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While the present publication is concerned primarily with

air quality guidelines, which provide concentration levels and/or


risk assessment
methodologies for determining safe levels of air quality for
population health (AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES)

Como estabelecer uma relao entre o limite necessrio de poluentes


atmosfricos para uma segurana de sade populacional e a avaliao de
risco ambiental que uma determinada atividade pode causar a qualidade do
ar.
A metodologia deve ser aplicada para avaliao dos riscos e propor um
mecanismo de controle e monitoramento dos limites necessrios para cada
poluente.
Talvez propor um plano de gerenciamento da qualidade do ar.
Pode se propor por exemplo a reduo de MP 2,5 Material Particulado
gerado da exausto de Diesel , reduo de 10 g/m de MP 2.5 para um
subgrupo populacional de 100.000 pessoas que vivem ao longo de uma
rodovia ou mesmo em reas urbanas.
However, it is not yet clear whether these differences reflect differential
vulnerability or differences in exposure. Individuals with less education may
be exposed to higher PM levels than measured at the central site monitors,
or the nature and mixture of pollutants may be different. As a whole, the
evidence on differential responses to air pollution as a function of SEP
remains inconclusive. More studies specifically designed to test this
hypothesis are needed (AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES).
Most available data on air pollution gradients near roadways derive
from studies in developed countries. Fischer et al. studied
concentration patterns for traffic-related pollutants in the city of
Amsterdam (52). Ambient air monitoring was carried out at ground
level next to 36 homes, half along streets with high traffic flows
and half along streets with low flows. They reported twofold
differences in the concentrations of several traffic-related primary
pollutants (black carbon, benzo(a)pyrene and benzene) between
the locations with high and low traffic flows. The differences were
less pronounced, in the 1520% range, for PM 10 and PM2.5. The
spatial patterns in concentrations for the traffic-related pollutants
were highly correlated with one another (0.800.90), confirming
their common source.

The significance for health of road emissions has been highlighted


by several recent studies, suggesting that the mix of particles and
co-pollutants emitted by motor vehicles may be especially potent
(49,54,57,5961).

1. Hoek G et al. Association between mortality and indicators of


traffic-related air pollution in the Netherlands: a cohort study.
Lancet, 2002, 360:12031209
2. Janssen NAH et al. The relationship between air pollution from
heavy
traffic
and
allergic
sensitization,
bronchial
hyperresponsiveness, and respiratory symptoms in Dutch
schoolchildren. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2003,
111:15121518
3. Zhu Y et al. Study of ultrafine particles near a major highway
with heavyduty diesel traffic. Atmospheric Environment,
2002, 36:43234335
4. Roemer WH, van Wijnen JH. Daily mortality and air pollution
along busy streets in Amsterdam, 19871998. Epidemiology,
2001, 12:649653
5. Garshick E et al. Residence near a major road and respiratory
symptoms in U.S. veterans. Epidemiology, 2003, 14:728736
6. Venn AJ et al. Living near a main road and the risk of
wheezing illness in children. American Journal of Respiratory
and Critical Care Medicine, 2001, 164:21772180
Many epidemiological studies implicate PM air pollution, a
heterogeneous mixture of particles of different size and chemistry,
as an important contributor to both morbidity and mortality (see
Chapter 10). Significant health impacts of pollution can be expected
in urban centres throughout the world, since exposure to PM is
ubiquitous. As a result, many HIA have used PM as the marker of
pollution. The largest contributor to PM is often fuel combustion
from mobile sources (motor vehicles) and stationary sources (e.g.
power plants, industrial boilers, factories), but other sources such
as road dust and biomass burning may also be significant
contributors. Historically, PM has been measured at fixed-site
monitors, either as TSP (total suspended particles, which include
particles of all sizes), PM10 (PM <10 m in diameter), PM2.5 (PM
<2.5 m in diameter) or BS (black smoke, a measure of the
darkness of a sample collected on filter paper). Thus the bulk of the
epidemiological evidence uses these pollutants as the indicator of
exposure. Over the last decade, air pollution standards and
regulations have focused more on the smaller particles, because of
the evidence that they can penetrate more deeply into the lung
Nevertheless, there is also concern for other particle sizes such as
ultrafine particles (PM <0.1 m) and certain chemical-specific
constituents of PM such as sulfates, transition metals and
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Research continues into the
precise particle sizes and chemical constituents that are most
responsible for adverse health effects. The existing evidence
suggests a likely causal role for PM2.5 and its constituents. In
addition, PM2.5 or PM10 serve as reasonable indicators of the
general pollution mix that is of concern. Unfortunately, PM2.5 has
only recently been monitored on a regular basis in some of the
industrialized countries, and there is little monitoring of it in other
regions.

Este capitulo os autores, revelam que o Material Particulado em vrios


pases industrializados no monitorado em especial o MP 2,5 , partculas
muito finas menor do que 2,5 m de dimetro. Dentro destas partculas
destacado as de hidrocarbonetos aromticos policclicos, alm dos negros
de fumos, sulfatos e nitratos, maior parte corresponde as emisses por
fontes moveis de veculos automotores.

Inputs for the analysis


For a given city, country or region, quantitative assessment of the health
impact of outdoor air pollution is based on four components: (a) pre- and
post-air-pollution concentrations and exposure assessment; (b) size and
composition of population groups exposed to current levels of air pollution;
(c) background incidence of mortality and morbidity; and (d) CR functions
(Fig 1).
Podemos verificar que o impacto na saude do polentes atmosfericos em
ambiente externo em baseados em 4 componentes:
Avaliao da exposio da pre e pos poluio da concentrao do ar
Dos grupos populacionais quanto ao tamanho e composio aos nivesi
atuais de poluio do ar.
Registro histrico da incidncia de mortalidade e mobidez e a relao
estatstica entre literatura epidemiolgica o qual relaciona os efeitos da
concentrao da poluio na sade.

CR functions
The fourth input is a statistical relationship from the
epidemiological literature that relates ambient concentrations of
pollution to a selected health effect. The quality of the risk
assessment depends in part on: (a) the accuracy of the CR
functions; (b) how applicable these functions are to locations and
times other than those for which they were originally estimated; (c)
the extent to which the CR functions apply beyond the range of
concentrations for which they were originally estimated; and (d)
the number of health outcomes specified. Since the selection of CR
functions is such an important element in health assessment, this
issue is discussed in greater detail below. The available
epidemiological evidence concerning health effects from exposure
to PM, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone is discussed in
detail in Chapters 1013