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www.ijecse.org

454

ISSN: 2277-1956

Determination and

and Analysis of Sidebands in FM

Signals

ignals using Bessel Function

1

Dhiraj

iraj Saxena

Saxena, 2Mridul Kumar Mathur, 3Seema Loonker

1

Department of Physics & Electronics

2,3

Department of Computer Science

1,2,3

Lachoo Memorial College of Science and Technology, Jodhpur (Raj.), INDIA

Email: 1dhirajm_in@yahoo.com,

dhirajm_in@yahoo.com 2Mathur_mridul@yahoo.com, 3seemasurana@gmail.com

Abstract- In Frequency Modulation the components of the modulated wave are much more complex in

comparison to other analog modulation techniques. Here a single frequency modulating signal produces an

infinite number of pairs of sidebands frequencies. However the sideband frequencies are negligibly small in

amplitude but they increase the bandwidth

bandwidth of the FM signal. An exact analysis of these sidebands is essential

so as to find the exact bandwidth in order to overcome the problems of overlapping of adjacent signals and

cross talk. Here we have analyzed the FM signals using the Bessel functions

functions in order to determine the

amplitudes of the available sidebands and thereby the bandwidth. We find that larger the value of

modulation index, more sets of sideband frequencies is produced.

Keywords: Frequency modulation, Bessel Function, Sidebands

I. INTRODUCTION

Bessel functions arises from the solution of a differential equation frequently used in various applications of physics,

communication and signal processing [1,2] . Bessel's equation originates when finding separable solutions to

Laplace's equation

n and the Helmholtz equation in cylindrical or spherical coordinates. Bessel functions are therefore

especially important for many problems of wave propagation and static potentials. Bessel functions have extensive

application especially in the case of handling

handling cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems based problems. Bessel

functions have extensive applications in studying electromagnetic waves in a cylindrical waveguide, heat conduction

in a cylindrical object, modes of vibration of a thin circular aartificial

rtificial membrane , diffusion problems on a lattice,

solutions to the radial Schrdinger equation for a free particle, solving for patterns of acoustical radiation etc.[3]

Bessel functions have also been found useful in the applications regarding signa

signall processing such as FM synthesis,

Kaiser window, or Bessel filter etc. This paper presents application of Bessel function in analyzing all side bands in

the process of frequency modulation for distortion less transeption.

II. BESSEL FUNCTION

In mathematics, Bessel functions, first defined by the mathematician Daniel Bernoulli and generalized by

Friedrich Bessel, are canonical solutions y(x) of Bessel's differential equation 1.1:

-------------------------------------------------(1.1)

Where n is a non-negative

negative real number. The solutions of this equation are called Bessel Functions of order n. most

of the application n is taken as non-negative

non

integers, i.e., n=0,1,2,3 or half-integer.

integer. Bessel functions are also

known as cylinder functions

ons or cylindrical harmonics because they are found in the solution to Laplace's equation in

cylindrical coordinates. Since Bessel's differential equation is a second order ordinary differential equation, two sets

of functions, the Bessel function of the first

f

kind

the Weber Function)

----------------------------(1.2)

ISSN-2277-1956/V1N2-454-458

455

Determination and Analysis of Sidebands in FM Signals using Bessel Function

The

he associated coefficient c2 is forced to be zero to obtain a physically

meaningful result when there is no source or sink at x=0.

[4, 5, 6]

The Bessel function of the first kind of order n can be expressed as a series of gamma functions.

---------------------------(1.3)

(1.3)

The generating function of the Bessel Function of the first kind is expressed as

-------------------------(1.4)

(1.4)

Various functions and their special cases can be expressed in terms of Bessel functions

tions as mentioned below in

equation 1.5 and 1.6.

The key process of analog transmission is modulation, which requires manipulation of one or more of the

parameters of the carrier that characterizes the analog signal. If the frequency of the carrier signal is varied in

accordance with the modulating signal then the process is refereed as frequ

frequency

ency modulation. The classic definition of

FM is that the instantaneous output frequency of a transmitter is varied in accordance with the modulating signal

As shown in the figure, the carriers instantaneous frequency deviation from its un modulated value varies in

proportion to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal in the process of frequency modulation. In an FM

signal, frequency deviation, , is the maximum

maximum frequency deviation of the carrier frequency caused by the amplitude

of the modulating signal. The modulation index for an FM signal can be defined as the ratio of the maximum

frequency deviation to the modulating signals frequency

ISSN-2277-1956/V1N2-454-458

IJECSE,Volume1,Number 2

Dhiraj Saxena et al.

mf =

--------------------------------(1.7)

fm

mf is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal and inversely proportional to the frequency of the

modulating signal. Also, it is independent from the modulation frequency.

A-MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF FM

Equation for a carrier wave can be written as a sine wave :

ec(t) = Ec sin(t + )

---------------------(1.8)

eM=EM sinMt

--------------------(1.9)

Frequency modulation is realized by varying in accordance with the modulating signal. Thus an equation for the

instantaneous voltage can be written for the signal frequency of an FM wave as a function of time:

eFM(t) = EC sin(Ct + mf sinMt)

eFM(t) = EC [ sin(Ct) cos( mf sinMt) + cos(Ct) sin ( mf sinMt)]

-------(1.10)

Where EC is the rest-frequency peak amplitude, C and M represent the rest and modulating frequencies, and

mf is the index of modulation.

Equation 1.10 represents a single low-frequency sine wave, fM, frequency modulating another high-frequency

sine wave, fC. The argument of the sine wave is itself a sine wave in this equation. This modulated wave has actually

the vector sum of three sine waves. This modulated signal is consisting of three or more frequency components

vectorially added together to give the appearance of a sine wave thats frequency is varying with time when displayed

in the time domain

B.APPLICATION OF BESSEL FUNCTIONS IN ANALYZING SIDE BANDS OF FM

Equation 1.10 cannot be solved with algebra or trigonometric identities. The only way out is to use Besselfunction identities to yield solutions to equation 7 and to determine the frequency components of an FM wave.

Equation 1.10 can be expressed in terms of Bessel function using equation 1.5 and 1.6 in the following manner:

sin

+ 2 cos 2 ! +

=

%-- -----------------(1.11)

cos

2 " sin2 1 !

Equation (1.11) can be further solved and can be written as

--------------(1.12)

It itemizes the various signal components in an FM wave and their amplitudes. This equation indicates that there

are an infinite number of sideband pairs for an FM wave. Each sideband pair is symmetrically located about the

transmitters rest frequency, fC, and separated from the rest frequency by integral multiples of the modulating

frequency, n fM, where n = 1, 2, 3, ... . The magnitude of the rest frequency and sideband pairs is dependent upon

the index of modulation, mf, and given by the Bessel function coefficients, Jn(mf), where the subscript n of Jn is the

order of the sideband pair. For example J0(1.0) represents the rest-frequency amplitude of an FM wave with an index

of modulation equal to 1.0. Similarly J1(2.5) is the amplitude of the first pair of sidebands for an FM wave with mf =

2.5 .

ISSN-2277-1956/V1N2-454-458

457

Determination and Analysis of Sidebands in FM Signals using Bessel Function

To determine sideband frequencies of FM signal, it is required to determine value of the term Jn(mf) which gives

amplitude of nth side band with modulation index mf.. The values of the Jn(mf) terms can be calculated from series

solution as mentioned in equation 4. . For the sake of simplification, the results of the numerical computation of the

values of J0(mf), J1(mf), J2(mf), and so forth are usually plotted on a graph as shown in figure 2.

Figure (2): plotting of amplitude of side bands as a function of modulation index using Bessel Functions

It can be observed from the graph that for small values of mf, the only Bessel functions with any significant

amplitude are J0(mf) and J1(mf) i.e. the rest frequency and the first sideband pair), while the amplitude of the higherorder (n > 1) sideband pairs is very small. As mf increases, the amplitude of the rest frequency decreases and the

amplitude of the higher-order sidebands increases, which would seem to indicate an increasing signal bandwidth? It

can be further observed that as mf keeps increasing, the sideband pairs are essentially zero amplitude until about mf =

n, at which point they increase in amplitude to a maximum and then decrease again. In all cases, as mf keeps

increasing, each Bessel function appears to act like an exponentially decaying sine wave. Therefore, the amplitudes of

the higher-order sideband pairs eventually approach zero.

ISSN-2277-1956/V1N2-454-458

IJECSE,Volume1,Number 2

Dhiraj Saxena et al.

In all cases, including the rest frequency J0(mf),the amplitude of the Bessel function goes to zero for numerous

values of mf, meaning that the rest-frequency component of the FM wave can disappear. These values as plotted on

the graph can also be consolidated in a table for integer or fractional values of mf as shown below:

Amplitude values with minus signs in this table represent phase shifts of 180 degrees and that amplitude values

less than 0.01 have been left out as they represent component frequencies with insignificant power content. Power of

these side band can also be analyzed by calculating amplitude of side bands using Bessel function.

Significance of this side band analyzed can be understood using an example. Consider an FM signal resulting

from a modulating signal of 10 kHz, an index of modulation of 0.25, and rest frequency of 500 kHz. Now from Bessel

function analysis and using graph, it can be seen that for this case, there is only one pair of sidebands with appreciable

power. This type of FM signal is also referred as narrow-band FM (NBFM), where mf 0.5. This type of analysis is

highly crucial and significant for FM transmitters commonly used by business band for mobile communication and

FM radio services for voice transmission.

IV. CONCLUSION

This paper presents the application of Bessel functions in analyzing side bands as generated in the process of

frequency modulation. This type of analysis is extremely useful for efficient FM transmission as employed in mobile

and other commercial communication services. This paper first introduced the Bessel function and some of its special

forms as used in wide number of application. The application of Bessel function in analyzing side band frequency is

discussed in analytical manner. It explains how Bessel functions determine amplitude and power of significant side

bands as a function of modulation index in the process of FM transmission.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

H. J. Arfken, G. B., Weber, Mathematical Methods for Physicists (Elsevier Academic Press, 2005).

Arfken, George B. and Hans J. Weber, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 6th edition (Harcourt: San Diego, 2005). ISBN 0-12-0598760.

Bayin, S.S. Mathematical Methods in Science and Engineering, Wiley, 2006

Bayin, S.S., Essentials of Mathematical Methods in Science and Engineering, Wiley, 2008

Bowman, Frank Introduction to Bessel Functions (Dover: New York, 1958). ISBN 0-486-60462-4

ISSN-2277-1956/V1N2-454-458

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