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www.elsevier.com/locate/petrol

low-liquid loading

Xiao-Xuan Xu *, Jing Gong

The Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Petroleum Engineering, Department of Oil and Gas Storage and Transportation Engineering,

China University of Petroleum, Changping County, Beijing, 102249, P.R. China

Received 20 January 2005; received in revised form 9 June 2005; accepted 10 June 2005

Abstract

Liquid condensation in natural gas transmission pipelines commonly occurs due to the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic

imperatives. Condensation subjects the gas pipeline to two phase transport, which dramatically affects their delivery ability and

operational modality and the associated peripheral facilities. It is therefore imperative for the pigging simulation in gascondensate flowlines to be taken into consideration in their design. Periodic pigging helps keep the pipeline free of liquid,

reducing the overall pressure drop, and thereby increasing the pipeline flow efficiency. A new simplified pigging model has

been developed for predicting the pigging operation in gas-condensate horizontal pipelines with low liquid-loading, which

couples the phase behavior model with the hydro-thermodynamic model. The comparison of the calculating results with those

of the two-phase transient computational code OLGA (with a dynamic, one-dimensional, extended two-fluid model), indicates

the new pigging model has a good precision and high speed in calculation. The model also contains the capability of pigtracking and slug-length-increasing model, which can be suitable for engineering design.

D 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Natural gas-condensate; Pigging simulation; Low-liquid loading; Compositional hydrodynamic model; Phase behavior model; Twophase flow; Pipeline

1. Introduction

With the rapid development of offshore and desert

gas/condensate field, pre-treatment of natural gas at

the wellhead to remove the heavies is not generally an

option because of the hostile environment. The pro* Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 10 8973 3557; fax: +86 10

8973 3804.

E-mail address: xiaoxuanxu@sohu.com (X.-X. Xu).

0920-4105/$ - see front matter D 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.petrol.2005.06.005

underground pipelines, over substantial distances.

Liquid condensation in natural gas transmission pipelines commonly occurs due to the thermodynamic and

hydrodynamic imperatives. Condensation subjects the

gas pipeline to two-phase transport, and the presence

of condensation in gas pipelines dramatically affects

their delivery ability and operational modality and the

associated peripheral facilities. It is therefore imperative for the pigging simulation in gas-condensate

X.-X. Xu, J. Gong / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 48 (2005) 272280

design.

Pigging operation is a common practice in the petroleum and natural gas industry. Periodic pigging helps

keep the pipeline free of liquid, reducing the overall

pressure drop, and thereby increasing the pipeline flow

efficiency. Sphering was originally introduced to increase gas flow efficiency. However, there are only a

few published studies on the hydrodynamics of the

phenomena. Xu et al. (2003) has given a review on

the pigging simulation models in multiphase pipelines.

McDonald and Baker (1964) were probably the

first investigators to present a study on pigging of

gasliquid pipelines, and they presented that the

sphering could increase transportation efficiency by

30% to 70%. However, attempting to model the pigging phenomena, they assumed that a successive

steady-state approach could be used, that is, the standard steady-state two-phase empirical correlations for

both liquid holdup and pressure drop could be used

within each timestep, which caused much calculation

error. Barua (1982) attempted to improve the McDonald and Baker (1964) pigging model, and removed

some limiting assumptions of the original model, and

proposed a procedure to model the liquid slug acceleration during its delivery into the separator/slug

catcher. However, the main assumption of a successive steady-state condition was not removed.

Kohda et al. (1988) proposed the first pigging

model base on full two-phase transient flow formulation. Their model includes the drift flux transient

code, which is based on the Scoggins (1977) study,

and a pigging model. The pigging model is composed

of correlations for pressure drop across the pig, slug

holdup, pigging efficiency, pig velocity model, and a

gas and liquid mass flow boundary condition applied

to the slug front. The resulting set of equations was

solved numerically by a finite difference method,

using two coordinate systems, one fixed and the

other adaptive. No further detail was given on how

the difference equations were coupled and solved

simultaneously. However, the experimental data compared relatively well with the predicted values for the

numerical simulator. Note that the Kohda et al.

(1988) model still uses flow-pattern-independent

steady-state holdup and pressure drop correlation to

account the slip between phases. Empirical correlations are known to be restricted when applied beyond

273

data used to develop them.

Minami and Shoham (1991) developed a pigging

model and coupled it with the Taitel et al. (1989)

simplified transient model assuming quasi-steady

state gas flow. An EulereanLagrangean approach

using a fixed and moving co-ordinate system is used.

Minami and Shoham (1991) used mechanistic models

for predicting flow pattern, the slippage between

phases and the pressure drop, and he performed an

extensive experimental program showing this simplified approach is physically sound.

Meanwhile, other pigging models, such as TACITE

(Pauchon and Dhulesia, 1994), Lima (1998), Petra

(Larsen et al., 1997), have no difference in essence

from the Minami and Shoham (1991) model, and

slug/pig tracking and boundary conditions have just

been improved.

In China, the research to the pigging simulation

starts relatively late, and only a few scientific research

institutions (China University of Petroleum, Xian

Jiaotong University, etc.), have carried out the pertinent research. Liang (1997) developed a simplified

pigging model for predicting the dynamics of pigging

operation. And Li and Feng (2004) conducted pigging

experiments in an airwater two-phase flow loop. And

Petroleum University (Beijing) has done some valuable work on gas-condensate pipelines.

Gas-condensate flow with low liquid loading is a

multiphase flow phenomenon commonly encountered

in raw gas transportation. Fig. 1(a) is the schematic

description of the liquid holdup in horizontal gas-condensate pipelines. The pipeline is divided into two

sections, that is, gas section (Ao) with no condensate

near the input for the higher pressure and temperature,

and two-phase flow section (Bo) with condensate for

lower pressure and temperature. According to the characteristic of the low-liquid loading, the physical model

used in the development of the pigging model is given

in Fig. 1(b). A similar physical pigging model had been

used by Kohda et al. (1988) and Minami and Shoham

(1991). The pipeline is also divided three sections. Just

ahead of the pig is the liquid slug section (B). The

region to the left of the pig is the upstream single-

274

X.-X. Xu, J. Gong / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 48 (2005) 272280

(a)

Ao

Bo

(b)

Vp

Vs ELs

pig

A

Vt

VL EL

pipelines, (b) Schematic description of pigging model for gascondensate pipelines.

slug is the downstream transient two-phase flow section (C). However, Kohda et al. (1988) and Minami and

Shoham (1991) models cannot be used for non-isothermal two-phase pipeflow systems with phase changes

and mass transfer.

3. Pigging simulation

3.1. Compositional hydrodynamic model

Prediction of temperature and mass transfer is extremely important for multicomponent or compositional flow,

such as gas condensate systems. Compositions of such

complex systems are not constant, but vary significantly

along the pipeline as a function of pressure, and especially

temperature. Thus, the black oil model is inadequate to

handle compositional systems, which should be treated

by vaporliquid equilibrium flash calculation at each

pressure and temperature. Accurate prediction of both

pressure and temperature is thus essential.

This paper presents a compositional hydrodynamic

model that describes the hydrodynamic behavior of

gas/gas condensate flow in pipelines, in which gas is

condensing/vaporizing at some section of the pipeline.

One of the most difficult features of this system is that

the condensing/vaporizing section must be identified.

This problem is resolved by coupling of a phase-behavior model to the basic hydrodynamic equations.

The phase behavior model incorporates the Peng

Robinson two-parameter EOS (Peng and Robinson,

properties of both phases at the given temperature, pressure and composition. This approach is quite reliable and

relatively fast in process calculations involving light

hydrocarbon systems, such as gas-condensate system,

which can be used to determine the numbers of phases in

pipe, to estimate the densities, enthalpies, specific heat

capacities of gas and liquid, the flow parameters such as

liquid and gas viscosites and the surface tension.

Meanwhile, the onset of condensation means that two

phases coexist in the pipeline, with continuous mass and

momentum transfer between phases. This coexistence

creates an additional complication because the mass

transfer rate depends on the systems temperature, pressure and composition. The mass transfer rate cannot be

determined in advance; it must be evaluated simultaneously with the solution of the hydrodynamic equations, which is necessary to satisfy the conservation of

mass, momentum and energy. For calculating pressure

and temperature profiles in pipe flow, these conservation

equations lead to two independent equations: the pressure gradient and enthalpy balance equations (Fig. 2).

3.1.1. Momentum equation

The pressure gradient equation is developed by

combining the momentum and mass balance equations for one dimensional flow in a pipe, which

includes friction loss, elevation and acceleration pressure gradient.

dP

dP

dP

dx Total

dx

dx Elevation

Friction

dP

1

dx acceleration

3.1.2. Energy equation

As fluids flow through a pipe, they continuously

exchange heat with the surroundings. The temperature

profile in flowing fluids is affected by heat transfer,

L

PK-1

T K-1

HK-1

PK

TK

HK

Z

X.-X. Xu, J. Gong / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 48 (2005) 272280

effect. Temperature change resulting from expansion

is referred to as the JouleThomson effect, which can

cause the temperature to drop below the surrounding

temperature. Taking into account all these effects in

two-phase flow, the enthalpy balance on a segment of

pipe may be written as follows,

dH

dH

dH

dx Total

dx Exchange

dx Elevation

dH

2

dx Kinetic

For quasi-steady-state flow,

dH

dQ

dv

dZ

v

g

:

dx

dx

dx

dx

written as following

HK HK1 gDZ

:

M

PK

4

(H K )is the function of pressure ( P K ) and temperature

(T K ). However P K and T K are unknowns. P K can be

calculated from the hydrodynamic model, while the

model parameters are function of P K and T K , which

can be calculated by the phase behavior model. So it is

necessary to couple the hydrodynamic model and

phase behavior model, the hypothesis pressure and

temperature are needed before the iterative calculation. In one pipe segment, with two-phase properties

gained by the phase behavior model, liquid holdup

can be predicted by the empirical correlations, such as

BB (Beggs and Brill, 1973), Eaton (Eaton, 1967), MB

(Mukherjee and Brill, 1983) models. MB model is

exactly used in this study.

x Pk+1

VPK

behavior model (that is, the compositional hydrodynamic model), pressure, temperature, liquid holdup

along the pipeline can be predicted.

3.2. Gas section (A) calculation

Given the input pressure, temperature, flow rate,

composition, total thermal conductivity (pipe wall

thermal conductivity and soil thermal conductivity),

wall roughness, the single-phase gas flow hydrodynamic model can be used to predicted the pig velocity

and the pressure near the back of the pig, which are

the boundary condition of the slug zone calculation.

The mass and momentum is described by the

equations of compressible gas dynamics as follows,

Bqg

B qg vg

0

5

Bx

Bt

B qg v g2 P

B qg vg

f qg vg jvg j

qg gsinh:

Bx

Bt

2D

6

The local friction factor f is calculated by an empirical correlation. The pressure and the gas density

are related by gas EOS,

P

zRT

qg

Mg

x PK

molecular weight, respectively.

3.3. Slug section (B) calculation

3.3.1. Control volume (CV)

Gas-condensate flowlines are often sphered/pigged

at regular intervals to control liquid accumulation.

x FK+1

LSK+1

VPK+1

Pig

VFK

VFK+1

Pig

LSK

275

x FK

276

X.-X. Xu, J. Gong / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 48 (2005) 272280

Table 1

The pipeline operating data

expression for translational velocity v t,

Parameters

Value

Length

Diameter

Wall thickness

Pipe material

Wall roughness

Surrounding temperature

Total thermal conductivity

Flow rate at input

Temperature at input

Pressure at input

199 km

A559

11.9

API 5L X65

0.02 mm

276 K

1.5 W/(m2 K)

27.4 m3/s

293 K

9.219 MPa

front of the pig as it progresses along the line. For

modeling the pigging phenomena, mass and momentum conservation equations are applied. An expanding

CV and a fixed coordinate system are chosen as

shown in Fig. 1(b).

3.3.2. Mass balance equation

A general mass balance equation for a moving and

expanding control volume is given by

d

dt

qdV

V t

Y

qvY w

ddA 0:

At

timestep dt, the liquid holdup and density do not

change with time. Under the above assumptions, Eq.

(8) can be rewritten as following

vt

ELs vp EL vL

ELs EL

of v s as in the Gregory et al. (1978) correlation,

ELs

A general momentum balance equation expressed

by the Eq. (13) is also applied to the CV shown in Fig.

1(b). Since the momentum equation is a vector equation, only the x component of the momentum equation

Y

is considered. And F is the external force exerted by

the surroundings on the CV.

Z

Z

d

Y

Y

qvY dV

qvY vY wY ddA F : 13

dt V t

At

Assuming that the liquid density, slug velocity, and

the slug holdup do not change within one timestep,

and the liquid slipping past the pig is zero, the momentum accumulation term and the momentum flux

across the surface enclosing the CV, that is, the left

hand side of Eq. (13) are rewritten

Z

Z

d

Y

Y

Y

qv dV

qvY vY w

ddA

dt V t

At

10

dLs

qL vL vL vt EL A:

dt

14

Z xF

Y

F PP PF A g

qs Asinhdx ss kDLs

the liquid slug (B) is given by

dLs

vt vp :

dt

12

1 vs =8:661:39

qL vs ELs A

dLs

ELs

vL vt EL 0:

dt

11

xP

15

where, s s is the shear stress between the slug and the

pipe wall. For one horizontal pipeline, substituting

Table 2

The gas-condensate composition

Component

C1

C2

C3

iC4

nC4

iC5

nC5

C6

C7+

CO2

N2

Total

mol %

88.73

7.1

1.31

0.29

0.34

0.17

0.10

0.22

0.14

0.09

1.51

100.0

X.-X. Xu, J. Gong / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 48 (2005) 272280

277

Fig. 6. Pressure profile for the gas condensate pipeline.

equation can be expressed by

E L vp vL

4ss Ls

qL vs vL ELs

PF PP

ELS EL

D

16

where, E L, v L can be described the liquid holdup and

velocity between B and C, respectively.

basic assumptions involved in the slug delivery calculation are shown as following,

(1) The outlet pressure is constant;

(2) The slug is homogeneous gasliquid two-phase

mixture;

(3) The mass flow rate of gas behind the sphere is

constant.

As the slug front reaches the pipeline outlet and the

liquid is producing into the slug catcher, the slug

delivery would be taken place and the pig is accelerated (Fig. 3). The purpose of the slug delivery calcu-

4. Numerical solution

The time step Dt is assumed as constant, Dt = const.

In each timestep, the change of the slug length Dx can

278

X.-X. Xu, J. Gong / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 48 (2005) 272280

Table 3

Results calculated comparing with those of OLGA

OLGA

MODLE

Liquid

accumulated

(m3)

Maximum

pressure

(MPa)

Liquid

pigged

(m3)

Slug delivery

time (min)

102.8

94.2

9.19

9.19

73.8

73.9

11.6

10.8

(k + 1), the new coordinate at the pig position is

given by x pk+1 = x pk + v pk+1Dt, where v pk+1 is the pig

velocity of the new timestep, which is assumed to

be equal to the gas velocity closely behind the pig.

The new slug length is L Sk+1 = L Sk + Dx, and the new x

coordinate at the slug front is determined from

x Fk+1 = L Sk+1 + x pk+1.

5. Pigging analysis

One horizontal gas-condensate pipeline in Tarim

gas field in western China is used to test the proposed

pigging model. It represents a typical gas-condensate

pipeline, and fluid composition and pipeline data are

given in Tables 1 and 2. And the phase envelope is

shown in Fig. 4.

Since there is no pigging data of gas-condensate

pipelines in practice, the famous transient flow simulation software OLGA is used to test against the

proposed model. With higher precision, OLGA, a

dynamic, one-dimensional, extended two-fluid

(Bendiksen et al., 1991), with higher precision, which

has been widely used in oversea oil and gas fields.

From the Figs. 5, 6 and 7, it can be concluded that

the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic calculation

results are quite close to that of OLGA.

Meanwhile, the simplified pigging model developed has good precision in prediction of the pigging

operation as shown in Table 3. And the quasi-steady

state approach has been used in the simulation, which

could save much more time in simulation than OLGA,

and the newly developed model can be used in practice. The pig tracking and simulation of slug length

was also shown in Figs. 8 and 9.

6. Conclusion

out from the 1950s (McDonald and Baker, 1964).

However, in China, much more work needs to be

done. The proposed pigging model couples the

phase behavior model, hydrodynamic model (momentum and energy equation), which is able to simulate

the pigging operation of gas-condensate pipelines

with low liquid loading, which can also be used to

other gasliquid two-phase pipelines. Since there are

much phase behavior changes (condensation, retrocondensation) during the normal running and pigging

operation, some boundary conditions have been simplified and assumptions have been used. Meanwhile,

X.-X. Xu, J. Gong / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 48 (2005) 272280

operations, (such as terrain, shutdown, restart, wax

deposition), would also need to pay more attention.

Nomenclature

A

Pipe cross area (m2)

D

Pipe diameter (cm)

EL

Liquid holdup

E Ls Slug holdup

Tenv Surrounding temperature (K)

Y

v

Fluid velocity (m/s)

V

CV volume, m3

f

Wall friction factor

vg

Gas velocity (m/s)

Y

F

External force on the CV (N)

H

Fluid enthalpy

LS

Slug length (m)

M g Gas molecular weight (kg/mol)

P

Gas pressure in EOS (Pa)

PF

Pressure at the slug front (Pa)

PP

Pressure at the pig position (Pa)

Q

Heat loss through the wall (J)

R

8.3114472 m2 kg s 2 K 1 mol 1

t

Time (s)

T

Gas temperature in EOS (K)

Tav Average temperature in one section (K)

Greek letters

s

Shear stress

h

Pipeline inclination (rad)

DP Pressure drop of one segment (Pa)

DZ Elevation of one segment (m)

vL

Liquid velocity (m/s)

vp

Pig velocity (m/s)

vS

Slug velocity (m/s)

v sg

Gas superficial velocity (m/s)

vt

Transitional velocity at slug front (m/s)

Y

w

Velocity of the CV (m/s)

x

X coordinate

xF

X coordinate at slug front, m

xp

X coordinate at the pig, m

z

Gas compressibility factor

Z

Pipe elevation (m)

Subscripts and superscripts

g

Gas phase

k

kth timestep

L

Liquid phase

s

p

F

279

Liquid slug

Pig

Slug front

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Xinjiang Tarim Oil Field

Company for providing support for this project.

References

Barua, S., 1982. An Experimental Verification and Modification of

the McDonald and Baker Pigging Model for Horizontal Flow.

PhD Thesis, Univ. of Tulsa, Texas.

Beggs, H.-D., Brill, J.-P., 1973. A study of two-phase flow in

inclined pipes. J. Pet. Technol. 52, 607.

Bendiksen, K., Malnes, D., Moe, R., 1991. The dynamic two-fluid

model OLGA: theory and application. SPE Prod. Eng.

(SPE19451), 171 180 (May).

Eaton, B.-A., 1967. The prediction of flow patterns, liquid holdup,

and pressure losses occurring during continuous two-phase flow

in horizontal pipelines. J. Pet. Technol. 19 (4), 815 828.

Gregory, G.-A., Nichloson, M.-K., Aziz, K., 1978. Correlation of

the liquid volume fraction in the slug for horizontal fas-liquid

slug flow. Int. J. Multiph. Flow 4, 33 39.

Kohda, K., Suzukawa, Y., Furukwa, H., 1988, May. A new method

for analyzing transient flow after pigging scores well. Oil and

Gas Journal 9, 40 47.

Larsen, M., Hustvedt, E., Straurne, T., 1997. Petra: a novel computer code for simulation of slug flow. SPE Ann. Tech. Conf.

and Exhi. (SPE 38841), Texas, USA.

Li, Y.-X., Feng, S.-C., 2004. Simulation of pigging dynamic in gas

liquid pipelines. Chem. Ind. Eng. 55 (2), 271 274 (in Chinese,

with English Abstr.).

Liang, Z.-P., 1997. Investigation on transient behaviors in oil and

gas two-phase flow pipelines: experimental and modeling, PhD

Thesis, Xian Jaiotong University, Xian, China.

Lima, P.-C.-R., 1998. Modeling of transient two phase flow operations and offshore pigging. SPE Ann. Tech. Conf. and Exhi.

(SPE49208), New Orleans, USA.

Pauchon, C.L., Dhulesia, H., 1994. TACITE: a transient tool for

multiphase pipeline and well simulation. SPE Ann. Tech. Conf.

and Exhi. (SPE 28545), New Orleans, USA.

Peng, D., Robinson, D.B., 1976. A new two-constant equation of

state. Ind. Eng. Chem. 15 (1), 59 64.

McDonald A.-E, Baker O., 1964. Multiphase Flow in (Gas) Pipelines. Oil and Gas J., 62(24): 6871, 62(25): 171175, 62(26):

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Minami, K., Shoham, O., 1991. Pigging dynamics in two-phase

flow pipelines: experiment and modeling. SPE Prod. Facil. 10

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Mukherjee, H., Brill, J.-P., 1983. Liquid holdup correlations for

inclined two-phase flow. J. Pet. Technol. 35 (5), 1003 1008.

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Transient Two-phase Flow in a Pipeline. PhD Thesis, University

of Tulsa, Texas, USA.

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