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Electricity

Objectives:

Explain the atomic nature of electricity

State the laws of electrostatics

Using the Inverse Square law, calculate changes in intensity and distance

Describe the three methods of electrification

Describe insulators and conductors

Describe the four basic factors of electrodynamics

Differentiate between current flow and electron flow

Explain current, potential difference and resistance

Describe differences between series and parallel circuits

Using Ohms law, calculate changes in voltage, amperage, and resistance in series and parallel

circuits.

Electricity concerns the distribution and movement of electrons.

ELECTROSTATICS

Define electrostatics: the study of the distribution of fixed charges, electrons at rest.

Objects can become charged just like atoms.

Define the term electrification:

from an object.

How does an object have a negative charge?

How does an object have a positive charge?

What is zero or ground potential?

The reference point for discussing charges, the earth has an infinite number of charges

making it neutral, Zero potential to perform work and release energy.

LAWS OF ELECTROSTATICS

Define each of the following five laws of electrostatics.

1) Repulsion-attraction: like charges repel, unlike

2) The Inverse Square law: force is directly proportional to the product of the

magnitudes and inversely proportional to the distance squared between them

Coulombs Law (F = kq1q2 / D2) is more accurate. But use:

I1 / I2 = D22 / D12

3) Distribution: charges reside on the external surface of conductors and equally

throughout nonconductors

4) Concentration: concentration of charge will be on the surface where curvature is

sharpest (cause ionization or static discharge)

5) Movement: only negative charges move along solid conductors

Katherine Walz

ELECTRIFICATION

What are the three methods of electrification?

Friction

Define friction: electrification

During cold weather when low humidity removes stabilizing electrons from the air

Give an example of attraction friction:

balloon and will then stick to a positively charged wall

Give an example of repelling friction: comb

with a positive charge, like charges repel, individual hair strands will seek to separate,

making hair stand on end

How does a humidifier in the darkroom eliminate electrostatic discharge that causes artifacts on

radiographic film?

for the distribution of electrons

Contact/Conduction

Define electrification by contact: two

other

What is resulting charge of both objects after contact electrification?

Give an example of contact electrification: touching

across a carpet (friction) and experiencing an electric shock

What is static discharge?

When oppositely charged objects are in close proximity, electrons jump the gap to

equalize electron distribution

How is excess energy released during a static discharge?

Why is this relevant to a radiographer?

The light forms an image on the film, degrades diagnostic quality of the film, repeat film

is needed.

Induction (electric fields)

Why is induction the most important method of electrification?

Induction is the process of:

electric field

When a strongly charged object comes near a weakly charged object the electric fields act on one another

before contact occurs.

ELECTRODYNAMICS

Electric current is defined as electrons that are moving

Katherine Walz

What is the most common conductor used in electricity?

Copper wire

Electrons move along a conductor is a similar fashion as: dominos

Electrons move at nearly the speed of: light

Materials, which allow electrons to flow, are called: conductors

(Titanium)

Materials, which inhibit the flow of electrons, are called: insulators

Materials, which have the ability to act as insulators under certain circumstances and a conductor at other

times are called: semiconductors (silicon, germanium) temp. determines the ability: increase

Define an electrical circuit: a

from their source, through resisting devices and back to their source

What are some sources for an electrical circuit?

What are the most efficient sources of electrical current?

Current Flow

Electrons move from the highest concentration to the lowest.

Electric current is described as going from positive to negative while electron flow is actually from

negative to positive.

What are the four most common terms to define current?

Quantity (of electrons), force, opposition/resistance (amount of), and direction (of travel)

What is direct current?

What is alternating current?

Electrons move first in one direction, then reverse and move in the opposite direction,

sine wave

Current

Current is sometimes defined as the number if electrons: flowing

Milliamperage (mA) on x-ray equipment controls the: number

of electrons available to produce xray photons, in x-ray equipment mAs (a combination of kV, mA and sec) is used.

Potential Difference

The force, which electrons travel, is a function of the difference between the number of: electrons

excess at one end of the circuit and deficiency at the other end

Katherine Walz

in

The best term to describe the strength of movement behind electrons is: potential difference

An alternate term used to mean potential difference is: Electromotive force (emf)

What is the unit of potential difference?

Volt

What is the SI unit for mechanical energy and work?

Joule

Resistance

Define resistance in relation to electricity.

What is the unit of resistance?

Ohm

What are the primary factors which effect resistance in electrical circuits?

The ability to conduct electrons (number of valence electrons- better conductors have one

valence electron, and distance of electron from the nucleus), length of conductor, cross

sectional diameter and temperature.

How does the length of a conductor affect resistance?

How does the cross sectional diameter affect resistance?

How does the temperature affect resistance?

How does temperature affect semiconductors?

Ohms law

Ohms law describes the relationship between which factors?

What is the formula including resistance?

V = IR

where V = potential difference

I = current

R = resistance

What is the unit of power?

Watt

What is the formula for calculating power?

P = IV

What is the power-loss formula? What is it used to calculate?

How does current affect heat power loss?

SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS

What are the formulas for calculating current, voltage and resistance in a series circuit?

It = I 1 = I 2 = I 3

Vt = V1 + V2 + V3

Katherine Walz

Rt = R 1 + R 2 + R 3

What are the formulas for calculating current, voltage and resistance in a parallel circuit?

It = V1 + I2 + I3

Vt = V1 = V2 = V3

1/Rt = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3

Which factor in a series circuit is constant (equal throughout circuit)?

Current

Which factor in a parallel circuit is constant (equal throughout circuit)?

Voltage

Parallel circuits are not broken when a single resistance is interrupted.

Which type of circuit is preferred in electrical wiring in buildings? Why?

Parallel, because failure of device does not break the electrical supply to the other devices

In a parallel circuit, what happens to resistance, amperage and voltage if more resistors are added to the

circuit?

What is a disadvantage of a parallel circuit?

Increase in current can short circuit entire system, which is a fire hazard

What device is used to prevent the wires from becoming too hot and causing a fire? How do these devices

work?

Fuse: metal tab melts when dangerously heated, breaking circuit

Define rheostat: resistor

resistance coils

Explain how a rheostat operates: when

resistance will result in a decrease in voltage and vice-versa if the current remains

unchanged

What is the disadvantage of rheostats?

Inverse Square law

What will the new intensity be at 30 if an object has an intensity of 100 mR at 60?

I1 = 100mR

I2 = ?

D1 = 60

D2 = 30

I1 / I2 = D22 / D12

100mR / ? = 900 / 3600

I2 = 400mR

If the intensity measures 200mR at 50, what new distance will be needed to decrease the intensity to

50mR?

I1 = 200mR

I2 = 50mR

D1 = 50

D2 = ?

Katherine Walz

I1 / I2 = D22 / D12

200mR / 50mR = ? / 2500

D2 = 100

Ohms law

What is the amperage in a circuit of 10 volts and 10 ohms?

I=?

V = 10 volts

R = 10 ohms

I = V/R

I = 10 volts / 10 ohms

I = 1 amp

I=?

V = 100 volts

R = 15 ohms

I=V/R

I = 100 volts / 15 ohms

I = 6.67 amps

V=?

I = 50 amperes

R = 25 ohms

V = RI

V = 25 ohms * 50 amperes

V = 1250 volts

What is the voltage in a parallel circuit that has 20 amperes and resistance of 6, 10, and 15 ohms?

V=?

I = 20 amps

1/Rt = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3

1/Rt = 1/6 + 1/10 + 1/15

R = 3 ohms

V= IR

V = 20 amps * 3 ohms

V = 60 volts

What is the amperage in a series circuit of 110 volts with resistance of 5, 10, and 15 ohms?

I=?

V = 110 volts

Rt = R 1 + R 2 + R 3

Rt = 5 + 10 + 15

R = 30 ohms

I=V/R

I = 110 volts / 30 ohms

I = 3.67 amperes

What is the potential difference in a circuit of 20 amperes and 10 ohms?

V=?

I = 20 amperes

R = 10 ohms

V = IR

V = 20 amperes * 10 ohms

V = 200 volts

Katherine Walz

P=?

I = 1000 mA = 1 ampere

V = 110 kV = 110,000 volts

P = IV

P = 1 ampere * 110,000 volts

P = 110,000 watts

Katherine Walz

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