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BENEFITS OF STRENGTH AND SKILL-BASED TRAINING

DURING PRIMARY SCHOOL PHYSICAL EDUCATION


AVERY D. FAIGENBAUM,1 JILL A. BUSH,1 RYAN P. MCLOONE,2 MICHAEL C. KRECKEL,1
ANNE FARRELL,1 NICHOLAS A. RATAMESS,1 AND JIE KANG1
1

Department of Health and Exercise Science, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, New Jersey; and 2Antiel Elementary School,
Ewing, New Jersey
ABSTRACT

Faigenbaum, AD, Bush, JA, McLoone, RP, Kreckel, MC, Farrell,


A, Ratamess, NA, and Kang, J. Benefits of strength and skillbased training during primary school physical education.
J Strength Cond Res 29(5): 12551262, 2015Physical education (PE) programs are evolving from a traditional skillcentered model to a health-centered model that focuses on
time engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA).
However, improvements in muscular fitness and fundamental
movement skills are prerequisites for continuous participation
in MVPA. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects
of integrative strength and skill-based training on measures of
physical fitness in children during primary school PE. Children
from two fourth grade PE classes were cluster randomized into
either a fundamental integrative training (FIT) group (n = 20) or
a control (CON) group (n = 21). The 8-week FIT program was
performed twice per week during the first ;15 minutes of each
PE class and consisted of a circuit of strength and skill-based
exercises. All participants were assessed for health- and skillrelated fitness before and after the intervention. The outcome
variables were analyzed via 2 3 2 repeated measures analysis
of variance with post hoc analysis. A significant (p # 0.05)
interaction of group by time was observed in FIT participants
with improvements in aerobic capacity, push-ups, sit and reach
flexibility, and single-leg hop. There were no groups by time
effects for the sit-up and long jump tests. No injuries were
reported. These findings highlight the potential benefits of integrating both health- and skill-related fitness components into
primary school PE as evidenced by improvements in measures
of aerobic capacity and muscular fitness in children.

KEY WORDS children, strength training, motor skills, aerobic


capacity, fundamental movement skills

Address correspondence to Avery D. Faigenbaum, faigenba@tcnj.edu.


29(5)/12551262
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
2015 National Strength and Conditioning Association

INTRODUCTION

egular participation in physical education (PE) has


the potential to develop physically literate individuals who have the knowledge, skills, and confidence to engage in physical activity as an
ongoing lifestyle choice (40). With qualified instruction and
deliberate practice, children can improve their motor skill
performance and enhance their muscle strength, which are
the building blocks for future participation in games, sports,
and fitness activities (5,7). Consequently, the development and
mastery of selected physical abilities during the growing years
is a prerequisite for continued participation in moderate to
vigorous physical activity (MVPA) later in life (3,41).
Although early school-based PE in the 19th century
focused on calisthenics and gymnastic activities, the current
focus on health-related fitness in most contemporary PE
programs seems to undervalue the critical importance of
developing skill-related fitness early in life (37). That is, PE
seems to have evolved from a skill-centered model to
a health-centered model with a focus on time spent in
MVPA (20). Consequently, children may not be developing
prerequisite motor skills that promote continued involvement in recreational activities and sports (31). The percentage of schools that offer daily PE has declined dramatically
in the United States over the past decade, and trends for
indicators of youth physical activity around the world are
low/poor (20,43). Concomitant with a reduction in daily PE
and regular participation in physical activities is an observable decrease in muscular fitness (i.e., muscular strength,
muscular power, and local muscular endurance) and fundamental movement skills (i.e., locomotor, object control, and
stability skills) in modern day youth (8,18). These findings
highlight the importance of initiating interventions that are
purposely designed to enhance muscular fitness and improve
fundamental movement skills in primary school children to
alter physical activity trajectories and improve health and
fitness outcomes.
The need to improve the quality and quantity of PE to
provide children of all abilities with an opportunity to
participate in meaningful experiences with appropriate
instruction is recognized as an effective and sustainable
strategy to reduce the risk of activity-related injuries, promote
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Fundamental Integrative Training


continued involvement in fitness activities, and prepare youth
for sports participation (20,30). Meta-analytical findings indicate that developmentally appropriate learning experiences
can improve muscular strength and fundamental movement
skill proficiency in youth (5,29). Moreover, the potential
health-related benefits of muscular fitness for school-age
youth, which include improvements in adiposity and cardiovascular disease risk factors, highlight the significance of
muscle-strengthening activities for children and adolescents
(23,39). Although the importance of integrating both healthand skill-related fitness components into youth programs has
emerged in the literature (9,10), there is an urgent need to
develop and evaluate interventions while addressing common
barriers (e.g., insufficient time and inadequate resources) to
implementing innovative school-based programs. New
research priorities for youth physical activity include the study
of PE as a means to bring about long-term and sustained
change in health behaviors (15).
Fundamental integrative training (FIT) is a method of
conditioning that is designed to integrate both health- and
skill-related components of physical fitness while overcoming common barriers (6). Fundamental integrative training is
designed to enhance muscular fitness and fundamental
movement skill performance with meaningful instruction,
deliberate practice, and progression based on technical proficiency. The concept of FIT was based on earlier reports on
resistance training for school-age youth and was refined
based on process evaluation from previous investigations
(10,11,30). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects
of FIT on health- and skill-related fitness measures in primary school children during PE.

METHODS
Experimental Approach to the Problem

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of 8 weeks of


PE with or without FIT on health- and skill-related fitness
measures in children. Two fourth grade PE classes were
cluster randomized into either an FIT group or a control
(CON) group and were tested before and after the training
period by members of the research team. The FIT and CON
groups participated in PE with the same teacher during the
study period, but each group had PE at different times
during the school day. Subjects in the CON group were not
exposed to FIT during the study period. Subsequent analyses
of pretraining and posttraining measures were used to
quantify changes in fitness and performance after PE with
or without FIT.
Subjects

Forty-one children from 2 different fourth grade PE classes


in an urban public school participated in this study. Classes
of boys and girls were cluster randomized into either an
intervention group (FIT, n = 20) or a control (CON, n = 21)
group (Table 1). This study was approved by the Colleges
Institutional Review Board, and written parental permission

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the

was obtained from all parents and child assent was obtained
from the participants.
Testing Procedures

All children in this investigation had previous experience


with fitness testing as part of required school-based PE. One
week before the pretest, a PE teacher and trained researchers
reviewed all testing procedures and participants practiced
the fitness tests. Height and body mass were measured using
standard techniques with a stadiometer and standard
physicians scale. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated
using the standardized equation (mass/height [in kilograms
per square meter]). The same PE teacher and trained researchers administered all fitness tests and offered encouragement to all participants. Standardized protocols for
fitness testing were followed according to methods previously described (35,36).
Briefly, aerobic fitness was assessed with the progressive
aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER), which is
a shuttle run test that requires participants to run back and
forth across a 20-meter space at a specified pace that gets
faster each minute. The running pace was set by audio
signals from a prerecorded CD. The recorded score was the
total number of laps completed (36). Muscular fitness was
assessed with 5 different tests. The curl-up and push-up tests
were used to assess abdominal and upper body strength/
endurance, respectively. The cadence of the curl-up and
push-up tests was set with a metronome (1 curl-up per 3
seconds), and the maximum number of repetitions performed with proper technique after 1 test was recorded.
Lower body power was evaluated by the standing long jump
and single-leg hop tests. Participants were required to hold
the landing of each jump and maintain body control until the
distance was measured. Each jump test was performed 3
times, and the best score was recorded to the nearest whole
centimeters. Lower back and hamstring flexibility for the left
and right legs were evaluated by the sit and reach test. The
best score of 3 trials for each leg was recorded. Test-retest
reliability of standard PE fitness tests has been previously
reported (21,36). Test-retest reliability for the single-leg
hop test in 9- to 10-year old children from our testing center
is R = 0.97.
Training Procedures

The FIT program used in this study was specifically


designed for primary school children and was based on
previous research (10,11). The intervention was performed
twice per week on nonconsecutive days during the first
;15 minutes of each regularly scheduled 45-minute PE class
and was purposely designed to be time-efficient and developmentally appropriate for children. That is, the intervention was designed to be consistent with the needs, interests,
and abilities of children to optimize learning, engagement,
and enjoyment. At the start of every class, the regular PE
teacher demonstrated proper technique on selected exercises
and reviewed training procedures. An undergraduate college

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30 seconds during weeks 14


and for 45 seconds during
TABLE 1. Descriptive characteristics of the study participants.*
weeks 58. Participants performed the second exercise
Characteristic
FIT group
CON group
at a given station or progAge (y)
9.5 6 0.3
9.6 6 0.3
ressed to the next station
Body height (cm)
138.1 6 7.4
138.3 6 7.1
after a 30-second recovery
Body mass (kg)
36.1 6 8.2
39.2 6 9.5
period that remained constant
BMI (kg$m22)
18.8 6 3.2
20.3 6 3.7
Sex
N = 11 boys
N = 9 boys
throughout the study period.
N = 9 girls
N = 12 girls
Participants completed the
FITcircuit in about 15 minutes.
*FIT = fundamental integrative training; CON = control; BMI = Body mass index.
Values are mean 6 SD.
Although the order of the
exercise stations in the FIT circuit was consistent throughout
the study period, participants
started the circuit at different stations each week to provide
student teacher was available for assistance during the FIT
an opportunity for the participants to navigate their own
segment of the PE class. The FIT program included a circuit
learning experience. Descriptions of exercises used in the
of 67 exercise stations that focused on enhancing muscular
FIT program have been previously described (6,10).
fitness and fundamental movement skills (primarily jumping,
Participants received instructional cues and constructive
balancing, throwing, and catching). Fundamental integrative
feedback on the quality of each movement during every FIT
training included a series of progressive exercises using body
class through a direct instructional model (28). Effort was
weight and medicine balls (12 kg), fitness ropes, equalizer
encouraged at every exercise station, and the learning probars, BOSU balance trainers, fitness spots, dome cones,
cess was reinforced throughout the 8-week program as parpunch balloons, and spooners (plastic boards that simulate
ticipants mastered proper form and technique on basic
skateboarding). Table 2 outlines the structure and content of
exercises before progressing to more challenging skills. Of
the FIT program, which took place in a school gymnasium
note, the primary focus of FIT was not to complete as many
during regularly scheduled PE.
repetitions as possible within a predetermined time interval
After a warm-up, which included dynamic movements
but rather to perform each movement with proper technique
(e.g., calisthenics and jumping jacks), participants exercised
and enthusiasm. To develop motoric competence, particiwith a partner and progressed through 1 set of all exercises
pants were able to display mastery of learned motor skills
in the FIT circuit with the aid of music set to the desired
on basic exercises and gain new knowledge by performing
work to rest interval. Participants performed 2 exercises at
novel movements on other exercises that required more
every station in the circuit. Each exercise was performed for

TABLE 2. Exercise mode and choice for the FIT program.*


Station/exercise
FR and EB
MB
Punch balloons
Bosu
Dots and Spots
SP
Mix and match

Weeks 12

Weeks 34

Weeks 56

Weeks 78

ALT FR wave
Air walker
Chest push
Chest pass
ALT knee tap
Crab walk
Bosu climber
Bosu bridge
Cone trail
Quick jump
Sit and spin
ST Surfer

FR jump jack
Air walker
Chest push
Target toss
Get up and go
Crab walk
Bosu climber
Bridge tap
Cone trail
Square jump
Prone SP
ST Surfer

FR jump jack
EB push-up
OH slam
Target toss
Get up and go
Bear crawl
Burpee
Bridge tap
Touch and go
Square jump
Prone SP
Hand surfer
MB or SP

FR slams
EB push-up
OH slam
MB jump
ALT hand tap
Bear crawl
Burpee
Prone raise
Touch and go
Triple jump
Supine SP
Hand surfer
MB or SP

*FIT = fundamental integrative training; FR = fitness ropes; EB = equalizer bars; ALT = alternate right and left limb; MB = medicine
ball; OH = overhead; SP = Spooner; ST = standing.
New exercise for 2-week microcycle. See Training procedures text for additional details.

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Fundamental Integrative Training

TABLE 3. Intervention effects for FIT.*


FIT group

Outcome
PACER (laps)
Long jump (cm)

CON group

Pre

Post

Raw
D

Pre

20.6 6 3.2

24.1 6 3.2z

3.5

14.9 6 1.5

14.3 6 1.6

20.6

9.0 111.5 6 4.4

113.6 6 4.1

2.1
21.4

121.2 6 5.4 130.2 6 6.3z

Raw
D

Post

Single-leg Hop (cm)

89.2 6 5.2

99.8 6 4.7z 10.6

84.6 6 4.6

83.2 6 3.4

Sit-ups (repetitions)

35.1 6 4.3

44.9 6 4

9.8

35.4 6 4.5

41.6 6 4.9

Push-ups
(repetitions)
Right leg sit and
reach (cm)
Left leg sit and
reach (cm)

11.5 6 1.9

15.9 6 1.8z

4.4

10.1 6 2.2

9.2 6 2.1

20.9

23.7 6 1.6

26.3 6 1.6

2.6

26.9 6 1.2

26.7 6 1.1

20.2

24.5 6 1.6

26.8 6 1.7

2.3

27.7 6 1.3

24.7 6 1.3 23.0

6.2

Within- and
betweengroups effect
size (h2)
0.182
0.113
0.121
0.082
0.242
0.072
0.033
0.002
0.348
0.050
0.110
0.025
0.357
0.002

*FIT = fundamental integrative training; PACER = progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run; CON = control.
Values are mean 6 SEM.
zp # 0.05 between FIT and CON groups at posttime point.
p # 0.05 from pre to post within groups.

complex movement capacities. During weeks 58, participants created their own exercises at a mix and match station
using information learned during the first 4 weeks of the FIT
program. That is, FIT participants created new exercises with
medicine balls or spooners, which contributed to a masteryoriented climate as they were able to control the type of task
engagement and overcome challenges that were selfdetermined as they applied learned skills in novel situations.

Although participants were encouraged to be creative and


develop a new exercise that was not part of the FIT circuit,
the PE teacher or student teacher was nearby to ensure
safety. This type of motivational climate can enhance the
learning experience and promote physical engagement during PE (44).
After FIT, children participated in a variety of traditional
PE activities (e.g., team sports and group games) as directed
by the PE teacher for the
remainder of the class. Participants in CON did not perform
FIT but attended their regular
PE class twice per week on the
same days during the study
period and performed group
games and team sport activities
with the same PE teacher during the entire class. Physical
activity outside of schoolbased PE was not controlled
in this investigation.
Statistical Analyses

Figure 1. Percent change in fitness performance following fundamental integrative training (FIT).

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Descriptive data (mean 6 SD)


were calculated for all variables. A repeated measure
analysis of variance (ANOVA)
(2 3 2) was used to test for
interactions and main effects

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for time (pretest vs. posttest) and group (FIT vs. CON) on
the dependent fitness variables. Partial eta-squared (h2) effect
sizes were determined within- and between-groups. When
interactions and main effects were significant, Tukeys LSD
post hoc t-tests were run to detect specific between-group
differences. Pearsons product moment correlations were run
between body mass and all outcome variables and body
height and all outcome variables to establish whether the
change in body mass and body height of this growing population would affect any outcome variables. No significant
relationships were observed between body mass and height
and any outcome variables. Additionally, there was no sex
effect based on a repeated measures ANOVA using sex as
a covariate. Statistical analyses were conducted in SPSS (Version 18.0; SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical significance
was established a priori at p # 0.05.

RESULTS
All participants completed the study according to aforementioned procedures, and no injuries or untoward responses
were reported during the study period. The FIT and CON
groups had participation rates in regularly scheduled PE of
99 and 97%, respectively, during the study period. There
were no differences between the FIT and CON groups for
the demographic variables including age, body mass and
height, and BMI. There were no significant differences
between the FIT and CON groups at baseline for any of
the variables including PACER, push-up, sit-up, single-leg
hop, and sit and reach scores. A significant interaction of
group and time was observed after the 8-week intervention
for the PACER, push-up, single-leg hop and sit and reach
tests, which indicate that training responses were different
between FIT and CON (Table 3). There was no significant
interaction of group by time indicated for the sit-up and the
long jump tests. Percent improvements in fitness performance highlighting significant group interactions are presented in Figure 1. Pre-post percent changes after FIT
were significantly greater for the PACER laps, push-up repetitions, single-leg hop, and right and left leg flexibility tests.
Using h2, there was a medium between-groups effect size for
the PACER test and small between-groups effect size for the
long jump, single-leg hop, sit-up, push-up, and sit and reach
tests (Table 3).

DISCUSSION
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of
a novel, multifaceted school-based intervention on healthand skill-related fitness measures in primary school children.
The FIT program was found to be a safe, effective, and
worthwhile method of conditioning for children that provided opportunities for participants to improve cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness. Treatment effects were found for
both health- and skill-related fitness measures, and no
injuries occurred throughout the training period. Given that
the FIT program was designed to keep participants active

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during PE while engaging in meaningful activities that


enhanced muscle strength and movement proficiency, these
data provide support for incorporating a time-efficient FIT
intervention into primary school PE to enhance childrens
physical fitness.
A novel finding from the present investigation was
that ;15 minutes of FIT performed twice per week resulted
in significantly greater gains in health- and skill-related fitness measures than normally achieved with standard PE in
9- to 10-year old children. The effects of FIT across multiple
health and fitness domains were particularly encouraging.
Since both groups participated in the same traditional PE
lessons with the same PE teacher during the study period,
such differences in performance are likely due to the specific
training adaptations that resulted from FIT. Of note, the FIT
intervention was instructed by a qualified PE teacher and
was purposely designed to enhance muscular strength and
refine fundamental movement skills while requiring mental
engagement and decision making due to the design of the
FIT circuit. Integrative training programs that are matched
with the cognitive abilities of children can be particularly
beneficial because the motor capabilities of youth are highly
plastic and responsive to this type of training (31). Others
reported that combining developmentally appropriate physical activities with instruction and interaction from a qualified
teacher is likely to yield the most physical, cognitive, and
affective benefits for children (42).
Participants in the FIT group made significantly greater
gains in aerobic capacity as measured by the PACER test
after the training period than CON. These findings suggest
that primary school students respond to FIT by increasing
their ability to perform endurance exercise. Performance
gains on the PACER test after FIT were particularly notable
because the training intervention did not include continuous
aerobic training. In support of these findings, others reported
that children improved their cardiorespiratory endurance
after fitness training that included resistance exercise (26,27).
Of potential relevance, Marta et al. (26) found that combined
resistance and endurance training was more effective than
resistance training alone for enhancing maximal oxygen
uptake in 10- to 11-year old children. Youth programs that
integrate different types of fitness training may be more
effective than stand alone programs (e.g., jogging) for
enhancing the health and fitness of children. Although training adaptations in adults tend to be specific to the metabolic
demands of the program, current findings support the concept that children demonstrate a propensity to be metabolic
nonspecialists (2). That is, children do not seem to exhibit
specialized metabolic adaptations in response to specific
training programs.
The FIT program alternated between relatively vigorous
exercises (e.g., fitness rope slams) and less intense but
challenging exercises (e.g., spooner board surfing), which
provided a unique training stimulus. Although continuous
activity is more established as a training mode to improve
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Fundamental Integrative Training


cardiorespiratory endurance, our findings indicate that
intermittent activities which include low and high intensity
bouts of strength and skill-based exercise can improve
aerobic capacity in children. Since a strong and stable trunk
will allow for optimal force production and postural control
in a gravity-based environment (33), the observed gains in
upper body strength and single-leg hop performance in our
investigation may have influenced the positive adaptations in
aerobic endurance. Previous studies support our findings and
demonstrate that the aerobic fitness levels of children can
improve relatively quickly after interventions that include
engaging and enjoyable activities that enhance muscular
strength and motor skill competence (10,11,27). For example, primary school children who participated in an 8-week
plyometric program during PE made significant improvements in endurance performance after the intervention
(11). Others found significant improvements in shuttle run
performance after an 8-week circuit weight training program
in 10- to 12-year old children in the PE setting (27). These
findings demonstrate that higher intensity bouts of muscular
fitness training that are mainly anaerobic in nature can
induce favorable changes in aerobic fitnessespecially when
the program is delivered by a qualified PE teacher.
Our findings regarding muscular fitness are in line with
a recent international consensus paper on youth resistance
training, which states that children can enhance their
muscular strength, muscular power, and local muscular
endurance by regular participation in a resistance training
program (23). Participation in the FIT program resulted in
significantly greater gains in the push-up and single-leg hop
tests than CON, which is consistent with others reports that
noted significant gains in upper body strength and motor
performance in children after structured resistance training
(13,22). These positive findings indicate that muscular fitness
can be safely enhanced when FIT is incorporated into PE
within curricular time and are in support of recommendations to include strength development during school-based
PE so all children can be targeted (24).
The lack of treatment effects for the long jump test and situp test may be attributed to the quality of PE lessons for the
CON group, which involved traditional PE games and sport
activities that required jumping, twisting, and sprinting. The
FIT program did target muscular fitnessespecially muscular
power and torso (i.e., abdominal, hip, and lower back)
strength; however, gains made by the CON group were
observable after the study period. These observations indicate that the design of the intervention may be a critical
factor for success. In the present investigation, children in
the FIT group participated in about 240 minutes of training
(;15 min per class 3 2 classes per week 3 8 weeks) over the
study period. Although the advantage of a short concentrated lesson in primary school PE is that children remain
engaged and eagerly complete all activities before they lose
interest, the disadvantage is that desired changes in some
fitness measures may not be observed.

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Subjects in the FIT group made significant improvements


on the sit and reach test, although static stretching was not
part of PE for the FIT or CON groups during the study
period. Although these findings highlight the value of
dynamic movements, they also question the necessity of
supplemental flexibility exercises in FIT interventions
because time is limited. Others noted improvements in
flexibility after fitness training in children (12,38). The curricular time available for additional training is an important
consideration when FIT is incorporated into PE.
An emerging body of evidence increasingly supports the
need for school-age youth to improve their muscular
strength and enhance their motor skill performance
(1,19,34). The inclusion of muscle-strengthening activities
as part of comprehensive school physical activity guidelines
demonstrates the importance of this type of intervention for
all youth (40). Most of the FIT exercises were challenging
and tended to spark a natural desire to engage in highenergy play in children. Because primary school children
are still learning how to manipulate their bodies through
space, FIT that emphasizes the development of basic conditioning movements in a supportive environment can be an
effective approach for improving the physical fitness of
school-age youth. Of note, recent investigations have found
that motor skill proficiency is a predictor of physical activity
in children and adolescents (4,25,32). Furthermore, children
with higher motor competence have been found to outperform children with lower motor competence on physical
fitness tests, and these differences seem to remain stable over
time (14,17). Given that physical activity declines rapidly
after puberty (45), fitness programs that specifically target
exercise deficits in school-age youth should begin early in
life before children become resistant to targeted
interventions.
A limitation of this study is that it addressed only the
initial phase of FIT in 9- to 10-year old children. Thus, the
results from this investigation neither applicable to younger
children or adolescents nor do the results provide insight
into long-term training adaptations. It was not possible to
include a no-PE control group in the school setting as PE is
a compulsory subject in this school district. Also, the small
effect sizes should be considered in light of the target group
and the design of the school-based intervention.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
Children in this study had an opportunity to learn proper
movement mechanics on a variety of exercises while
improving their physical fitness in a supportive environment
that was fun and mentally engaging. Although this investigation did not compare performance between children with
high and low motor competence, FIT may be particularly
beneficial for children with low muscle strength or reduced
motor skill development because they may be less likely to
engage in physical activity and most likely to benefit from
developmentally appropriate exercise training (14,16,17).

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Our findings indicate that the delivery of FIT with appropriate instruction and assessments has the potential to be a sustainable school-based intervention as it can be implemented
within the existing PE curriculum.
The findings from the present investigation indicate that
FIT instructed by a qualified PE teacher can result in
significant improvements in health- and skill-related fitness
components in children, and is a safe, enjoyable, and timeefficient method for children to learn meaningful context in
PE. The salient findings from the present investigation
indicate that ;15 minutes of FIT performed twice weekly
results in significantly greater gains in selected health- and
skill-related fitness measures than gains normally achieved
with traditional PE. Multifaceted interventions such as FIT
may be an important component of youth strength and conditioning programs because the synergistic relationship
between muscular fitness, motor skill performance, and
physical activity may strengthen over time, and this may
help to reinforce and maintain the desired trajectories in
physical activity behaviors. The positive results from this
study can be used to inform the design and implementation
of future interventions which are needed to assess the longterm effects of FIT on health and fitness outcomes in schoolage youth.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors thank the children for participating in this study
and gratefully acknowledge Bud Kowal and the Ewing
Township School District in New Jersey for supporting this
study.

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