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Chapter 3 The Aquatic Environment

What percent of the weight of a living cell is


water?
75-95%
What percentage of Earths surface is covered
in water?
75%
Where is water found on Earth?

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Section 3.1 Water Cycles between


Earth and the Atmosphere
What does it mean to say that water cycles?
naturally renewed/purified
Why is solar radiation important in the water
cycle?
fuels cycle movement
What processes on Earth involve water
moving from one place to another?

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Which of these is the largest reservoir of freshwater


on Earth?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

the atmosphere
groundwater
lakes
oceans
polar ice caps and glaciers

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Section 3.1 Water Cycles between


Earth and the Atmosphere
Processes and parts of the water cycle include:

Precipitation atmosphere to ground


Interception grabbed by plants
Infiltration soaks into soil
Runoff travels along surface
Groundwater water below surface in aquifers
deep seepage/deep storage water below aquifers
evapotranspiration
Evaporation liquid to gas (surface to atmos)
Transpiration evaporation out of plant leaves

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Figure 3.1
Precipitation
Evaporation

Evaporation

Interception

Transpiration
Surface
runoff
Infiltration

River

Groundwater

Deep seepage
Deep storage

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Section 3.1 Water Cycles between


Earth and the Atmosphere
What is a reservoir in the water cycle?
What is a flux in the water cycle?

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Section 3.1 Water Cycles between


Earth and the Atmosphere
A reservoir is where water is held. What are the six
reservoirs?
(ocean, soil, atmos, glaciers, groundwater,
surface water)
Flux is the movement of water from one reservoir to
another. What are the six fluxes?
(evap, transp, precip, run-off, vapor transport,
aquifer flow)
How do you determine turnover time?
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Vapor transport
40,000

Precipitation
111,000

Atmosphere
13,000

Polar ice
and Glaciers
2.9 x 107
Transpiration and Evaporation
Evaporation
71,000
425,000
Lake
Precipitation
Soil moisture
229,000
385,000
67,000

Ocean
1.37 109

River
40,000

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Groundwater
4.0 x 106

Section 3.1 Water Cycles between


Earth and the Atmosphere
How do you determine turnover time?

= turnover time

Ex. Ocean turnover time =


Now try the atmosphere.

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1.37 9
425,000

= about 3200 years

Vapor transport
40,000

Precipitation
111,000

Atmosphere
13,000

Polar ice
and Glaciers
2.9 x 107
Transpiration and Evaporation
Evaporation
71,000
425,000
Lake
Precipitation
Soil moisture
229,000
385,000
67,000

Ocean
1.37 109

River
40,000

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Groundwater
4.0 x 106

Section 3.1 Water Cycles between


Earth and the Atmosphere

= turnover time

Atmos. turnover time =


Or about 9 days

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13,000
496,000

= about .026 years

Turnover Times

Which of these is the largest reservoir of freshwater


on Earth?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

the atmosphere
groundwater
lakes
oceans
polar ice caps and glaciers

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Vapor transport
40,000

Precipitation
111,000

Atmosphere
13,000

Polar ice
and Glaciers
2.9 x 107
Transpiration and Evaporation
Evaporation
71,000
425,000
Lake
Precipitation
Soil moisture
229,000
385,000
67,000

Ocean
1.37 109

River
40,000

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Groundwater
4.0 x 106

Which of these is the largest reservoir of freshwater


on Earth?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

the atmosphere
groundwater
lakes
oceans
polar ice caps and glaciers

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Water Has Important Physical


Properties
What is the chemical symbol for water?
H2O
How are the hydrogen and oxygen atoms
bound together within a water molecule?
electrons are shared unequally,
electrons more often paired with
oxygen atom
How do these chemical bonds affect the
polarity of the molecule?
This is a polar covalent bond
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Hydrogen
Oxygen

Water Has Important Physical


Properties
Polar Covalent bonding
Gives oxygen a slight negative () charge
Gives hydrogens a slight positive () charge
Polar molecule
Hydrogen
Oxygen

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Water Has Important Physical


Properties
This polarity allows water molecules to form hydrogen
bonds with each other
a slightly () hydrogen will link to a slightly () oxygen
these are weak bonds that are easily formed and
Hydrogen
broken
Oxygen

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Water Has Important Physical


Properties
Cohesion because of the hydrogen bonds
between them, water molecules stick together
at the interface with air, water molecules on the
surface bond more strongly to water molecules
below
produces surface tension surface of the water is
tight
this may create a barrier to small organisms
allows some organisms to walk on water
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Water Has Important Physical


Properties
Water has a high specific heat
It requires one calorie to raise one gram of
water 1C
for comparison, it requires 0.59 calories to raise
one gram of ethanol 1C
water can store large amounts of heat energy with
only a small increase in temperature

Why is this important for organisms?


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Water Has Important Physical


Properties
Water has a high specific heat
It requires one calorie to raise one gram of water
1C
for comparison, it requires 0.59 calories to raise one
gram of ethanol 1C
water can store large amounts of heat energy with
only a small increase in temperature

Why is this important for organisms?


Waters serves as a buffer to temperature
changes, both internally and externally.
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Water Has Important Physical


Properties
Because of the high specific heat of water,
changing state among solid, liquid, and gas
phases requires large amounts of heat energy
Latent heat the energy released or absorbed
in state changes
removing one calorie will reduce the temperature
of one gram of water from 2C to 1C
however, 80 calories must be removed to reduce
one gram of water to 0C, converting it to ice
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Water Has Important Physical


Properties
Why does ice float?

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Water Has Important Physical


Properties
Ice floats because of the lattice formed by
hydrogen bonding among water molecules,
the solid phase of water is less dense than the
liquid the water molecules are held farther
apart
water is most dense at 4C

Why is this important in aquatic


environments?
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1.0004
Maximum density at 4C
1.0000

Density (g/cm3)

0.9996

0.9992

Water

Melting
or
freezing

0.9988

0.9984
0.9178

0.9174

0.9170
8

Ice

4
8
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Temperature
(C)

12

16

20

Water Has Important Physical


Properties
Organisms can live under the ice during the
winter.

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Water Has Important Physical


Properties
Cohesion also leads to high viscosity of water
Viscosity force required for an object to
move through the liquid
water has a frictional resistance 100 greater than
air

What is a common body shape seen in aquatic


vertebrates?

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Water Has Important Physical


Properties
Many aquatic vertebrates have a streamlined
(torpedo) shape
helps to reduce frictional resistance
many examples of convergent evolution in fish,
reptiles, birds, and mammals

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Water Has Important Physical


Properties
Density of water about 860 greater than air
Buoyancy upward force exerted when a
body in water weighs less than the water it
displaces
Reduces the effect of gravity
organisms need less structural support
compare the skeleton of a bony fish to a terrestrial
vertebrate of the same size

organisms can be very large


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Water Has Important Physical


Properties
Density of water about 860 greater than air
Water shows greater pressure increases with
depth than air
pressure increases by 1 atmosphere (atm) for
each 10 m of depth

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Water Has Important Physical


Properties
Organisms in the very deep ocean can
experience 1000 atms of pressure
15,000 pounds per square inch compared to 14.7
pounds per square inch on the surface

Many show special adaptations


for example:
the lungs of deep-diving mammals collapse
oxygen is held by myoglobin in the muscles

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Section 3.3 Light Varies with Depth in


Aquatic Environments
What happens when light strikes the surface
of the water?

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Section 3.3 Light Varies with Depth in


Aquatic Environments
When light strikes the surface of the water, it gets?
1) reflected (at surface)
2) transmitted (enters the water)
The lower the angle at which it strikes the surface,
the more light is reflected.
How does this vary during the day and seasonally?
More reflected at dawn, dusk, winter months

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Section 3.3 Light Varies with Depth in


Aquatic Environments
What happens to the light that is transmitted?
1) Suspended particles and organisms either
absorb or scatter the light
2) Water molecules absorb light (energy)
Review of physics
Which wavelengths are absorbed first? Why?
Which wavelengths penetrate the farthest?
How does this affect aquatic organisms?

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Figure 3.7 Light Profile of Water


Light (% surface)

20

40

60

80

100

10

10

20

20

30

30

40

40

50
60

Depth (m)

Depth (m)

Transmittance (%)

70

20

40

60

80

100

Red
Orange

Yellow
Green

50

Blue

60
70

80
400

90
100
(a)

(b)

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500
600
Wavelength (nanometers)

700

Section 3.3 Light Varies with Depth in


Aquatic Environments
How does this affect photosynthesis?
What is true of photosynthetic pigments in deeper
water?
Chlorophyll less useful
Pigments that reflect red and orange more useful

How does this affect vision?


wide-range color vision less useful

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Section 3.4 Temperature Varies with


Water Depth
Is the temperature profile of the water
column the same as the light profile?

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Section 3.4 Temperature Varies with


Water Depth
Sunlight warms the surface waters
winds and waves mix the surface waters

Distributes heat vertically


decline in water temperature with depth slower than
decline in solar radiation (light or PAR)

Below mixed layer is thermocline = layer in which


temperatures drop rapidly with depth
Thermocline depth is variable
Below thermocline water temperature further
declines with depth but at a slower rate
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Section 3.4 Temperature Varies with


Water Depth
Produces zonation
Epilimnion upper layer of warm, less dense
water
Hypolimnion lower layer of cold, more dense
water

Thermocline prevents mixing of these layers

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Figure 3.8

Temperature (C)
5
10
15

20

998.0

Epilimnion
Warm, low-density,
surface waters

Density (kg/m3)
998.5 999.0 999.5

Warm,
low-density water

Depth (m)

Thermocline
Zone of rapid
temperature change

Hypolimnion
Cold, high-density,
deep waters

Cold,
high-density water

(a)

(b)
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1000

Section 3.4 Temperature Varies with


Water Depth
Seasonal changes in solar radiation can lead to
changes in the vertical temperature profile
Tropics thermocline is permanent
surface water is always warmer
Temperate zone
summer thermocline is present
surface water is warmest

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20

Figure 3.9

Water depth

Water temperature (C)


5
10
15

Summer
Fall
Winter
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Spring

Section 3.4 Temperature Varies with


Water Depth
Temperate zone
Fall surface water begins to cool no thermocline
cool water sinks
warmer water moves to the surface, also cools
eventually temperature becomes uniform
Turnover this vertical mixing moves nutrient up from
bottom

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20

Figure 3.9

Water depth

Water temperature (C)


5
10
15

Summer
Fall
Winter
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Spring

Section 3.4 Temperature Varies with


Water Depth
Temperate Zone
winter surface water cools reverse pattern
ice many form on the surface
water at the bottom is most dense 4C
Spring surface water begins to warm thermocline
re-develops
temperature eventually becomes less uniform than
winter, especially at the surface
some turnover takes place
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20

Figure 3.9

Water depth

Water temperature (C)


5
10
15

Summer
Fall
Winter
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Spring

Thermocline & Fish


All sufficient
oxygen in
thermocline &
above
Fish prefer
cooler darker
water in day
Fish move to
surface to feed
at dusk
lake turnover

Section 3.4 Temperature Varies with


Water Depth
The temperature of a flowing body of water
such as a stream or river is variable
warm and cool, depending on the season
shaded areas are cooler than those exposed to
sunlight

Temperature affects stream community


structure
cool water versus warm water organisms
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Figure 3.10
21.1

Water temperatures at various locations along the stream


Air temperature 21C

20.0

20.0

17.2
16.1

15.6

16.1 16.1

15.6
13.9

14.4

1 km

Wooded boulder section


Beaver meadow
Marion
River
(Elev. 543 m)

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Water pH
Most aquatic organisms prefer a pH between 6-8
Tolerance down to pH 5 is common
pH outside of this range interferes with most
physiological processes in organisms
Too low leads to increased toxic metal ions such
as aluminum

Salinity in Water
Salinity = salt concentration
Measured in PSU (practical salinity units)
= % by mass of salt to water
Sea water = 35%
Freshwater < 0.5%
Most organisms are adapted to survive in a specific
salinity range

TDS in Water
TDS = Total Dissolved Solids
Usually consists of salt ions or ions dissolved from soils
Typical average levels of a stream or river are 50-250
ppm
A single stream may have high and low TDS areas
TDS > 1000 is considered toxic for most organisms

Dissolved Oxygen in Water

D.O. concentration in mg/L


Oxygen diffuses into water from the atmosphere
Colder water temps allow more O2 to diffuse in
Choppy water surface allows more O2 to diffuse in
Shady water = cooler = more dissolved oxygen
Healthy D.O. levels > 4 mg/L

Turbidity in Water

Turbidity = murkiness or cloudiness


Measured using NTU
Typical turbidity of rivers and streams ranges 5-50
Erosion, Rain, snow melt, run-off all increase turbidity
levels
Increased turbidity raises temp = less D.O.

Fish Indicators

Creek Chub - Pollution Tolerant


Sunfish Pollution Tolerant
Stoneroller pollution tolerant
White Sucker pollution tolerant
Shiner species pollution tolerant
Bass species intermediate tolerance