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International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engineering

Available Online at www


www.ijecse.org

454

ISSN: 2277-1956

Determination and
and Analysis of Sidebands in FM
Signals
ignals using Bessel Function
1

Dhiraj
iraj Saxena
Saxena, 2Mridul Kumar Mathur, 3Seema Loonker
1
Department of Physics & Electronics
2,3
Department of Computer Science
1,2,3
Lachoo Memorial College of Science and Technology, Jodhpur (Raj.), INDIA
Email: 1dhirajm_in@yahoo.com,
dhirajm_in@yahoo.com 2Mathur_mridul@yahoo.com, 3seemasurana@gmail.com
Abstract- In Frequency Modulation the components of the modulated wave are much more complex in
comparison to other analog modulation techniques. Here a single frequency modulating signal produces an
infinite number of pairs of sidebands frequencies. However the sideband frequencies are negligibly small in
amplitude but they increase the bandwidth
bandwidth of the FM signal. An exact analysis of these sidebands is essential
so as to find the exact bandwidth in order to overcome the problems of overlapping of adjacent signals and
cross talk. Here we have analyzed the FM signals using the Bessel functions
functions in order to determine the
amplitudes of the available sidebands and thereby the bandwidth. We find that larger the value of
modulation index, more sets of sideband frequencies is produced.
Keywords: Frequency modulation, Bessel Function, Sidebands
I. INTRODUCTION
Bessel functions arises from the solution of a differential equation frequently used in various applications of physics,
communication and signal processing [1,2] . Bessel's equation originates when finding separable solutions to
Laplace's equation
n and the Helmholtz equation in cylindrical or spherical coordinates. Bessel functions are therefore
especially important for many problems of wave propagation and static potentials. Bessel functions have extensive
application especially in the case of handling
handling cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems based problems. Bessel
functions have extensive applications in studying electromagnetic waves in a cylindrical waveguide, heat conduction
in a cylindrical object, modes of vibration of a thin circular aartificial
rtificial membrane , diffusion problems on a lattice,
solutions to the radial Schrdinger equation for a free particle, solving for patterns of acoustical radiation etc.[3]
Bessel functions have also been found useful in the applications regarding signa
signall processing such as FM synthesis,
Kaiser window, or Bessel filter etc. This paper presents application of Bessel function in analyzing all side bands in
the process of frequency modulation for distortion less transeption.
II. BESSEL FUNCTION
In mathematics, Bessel functions, first defined by the mathematician Daniel Bernoulli and generalized by
Friedrich Bessel, are canonical solutions y(x) of Bessel's differential equation 1.1:
-------------------------------------------------(1.1)
Where n is a non-negative
negative real number. The solutions of this equation are called Bessel Functions of order n. most
of the application n is taken as non-negative
non
integers, i.e., n=0,1,2,3 or half-integer.
integer. Bessel functions are also
known as cylinder functions
ons or cylindrical harmonics because they are found in the solution to Laplace's equation in
cylindrical coordinates. Since Bessel's differential equation is a second order ordinary differential equation, two sets
of functions, the Bessel function of the first
f
kind
the Weber Function)

and the Bessel function of the second kind (also known as

, are needed to form the general solution 1.2:


----------------------------(1.2)

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Determination and Analysis of Sidebands in FM Signals using Bessel Function

However, Yn(x) is divergent at x=0. T


The
he associated coefficient c2 is forced to be zero to obtain a physically
meaningful result when there is no source or sink at x=0.
[4, 5, 6]
The Bessel function of the first kind of order n can be expressed as a series of gamma functions.

---------------------------(1.3)
(1.3)
The generating function of the Bessel Function of the first kind is expressed as

-------------------------(1.4)
(1.4)
Various functions and their special cases can be expressed in terms of Bessel functions
tions as mentioned below in
equation 1.5 and 1.6.

-------------------------(1.5) & (1.6)

III. FREQUENCY MODULATION


The key process of analog transmission is modulation, which requires manipulation of one or more of the
parameters of the carrier that characterizes the analog signal. If the frequency of the carrier signal is varied in
accordance with the modulating signal then the process is refereed as frequ
frequency
ency modulation. The classic definition of
FM is that the instantaneous output frequency of a transmitter is varied in accordance with the modulating signal

Figure 1-- FM signal with the modulating signal in frequency modulation

As shown in the figure, the carriers instantaneous frequency deviation from its un modulated value varies in
proportion to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal in the process of frequency modulation. In an FM
signal, frequency deviation, , is the maximum
maximum frequency deviation of the carrier frequency caused by the amplitude
of the modulating signal. The modulation index for an FM signal can be defined as the ratio of the maximum
frequency deviation to the modulating signals frequency

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IJECSE,Volume1,Number 2
Dhiraj Saxena et al.

mf =

--------------------------------(1.7)

fm

mf is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal and inversely proportional to the frequency of the
modulating signal. Also, it is independent from the modulation frequency.
A-MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF FM
Equation for a carrier wave can be written as a sine wave :
ec(t) = Ec sin(t + )

---------------------(1.8)

Modulating signal can also be expressed as sine wave.


eM=EM sinMt

--------------------(1.9)

Frequency modulation is realized by varying in accordance with the modulating signal. Thus an equation for the
instantaneous voltage can be written for the signal frequency of an FM wave as a function of time:
eFM(t) = EC sin(Ct + mf sinMt)
eFM(t) = EC [ sin(Ct) cos( mf sinMt) + cos(Ct) sin ( mf sinMt)]

-------(1.10)

Where EC is the rest-frequency peak amplitude, C and M represent the rest and modulating frequencies, and
mf is the index of modulation.
Equation 1.10 represents a single low-frequency sine wave, fM, frequency modulating another high-frequency
sine wave, fC. The argument of the sine wave is itself a sine wave in this equation. This modulated wave has actually
the vector sum of three sine waves. This modulated signal is consisting of three or more frequency components
vectorially added together to give the appearance of a sine wave thats frequency is varying with time when displayed
in the time domain
B.APPLICATION OF BESSEL FUNCTIONS IN ANALYZING SIDE BANDS OF FM
Equation 1.10 cannot be solved with algebra or trigonometric identities. The only way out is to use Besselfunction identities to yield solutions to equation 7 and to determine the frequency components of an FM wave.
Equation 1.10 can be expressed in terms of Bessel function using equation 1.5 and 1.6 in the following manner:
sin
    + 2     cos 2   ! +
  =

%-- -----------------(1.11)
cos
 2  "   sin2 1  !
Equation (1.11) can be further solved and can be written as

--------------(1.12)
It itemizes the various signal components in an FM wave and their amplitudes. This equation indicates that there
are an infinite number of sideband pairs for an FM wave. Each sideband pair is symmetrically located about the
transmitters rest frequency, fC, and separated from the rest frequency by integral multiples of the modulating
frequency, n fM, where n = 1, 2, 3, ... . The magnitude of the rest frequency and sideband pairs is dependent upon
the index of modulation, mf, and given by the Bessel function coefficients, Jn(mf), where the subscript n of Jn is the
order of the sideband pair. For example J0(1.0) represents the rest-frequency amplitude of an FM wave with an index
of modulation equal to 1.0. Similarly J1(2.5) is the amplitude of the first pair of sidebands for an FM wave with mf =
2.5 .

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Determination and Analysis of Sidebands in FM Signals using Bessel Function

To determine sideband frequencies of FM signal, it is required to determine value of the term Jn(mf) which gives
amplitude of nth side band with modulation index mf.. The values of the Jn(mf) terms can be calculated from series
solution as mentioned in equation 4. . For the sake of simplification, the results of the numerical computation of the
values of J0(mf), J1(mf), J2(mf), and so forth are usually plotted on a graph as shown in figure 2.

Figure (2): plotting of amplitude of side bands as a function of modulation index using Bessel Functions

It can be observed from the graph that for small values of mf, the only Bessel functions with any significant
amplitude are J0(mf) and J1(mf) i.e. the rest frequency and the first sideband pair), while the amplitude of the higherorder (n > 1) sideband pairs is very small. As mf increases, the amplitude of the rest frequency decreases and the
amplitude of the higher-order sidebands increases, which would seem to indicate an increasing signal bandwidth? It
can be further observed that as mf keeps increasing, the sideband pairs are essentially zero amplitude until about mf =
n, at which point they increase in amplitude to a maximum and then decrease again. In all cases, as mf keeps
increasing, each Bessel function appears to act like an exponentially decaying sine wave. Therefore, the amplitudes of
the higher-order sideband pairs eventually approach zero.

Figure (3): Bessel Function of First Kind Jn(m)

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Dhiraj Saxena et al.

In all cases, including the rest frequency J0(mf),the amplitude of the Bessel function goes to zero for numerous
values of mf, meaning that the rest-frequency component of the FM wave can disappear. These values as plotted on
the graph can also be consolidated in a table for integer or fractional values of mf as shown below:
Amplitude values with minus signs in this table represent phase shifts of 180 degrees and that amplitude values
less than 0.01 have been left out as they represent component frequencies with insignificant power content. Power of
these side band can also be analyzed by calculating amplitude of side bands using Bessel function.
Significance of this side band analyzed can be understood using an example. Consider an FM signal resulting
from a modulating signal of 10 kHz, an index of modulation of 0.25, and rest frequency of 500 kHz. Now from Bessel
function analysis and using graph, it can be seen that for this case, there is only one pair of sidebands with appreciable
power. This type of FM signal is also referred as narrow-band FM (NBFM), where mf 0.5. This type of analysis is
highly crucial and significant for FM transmitters commonly used by business band for mobile communication and
FM radio services for voice transmission.
IV. CONCLUSION
This paper presents the application of Bessel functions in analyzing side bands as generated in the process of
frequency modulation. This type of analysis is extremely useful for efficient FM transmission as employed in mobile
and other commercial communication services. This paper first introduced the Bessel function and some of its special
forms as used in wide number of application. The application of Bessel function in analyzing side band frequency is
discussed in analytical manner. It explains how Bessel functions determine amplitude and power of significant side
bands as a function of modulation index in the process of FM transmission.
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]

F. E. Relton, Applied Bessel Functions (Blackie and Son Limited, 1946).


H. J. Arfken, G. B., Weber, Mathematical Methods for Physicists (Elsevier Academic Press, 2005).
Arfken, George B. and Hans J. Weber, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 6th edition (Harcourt: San Diego, 2005). ISBN 0-12-0598760.
Bayin, S.S. Mathematical Methods in Science and Engineering, Wiley, 2006
Bayin, S.S., Essentials of Mathematical Methods in Science and Engineering, Wiley, 2008
Bowman, Frank Introduction to Bessel Functions (Dover: New York, 1958). ISBN 0-486-60462-4

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