configuration.
It
consists of comprising a fan and high-pressure compressor
driven by a single turbine unit. All of the parts compressor,
turbine, and the fan are arranged on a single shaft.
The SNECMA M53, which powers Mirage fighter aircraft, is an
example of a single-shaft turbofan. Despite the simplicity of the

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turbo machinery configuration, the M53 requires a variable area


mixer to facilitate part-throttle operation.

8.4 Double / Two Spool Turbofan Engine

8.4 Double / Two spool turbofan engine

8.4.1 Basic two spool


Many turbofans have the basic
two-spool configuration where both the fan and low pressure
turbine are mounted on a second low pressure shaft, running
concentrically with the HP spool (i.e., HP compressor driven by
HP turbine).
The BR710 is typical of this
configuration. At the smaller thrust sizes, instead of all-axial
blading, the HP compressor configuration may be axialcentrifugal (e.g., General Electric CFE738), double-centrifugal
or even diagonal/centrifugal (e.g., Pratt & Whitney Canada
PW600).

8.4.2 Boosted two spool


Higher overall pressure ratios can
be achieved by either raising the HP compressor pressure ratio
or adding an intermediate-pressure (IP) compressor between

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the fan and high pressure compressor, to supercharge or boost


the latter unit helping to raise the overall pressure ratio of the
engine cycle to the very high levels employed today (i.e.,
greater than 40:1, typically).
All of the large American
turbofans (e.g., General Electric CF6, GE90 and GEnx plus Pratt
& Whitney JT9D and PW4000) feature an IP compressor
mounted on the LP shaft and driven, like the fan, by the LP
turbine, the mechanical speed of which is dictated by the tip
speed and diameter of the fan. The Rolls-Royce BR715 is a nonAmerican example of this. The high bypass ratios (i.e., fan duct
flow/core flow) used in modern civil turbofans tends to reduce
the relative diameter of the attached IP compressor, causing its
mean tip speed to decrease. Consequently, more IPC stages are
required to develop the necessary pressure rise.

8.5 Three Spool Turbofan Engine

8.5 Three spool turbofan engine

This is the most complicated type


of turbofan engines. It consists of three turbine stages. First one
for the rotation of the giant fan, second one for the rotation of
the low pressure compressor and the third one for the rotation
of high pressure compressor. This is more efficient compared to

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all other turbofans due to maximum utilisation of power in


three various stages.
Rolls-Royce chose a three spool
configuration for their large civil turbofans (i.e., the RB211 and
Trent families), where the intermediate pressure (IP)
compressor is mounted on a separate (IP) shaft, running
concentrically with the LP and HP shafts, and is driven by a
separate IP turbine. The first three spool engine was the earlier
Rolls-Royce RB.203 Trent of 1967.

9.

ROLLS-ROYCE TAY TURBOFAN


ENGINE

9.1 Rolls-Royce Tay Turbofan Engine

As an example for the turbofan


engine consider the Rolls-Royce Tay turbofan engine as shown
in the figure. This Rolls-Royce Tay turbofan engine pushes
nearly three times as much air through the bypass ducts as it

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pushes through the central core of the engine, where the air is
compressed, mixed with fuel, and ignited. Turbofan engines like
the Rolls-Royce Tay are not as powerful as turbojets, but they
are quieter and more efficient. The turbofan engine is an
improvement on the basic turbojet. Part of the incoming air is
only partially compressed and then bypassed in an outer shell
beyond the turbine. This air is then mixed with the hot turbineexhaust gases before they reach the nozzle. A bypass engine
has greater thrust for takeoff and climb, and increased
efficiency; the bypass cools the engine and reduces noise level.
In some turbofan engines the
bypass air is not remixed in the engine but exhausted directly.
In this type of bypass engine, only about one-sixth of the
incoming air goes through the whole engine; the remaining
five-sixths is compressed only in the first compressor or fan
stage and then exhausted. Different rotational speeds are
required for the high- and low-pressure portions of the engine.
This difference is achieved by having two separate turbinecompressor combinations running on two concentric shafts or
twin spools. Two high-pressure turbine stages drive the 11 highpressure compressor stages mounted on the outer shaft, and 4
turbine stages provide power for the fan and 4 low-pressure
compressor stages on the inner shaft. To move an airplane
through the air, thrust is generated by some kind of propulsion
system. Most modern airliners use turbofan engines because of
their high thrust and good fuel efficiency.

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10. ADVANTAGES AND


DISADVANTAGES
ADVANTAGES

Turbofan engines can produce higher thrust at low


airspeeds compared to other engines due to the working
of the giant fan.

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They only required shorter take off distance because it can


produce high thrust in a short time.
Their rate of climb is higher.
They work at high operation speed (about more than
3000km/hour).
Turbofan engine has considerable noise reduction.
Its major advantage is that it has low fuel consumption, ie;
more fuel efficient.

DISADVANTAGES

Turbofan engines are uneconomical for short distance


flight.
They have high maintenance cost due to more parts.
They are less efficient at idle condition.
They have higher specific weight.

11. CONCLUSION
The turbofan engine has gained
popularity for a variety of reasons. In this one or more rows of
compressor blades extend beyond the normal compressor

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blades. The result is that for times as much air is pulled into the
turbofan engine as in the simple turbojet. However, most of this
excess air is ducted through bypasses around the power section
and out the rear with the exhaust gases. Also, a fan burner
permits the burning of additional fuel in the fan air stream. With
the burner off, this engine can operate economically and
efficiently at low altitudes and low speeds. With the burner on,
the thrust is doubled by the burning fuel, and it can operate on
high speeds and high altitudes fairly efficiently.
The turbofan has greater thrust
for takeoff, climbing, and cruising on the same amount of fuel
than the conventional turbojet engine. With better all-around
performance at a lower rate of fuel consumption, plus less
noise resulting from its operation, it is easy to understand why
most new jet-powered airplanes are fitted with turbofan
engines. This includes military and civilian types.
Overall, the idea behind a
turbofan engine is relatively simple: adding energy to the air
flowing through the engine then extracts this energy in order to
drive the fan and create thrust. Turbofans are the main power
plant propelling jet liners across our country and around the
world. With some general physics and chemistry concepts, one
can gain an understanding of these machines that have
revolutionized the way we travel and have a greater
appreciation for the technology behind them.

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12. REFERENCE
Rolt, A. & Baker, N. [2009]. Intercooled Turbofan Engine
Design and Technology Research in the EU Framework 6
NEWAC Programme, ISABE 2009 Proceedings, ISABE-20091278, Montreal, Canada.
Borradaile, J. [1988]. Towards the optimum ducted UHBR
engine, Proceedings of AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 24th Joint
Propulsion Conference, AIAA-89-2954, Boston,
Massachusetts, USA.
Sirignano, W. A., and Liu, F., Performance Increases for
Gas Turbine Engines Through Combustion Inside the
Turbine, Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 15, No. 1,
1999, pp. 111118.
Kyprianidis, K. [2011]. Future Aero Engine Designs: An
Evolving Vision, in E. Benini (ed.), Advances in Gas Turbine
Technology, InTech, chapter 1. doi:10.1115/1.4001982.
Canire, H., Willcokx, A., Dick, E. & De Paepe, M. [2006].
Raising cycle efficiency by inter cooling in air-cooled gas
turbines, Applied Thermal Engineering 26(16): 17801787.
Walter de Gruyter Gmbh & Co.KG, International Journel of
Turbo and Jet Engines, ISSN:03340082 , 19962014,Germany

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