You are on page 1of 12

NATIONALISM, GENDER, AND

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Jose Rizal, Sultan Kudarat, Ferdinand Emmanuel E. Marcos, and Maria Corazon C. Aquino are
just one of the individuals who have become known as heroes of the Philippines. Historically speaking,
these Filipinos have made significant contributions to the Philippines. Jose Rizal and Sultan Kudarat
demonstrates how similar nationalistic convictions can exist between two proclaimed national heroes
even if they lived during entirely different regions and points in time of Philippine history. Moreover,
Ferdinand E. Marcos was the only Filipino president who run the Philippines under a dictatorship type
of government. While Corazon Aquino is known for her contribution in reconstructing hope in the
Philippines after the EDSA revoltion. These Filipinos have played their part on the development of the
Philippines and became an influence on the Filipino people. In modern times, Manny Pacman
Pacquiao, Charice Pempengco, and Jessica Sanchez are also one of the talented individuals who have
put their names on the international scene that Filipinos are also proud of. Filipinos glorify fellow
Filipinos who are part of an international competition or foreign entertainment because they represent
the Philippine nation (Tani, 2015). Pride is a feeling or satisfaction about ones achievements. Pride
gives a person a sense of dignity and self-respect. Consequently, Filipinos manifest a phenomenon of
Pinoy Pride that has been interchangeably viewed as an act of nationalism.
People across countries and cultures have different views and definitions of nationalism.
Nationalism is an extreme feeling of love for ones country (Morano, 2010). Nationalism is loving a
country for whatever it does. The idea of Filipino nationalism is vague for the Filipinos because of the
colonization it has experienced for hundreds of years under different colonizers. Namely, the Spaniards,
Americans, and the Japanese. From a linguistic analysis, Filipino comes from the Filipinas, a name
after a Spanish king and it was given by Roy de Villalobos, a Spanish explorer. During the Spanish
colonization, Filipino natives became second-class people who could not even found a nation of its

NATIONALISM, GENDER, AND


own. The Indios or natives were not capable to give meaning to the word Filipinas that would be
applicable to the whole archipelago. Likewise, natives could not find their identity. Thus, having no
sense of identity led the Filipino natives into confusion. Due to that, there seems to be no such thing as
Filipino nationalism (Camiloza, 2014). Therefore, Filipino nationalism will always be shrouded in
colonialism if and only if colonialism still prevail in our country.
The colonization of the Philippines is rooted on a Filipinos experience that Filipino nationalism
is seen to be vague. This experience has distorted the consciousness of Filipinos. Furthermore, the
words Filipino and Filipinas came from colonial names. Hence, they are contradicting the nature of the
term nationalism. The development of Filipino nationalism is affected by different factors such as
political, social or religious differences. It is an inner reality that exists in every Filipino that needs to
be revealed, redefined and communicated to the Filipino (Camiloza, 2014). The Philippines has a
diverse history after being colonized by different nations. In historical accounts, non-traditional
Philippine heroes such as Sultan Kudarat are often neglected and not many are aware of their
accomplishments. Thus, the idea of nationalism is affected. Also, the colonial regimes of Spain and the
United States have undeniably have played a significant role in the development of the Philippine
nation that could have affected Filipino natives on formulating a sense of identity in their own country
because of the exposure on different nations and culture. The Filipino nation before was just an
archipelago and not a nation at all. Each island had its government and leader independent from other
communities. Also, each island had its own dialect. However, the diversity in terms of each island or
communitys government and dialect, these people still share a common set of traditions and beliefs.
The forms of commerce and trade, native agriculture, fishing, or handicraft were similar with one
another. The hundred of islands was unified and formed into one nation after Christianity was
introduced by the Spanish colonizers. Through colonization, the Filipinos learned how to fight as one
for their independence against the colonizers, letting the Filipinos become Filipinos

NATIONALISM, GENDER, AND


(http://www.manilatimes.net). So, this was a factor to nationalism and a Filipino national identity.
However, it would be unjust to selectively decide who and which parts of the nations past should be
recognized (Ramones, 2008).
Besides the Philippines history as a basis of a national identity, globalization is also a relevant
factor. Globalization refers to a process of interaction and integration among the peoples, companies,
and governments of different nations, which is driven by international trade and investment and aided
by information technology (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2007). The Philippines is
part of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations which aims to promote collaboration and
cooperation among member states economically, politically, and culturally. Exposure to a variety of
culture affects an individuals identity. Imported goods and services are concrete examples on how a
foreign culture is. The increasing amount of fast food options are an example of Westernization that
affects the food preferences of Filipinos. As well as the popularity of high-end fashion affects how
Filipinos dress themselves. This enables a Filipino to alter his or her lifestyle. This is a part of
globalization. It creates tension between ones own culture from another. The Philippines has been
exposed and influenced by foreign cultures, which makes the Philippine nation embody a colonial
mentality (David & Nadal, 2013). Also, being exposed to a variety of foreign culture might confuse an
individual, leading to identity confusion. Therefore, this might affect ones national identity as well as
their social identity.
Human beings are social animals, and we have a basic need to belong. Then, there are several
social identity categories: race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, socioeconomic class, age, gender,
sex, national origin, and physical/psychological/learning ability (Runell, 2005). Social categorization
happens when people cope up with the complexities of the world. Categorization is a basic process in
abstracting meaning from complex environments (Dovidio, Gaertner, Pearson, & Riek, 2005). The
world is becoming small every day. Making it possible for frequent interactions between different

NATIONALISM, GENDER, AND


cultures in various situations. Although cultural differences adds difficulty in the interactions between
people. Effective inter-cultural interactions potentially are affected by how an individual identifies
himself with his social group(s).
National identity is the product of a deliberate cultural construction and maintenance via both
the regulatory and the socializing institutions of the state; in particular, the law, the education system,
and the media (Tomlinson, 2003). So, having pride in our cultural heritage can add to our national
identity, and this pride always becomes evident whenever a fellow Filipino, either by blood or by birth,
is making his or her way in the international scene. The most recent achievement of a Filipino was Pia
Wurtzbachs victory on Miss Universe. Thus, making Filipinos connect with their national origin and
express their love for the Philippines. This expression is seen as an act of nationalism. On the contrary,
this sense of nationalism is not evident when it comes to supporting local products, some local artists,
and on the Philippine entertainment. Is colonial mentality still evident in the Philippines? Why is it that
Filipinos only become nationalistic when someone becomes successful abroad? Are Filipinos really
nationalistic? Filipinos are a living irony. Moreover, social identities are the foundation of effective
social networks, which is a crucial social capital (Clopton & Finch, 2010). Social identity is a persons
sense of who they are based on their group membership(s) and a source of pride and self-esteem
(Tajfel, 1979). Being aware of our multiple social identities that we share with others, allows social
cohesion (Brewer & Pierce, 2005). To some extent, we evaluate ourselves through our social identities
(Myers, 2014). In this study, the researchers want to know the importance of national identity as a
social identity, compared to other social identities.
Review of Related Literature
Globalization. Globalization is one of the most important research areas in social science. Social
scientists have been looking at its history, processes, effects, and implications. However, globalization
is a complex concept that has been defined in different ways. For example, globalization refers to a

NATIONALISM, GENDER, AND


process of interaction and integration among the peoples, companies, and governments of different
nations, which is driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology
(Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2007). Leslie Sklair defines globalization as the
emergence of a globalized economy based on new systems of production, finance and consumption,
whereas Anthony Giddens defines globalization as a decoupling between space and time, highlighting
that with modern communication technology, knowledge, and culture can be spread around the world
simultaneously. Also, Ulrich Beck asserts that Globalization- however the word is understood implies the weakening of state of sovereignty and state structures. Therefore, how an individual
defines globalization has important implications on this subject.
Majority of the studies done on globalization focuses on the economic dimension of
globalization and the attitudes of the public about it. According to Bacsu, studying a single dimension
cannot fully explain public attitudes towards this complex phenomenon. In this study, it is proposed
that including definitions relating to globalizations cultural and political aspects in opinion research
produces richer public opinion data, for it is a more valid interpretation of public attitudes towards
globalization. This was tested in national, Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada.
A funded opinion survey conducted in January of 2007 among 1,505 Canadians. The results suggest
that citizens possess significantly different attitudes toward the political, cultural, and economic
dimensions of globalization. Therefore, operationalizing the economic aspect of globalization alone is
insufficient.
Adolescents. Identity is a major developmental task for adolescents, and the development is an ethnic
identity is a unique and significant developmental task for many adolescents. A young person is a
passive recipient of adult influences, a becoming rather than a being in their own right. Issues
revolving the youth are about the deviance and delinquency that has been seen as a pathological view
of young people. Furthermore, the nature of youth varies significantly according to the social context,

NATIONALISM, GENDER, AND


in particular to the factors such as social class, gender, and ethnicity. Previous studies were focused
more on the internal personal conflicts. Thus, a further research on the external factors affecting an
adolescents identity is encouraged. ADD THE STATE POLICIES SECTION 13 (youth in nation
building)
Social Identity. According to Stets & Burke, Social identity consists of different categories, as the self
also consists of different identities. For instance, other identities include family, occupation, ethnicity,
political affiliation and nationality. There are two important processes in creating an identity. The first
process is self-categorization, in which an individual high lights their similarities with their in-group
and overemphasizes their differences with their out-group. The second process is social comparison, it
is the selective application of the first process. Only in the groups that give a positive identity, an
individual will compare their own identity with other groups because it will result to a positive identity
compared to the other group. This identifying process leads to the individual viewing their own group
positively compared to other groups (as cited in Per Bles, 2015).
Furthermore, Stets & Burke states that the nationality of an individual is part of their identity
based on the social categories. Social identities that are based on the social categories are grounded in
the uniformity of perception and action among group members (as cited in Per Bles, 2015) . It
defines who we are through our similarities and differences with others. It is shared with others that
will give us a basis for our shared social action (Reicher, S., Spears, R., & Haslam. S.A., n.d.)
Social identity and cultural identities has two categories. It can be categorized as granted or
gained. Those categorized as granted, these are the identities that are an inborn character. Meaning,
these identities are formed within the socializatin process. These includes, family, ethnic group, society,
community, nation and civilization. While those identities in the gained category are the ones an
individual chooses by free will (Ina, H., 2013)

NATIONALISM, GENDER, AND


There have been studies comparing the different social identities. An example of this is the
study by Uemara (2011) that compared the rankings of social identities in Japan and the United States
of America.
National Identity. One of the most basic social identities is national identity. It is an individuals
identification with a nation. However, the meaning of this differs in each individual based on the four
different types of content in a group identity. These includes constitutive norms that determines who
is part of the group; social puposes, is the common goal of the members of the group; relational
comparisons, is the significant in identifying the group in contrast with other groups; and the cognitive
models, it identifies the view and understanding of the group in terms of politics (Abdelal, Herrera,
Johnston, & McDermott, 2006). Thus, it does not only differ in which nation an individual identifies
their identity but also in the meaning they have to that particular identity (Darr, B.J., 2011).
Nationalism. Nationalism is an extreme feeling of love for ones country (Morano, 2010). Nationalism
is loving a country for whatever it does. Previous studies focused more on the factors affecting
nationalism, and most are based on historical accounts. Likewise, an international achievement of a
Filipino can also be seen as a factor on nationalism.
According to Ramones, in a nation as ethnically, religious, and politically diverse as the
Philippines, heroes or individuals that all Filipinos can proudly identify with are essential to establish
in a united sense of community or a national identity. Both Rizal and Kudarat are known for their
intellectual dedication and pursuance of Filipino unity, even though both individuals lived through
Spains colonialism of the Philippines in different time periods and regions of the country. Likewise,
Rizal and Kudarat are two figures that are referred to by Filipinos because of their messages or unity
and pride among Filipinos. Additionally, the examination of the Marcos regime reveals how he
preached to the Filipino people and world that he was seeking to mold the Philippines into a powerful,
competitive, and secure nation. However, in the eyes of the Filipino people, all that Marcos did was

NATIONALISM, GENDER, AND


nothing more than utilize his twenty year reign to promote the wealth, security, and power of his own
family and friends. Marcos created his own cronies and puppets throughout the Philippine
government and economy. Therefore, Filipinos outside of his network of family and friends were
forced under a form of colonial oppression. Clearly, Marcos and his regime had no benefit for the
Philippines economy nor on the Filipino people as a whole. Therefore, it led the Filipino people to lose
their their trust on their own government, especially towards the end of Marcos reign. Consequently,
Corazon Aquino came out of the tragedy of her husbands murder to become the heroine the
Philippines could trust to lead their nation and its people. The Filipino people knew that Aquino was
the first one to know the suffering Marcos has instilled upon the entire nation and thus everyone cling
to her sincere promises for improvements to the nation on every level. In respect to the assassination of
Corazons husband, in a letter dated March 15, 1986 the author wrote, I had to admire her (Corazon
Aquino). If it had been me, I thought, I wouldnt have been able to control my anger at the people who
butchered my husbandTo this day, Cory has shown that she isnt bent on demanding blood for blood.
She came back to bury (her husband). In the following months, she lent her presence to rallies, usually
surprised when crowds showed up. She consistently stayed out of politics till the day she accepted her
nomination. People looked up to and respected Corazon Aquino because everyone knew she lost a
husband because of his outspoken opposition to Marcos. Hence, many Filipinos considered her
political endeavors to be sincere. Corazon Aquino became a representation of the Filipino people and
their needs in the government. Then, she became a driving and healing force in the rebuilding of the
Philippine Governments image at the national and international level. It was a battle of the corrupt
versus those seeking freedom. Additionally, the Philippines mostly peaceful transition from Marcoss
regime to a functioning democratic government owes credit to the bravery and heroics of those present
and supportive of the Peoples Power Movement at EDSA. During the EDSA revolution, people
believed that their efforts would put an end to the lies and violence that Marcos threatened to utilize to

NATIONALISM, GENDER, AND


ensure he remained in power even after his defeat in the 1986 elections. Moreover, a deeper analysis
into the thoughts behind peoples actions during those days. It revealed that a restoration of pride and
concept of nationhood among Filipinos evolved from it. It took Filipinos an immense pride in the
Peoples Power Movement because they felt that without the people coming out to support Enrile,
Ramos, and Aquinio during the EDSA standoff with Marcos forces, maybe things would not have
begun to change. Likewise, Marcoss removal from power, President Aquinos official inauguration as
the righteous president of the Philippines and the prevention of a bloody revolution presented Filipinos
were several results of the Peoples Power Movement that Filipinos took pride in. Hence, this study
showed that the heroics Rizal, Kudarat, and Aquino have developed the nationalistic sentiments of the
Filipino people to become too strong to allow widespread oppression to engulf their nation like it has in
the past Marcos or colonial regimes.
According to McKee, a textual analysis will help the researcher gather information about how
other human beings make sense of the world. Therefore, a textual analysis was done by Abrillo about
Manny Pacquiao as an Icon of Filipino Nationalism. Nationalism still remains as a vague concept that
is widely used in different aspects like culture, entertainment, economics, and socio-politics, etc.
People across different countries and cultures have different views and definitions of nationalism.
Nationalism has been associated with various constructs and meanings, and this variations are
perceived to be products of what the media exposes. Previous studies has proven that media is a
powerful tool in shaping and influencing the decisions of the people and their lifestyles in general. The
study analyzed how national newspapers coverage on Pacquiao-Marquez fight III presented Manny
Pacman Pacquiao as an icon of Filipino nationalism using three levels of social codes. The study also
determined dominant nationalism constructs and finally, it sought to find out if boxing coverage in
national newspapers can be a venue for promoting nationalism in the Philippines. It mainly looked into
the social codes and analyzed how nationalism constructs are developed. In general, the use of

NATIONALISM, GENDER, AND


euphemisms, constructs, and different images of Manny Pacquiao somewhat promote nationalism
because of the awareness it brings.
Theoretical and/or Conceptual Framework
According to Feitosa & Salas, social identity constructs varies across cultures. This social
identity construct has been cited as one of the most relevant constructs when understanding inter-group
relations (Sohrabi, Gholipour, & Amiri, 2011). The structure of social identity measures include
unidimensional (i.e., group identification scale, in Kelly, 1988), two factors (i.e., cognitive and
affective, in Stets & Burke, 2000; van Zomeren, Postmes, & Spears, 2008), three factors (i.e.,
centrality, ingroup affect, and ingroup ties, in Cameron, 2004), four factors (i.e., perception of the
intergroup context, attraction to the in-group, interdependency beliefs and depersonalization, in Jackson
& Smith, 1999, and even up to seven factors (i.e., self-categorization, evaluation, importance,
attachment and sense of interdependence, social embeddedness, behavioral involvement, and content
and meaning, in Ashmore et. al., 2004). In order to integrate these discrepancies, we have looked for
trends in some of the already developed measures of social identity. As you will see in the figure below,
we have identified three dimensions: (a) categorization, (b) sense of belonging, and (c) positive
attitudes.

NATIONALISM, GENDER, AND

Statements of the Problem


The study wants to determine the level of nationalism of Filipinos among Filipino adolescents.
Research Problem
Specifically, the study seeks to answer the following questions:
1. Is colonial mentality still evident in the Philippines?
2. Are Filipinos nationalistic?
3. What is the importance of national identity in forming ones social identity?

Limitations of the Study


This study focuses on the level of nationalism of Filipino adolescents. Also, this study is limited
to the effects of globalization on the Philippines, national identity of Filipino adolescents, and on the
social identity formation of Filipino adolescents.
Significance of the Study
This study will be conducted to determine the level of nationalism among Filipino adolescents.
This study will be beneficial to the following groups of people:

NATIONALISM, GENDER, AND


Philippine Literature. Since there is a vague concept of Filipino nationalism, the results of this study
will help rediscover and give a clearer definition of Filipino nationalism.
Sociologists. Since this involves a social issue, this study will help them learn more about the behavior
and perception of adolescents towards their nation. Especially since the Philippines is a society that
was colonized. This will let them know how it has affected their level of nationalism.
Filipino Adolescents. This study will help them know more about themselves, specifically their
national identity as one of the many social identities they have.
Filipino Psychologists. This study will help Filipino psychologists in studying Filipino adolescents
that are currently affected by globalization, and see if this is a factor in an adolescents identity
formation. Also, to see if national identity is a part of ones social identity.
Philippine Economy. Since globalization is evident in the Philippines due to the partnership of the
Philippines in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, this study will be a guide for local business
industries in coming up with their goods and services, based on the Filipino adolescents perceptions
and consumer behavior.