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[EMBRYO LAB]

WHOLE MOUNT
4 flexures:
o Cranial/ cephalic flexure
o Cervical/nuchal flexure (at the level of 1 st several somites)
o Tail flexure flexure
o Caudal flexure
Amnion and chorion enclosed the entire embryo
Paired wing & lung bud visible nut not sharply bounded
Allantois sac-like structure encircled by the tail
STRUCTURE

DESCRIPTION
TRANSVERSE SECtION
Anterior part of the hindbrain w/ thicker walls
than myelencephalon
The roof undergoes enlargement

Posterior part of the hindbrain


Thin roof plate lying freely within the cavity

Segmented enlargements in the walls of the


myelecephalon & metencephalon
11 neuromeres
Forebrain: 1st, 2nd, 3rd
Midbrain: 4th and 5th
Hindbrain: 6th 11th
Thin roof of myelencephalon which is folded in
the myelocoell
Where vascularization occurs
Small, thick-walled oval structure that appears
before the auditory vesicle (forerunner)
Located at the level of 10th neuromere on each
side of myelencephalon
Bigger than endolymphatic duct
Ganglia of VII (facial) & VIII (auditory) nerves
Mass of cells lying against the cranial wall of
auditory vesicles
Spinal cord
Central cavity of spinal cord
Thin mid-dorsal wall of the spinal cord
Mid-ventral wall of the spinal cord
Lateral depression of the central canal about
midway between the floor and roof plates
Dorsolateral wings of the spinal cord
Between sulcus limitans & roof plate

Metencephalon

myelencephalon

Neuromeres

Posterior choroid
plexus
Endolymphatic duct
Auditory vesicles
syn: otic vesicle
otocyts

Acoustic-facialis
ganglia
Central canal
Roof plate
Floor plate
Sulcus limitans
Alar plates

cerebellum
roof of the medulla &
adjacent skin
ectoderm

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Basal plates
Marginal layer
Ependymal layer
Mantle layer

[EMBRYO LAB]

Ventrolateral wings of the spinal cord


Between sulcus limitans & floor plate
Outer region of the neural tube
Composed of several fibers & fewer nuclei
Single, innermost layer of cells
Adjacent to the central canal
Cells capable of mitosis
Wide heavily nucleated layer between marginal
& ependymal

Large mass anterior to the acoustic-facialis


ganglion
Subdivide into 3 branches

(branches of trigeminal nerve):


located w/in 1st branchial arch

Semilunar ganglion
Maxillary branch - medial branch
Ophthalmic branch lateral branch closest to
mesencephalon
Mandibular branch lateral branch above the
ophthalmic branch

syn: gasserian ganglion

Very small rounded accumulation of cells at the


caudal side of auditory vesicle
Glossopharyngeal nerves into 3rd branchial arch
Cell mass lying immediately lateral to
myelencephalon
Small rounded region beneath the
metencephalon & mesocoel
Becomes continuous w/ metencephalon

Cavity of mesencephalon

Found @ mesencephalon
Nerve fibers from the neural ectodermal cells
appearing as a pair of streaks from the floor of
mesencephalon
Will innervate 4 pairs of extrinsic eye muscles

Superior ganglion
Somite

Mesencephalon
mesocoel

Oculomotor nerve
(III)

Anterior cardinal
vein

syn: precardinal vein

notochord

Closing plates

Found laterally situated in the mesenchyme of


the floor of myelencephalon

Found between 2 regions of hindbrains or


between spinal cord & hindbrain
FOREGUT AND ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES
Double layered membranes formed by
endoderm of pharyngeal pouches & ectoderm

Cerebral aqueduct/
Aqueduct of sylvius

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Pharyngeal furrows

st

1 pharyngeal
furrow and pouch
nd

2 pharyngeal
furrow and pouch

Visceral arches
Mandibular arch

Maxillary arch
Hyoid arch
Symphysis of the
lower jaw

[EMBRYO LAB]
of pharyngeal furrows
Result of invagination of pharyngeal pouches
that are projected lateral from pharynx to
contact the adjacent region of skin ectoderm
Endodermal evagination which soon become
continuous with pharynx & open to the outside
via 1st pharyngeal furrow
Furrow V-shaped ectodermal indentation
Similar to 1st pharyngeal furrow & pouch but
towards spinal cord
Found between the adjacent pharyngeal
furrows
Greatly thickened & filled w/ mesenchymal cells
Mass of mesenchyme anterior to the 1st furrow
(towards mesencephalon)
Lobe-like mass of mesenchyme anterior to
stomodeum
Found where mesencephalon is
Mesenchyme between 1st (hyomandibular)
pouch & furrow and 2nd furrow
2 arches fuse ventrally (posterior of mandibular
arch)
Paired structures w/c are cut frontally (foregut)
Appear constricted into 2 parts of the level of 1st
pharyngeal pouch

Dorsal aorta

1st aortic arch

Lies within mandibular process

2nd, 3rd, & 4th aortic


arches

Extend from the dorsal aortae into 2nd, 3rd, & 4th
branchial arches
Continuous with 1st aortic arches (separate
vessels)
Ventral ends of 2nd & 3rd also unite in ventral
aorta
Result from the fusion of paired aortae
Posterior to 3rd pharyngeal pouch
Narrower vessel arises as a cranial extension
of dorsal aorta
Located medial to ant cardinal vein
Derived from group of neural crest cells
Lying posterior to IX nerve
Fades out w/in 4th branchial arch
Arise from the floor of pharynx as a median
diverticula/ depression bet. 1st and 2nd pair of

Ventral aorta
syn: aortic sac
Descending aorta
Internal carotid
artery
Jugular ganglion
Thyroid rudiments

jaws

hr chick reviwer

Oral plate
syn:pharyngeal
membrane

Pre-oral gut
stomodeum

Rathkes pouch
Laryngotracheal
groove
Trachea

Lung buds

[EMBRYO LAB]
pharyngeal pouches
Constituted by apposition of pharyngeal
endoderm & stomodeal ectoderm
Separates stomodeum from foregut
Ruptures to form mouth opening
Located cranial to the pharyngeal membrane
Less conspicuous after rupture of oral plate
Slitlike space lined by ectoderm
Lies bet 2 visceral masses next to foregut
Cavity lined with cuboidal epithelium opens in
more posterior sections into the stomodeum
Serves as rudiment of ant. pituitary gland
V-shaped ventralmost part of foregut (post.)
Seen at the level of 4th pharyngeal pouch
Arises with the lung buds as ventrocaudal
diverticulum of pharynx
Paired bilateral expansion of laryngotracheal
groove
Doughnut-like structure (when cut off from
laryngotracheal groove)

Pleural cavities

Esophagus

Coelomic cavities lateral to lung buds


Continuous w/ pericardial cavities

Rounded part of foregut


Contained w/in a thick mesentery of splanchnic
mesoderm
Whole mesenchymal mass where esophagus &
lung buds are embedded
Includes dorsal mesentery (mesoesophagus)
and ventral mesentery (dorsal mesocardium)

Mediastinum

Bulbus cordis

Endocardium & myocardium (present) indicates


the beginning of bulbus cordis

Large chamber lying to the left and caudally to


bulbus cordis
Has blood corpuscles in it
On the dorsal part of atrium
Attached to foregut by dorsal mesocardium
Separated from atrium by slight constriction
Continuous with common cardinal vein
Regions of heart where left and right fused
Thick wall

syn: conus arteriosus

Atrium

Sinus venosus

Ventricle

Ant. pituitary gland

bronchi

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Trabeculae
Pericardial cavity
Common cardinal
vein
syn:duct of Cuvier
Pleuropericardial
membrane
syn: lateral
mesocardium

Irregular projections of myocardium


Numerous in ventricular walls
Coelom surrounding the heart

Found continuous to sinus venosus


Lower vessel

Bridge of mesenchyme through which common


cardinal vein passes

Mesenchyme incompletely separates the


pericardial cavity from peritoneal cavity
Encloses the veins that enter the heart
Body cavity posterior to transverse septum
Continuous w/ pleural and pericardial cavity
Replaces the mesencephalon
Laterally compressed w/ thin walls
Posterior to oculomotor nerves
Long ventral outpocketing of diencephalon
Formed by invagination of optic vesicles
Inner layer of optic cup
Differentiates into:
Sensory retina thick layer of optic cup
next to lens vesicle
Pigmented retina thin external layer of
optic cup
Formed by ventral invagination of optic cups &
optic stalks
Seen as ventral gap in optic cup
Lens become freed from superficial skin
ectoderm
2 regions:
Elongated & centrally located will form
lens fibers
Outer & narrower cells will become
lens epithelium
Single layer of epithelial tissue covering the
lens of the eye

Transverse septum
Peritoneal cavity
Diencephalon
Infundibulum
Optic cup

Retina

Optic fissure
syn: choroid fissure

Lens vesicle

Corneal epithelium

[EMBRYO LAB]

Optic stalk

Connects optic ups with diencephalon

Postcardinal vein
Intersegmental vein

Lies dorsal to mesonephros


Appear as extensions of postcardinal vein
Drain blood from the dorsal organs like somites,

corneal epithelium

Layer: sclera &


choroid

hr chick reviwer

[EMBRYO LAB]
notochord, neural tube

Stomach

Lies medial to the pleural cavities

Dorsal mesogaster

Mesentery dorsal to the stomach

Hepatogastric
ligament

Mesentery ventral to stomach

Has become of sinus venosus


Liver diverticula are embedded in it

Lying above the ductus venosus

Seen when ant. liver diverticulum becomes


continuous with foregut

Mesentery lying dorsal to duodenum

Mesentery lying ventral to duodenum

Lies beneath the ductus venosus & connecting


duodenum

Small tubes found ventrolateral to the dorsal


aorta

Drains blood from allantois

Telencephalic vesicles oval-shaped


evagination
Cavity of telencephalon:
Median telocoel (ventricle III) connects
posteriorly w/ diocoele
2 lateral diocoele (ventricles 1 & 2)
connect with the median telocoel thru
foramen of Monro

syn:ventral mesogaster

Ductus venosus
Anterior liver
diverticulum
syn: cranial liver
diverticulum

duodenum
Mesoduodenum
Hepatoduodenal
ligament
syn:duodenohepatic
ligament

Posterior liver
diverticulum
syn: caudal liver
diverticulum
Pronephros
Allantoic veins
syn:umbilical vein

Telencephalon

Lamina terminalis

Thin section of snterior telencephalic wall

Cerebral hemispheres

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Nasal placodes

Thickened layer from skin ectoderm lateral to


telencephalon

Ectodermal invagination on each side of


telencephalon

2 big blood vessel on each side of cranial liver


dicerticulum
Level of gut

Level of duodenum
Ventral to ductus venosus

Caudal to cranial intestinal portal


Appear as conical bulges on each side of body
Composed of somatic mesoderm covered by
skin ectoderm
Thickened as apical ectodermal ridge

Small blood vessels continuous w/ dorsal aorta

syn: olfactory placode

Nasal pit
syn: olfactory pit

Vitelline veins
syn:
omphalomesenteric
vein

Cranial intestinal
portal
syn: anterior intestinal
portal

Wing buds

Intersegmented
arteries
Mesonephric duct
syn: Wolffian duct
Mesonephric
tubules
Mesonephric ridge
Subcardinal veins
Leg buds
Tail bud

Allantois

Chorio-allantoic
membrane

[EMBRYO LAB]

Yolk sac

UROGENITAL SYSTEM
Tiny duct w/ thin wall on each side
Level of wing buds
by cavitation of mesonephric duct rudiment
Paired S-shaped tubules medial to mesonephric
duct
Rounded bulge of dorsal body wall into peritoneal
cavity containing mesonephros
Small blood vessel lying beneath each
mesonephric kidney

Level of the posterior intestinal portal


Remnants of primitive streak and Hensens node
Large mass of undifferentiated cells
Dark mass w/ large irregular sacculation located
to the right of hindgut in extraembryonic coelom
Formed from splachnopleure
Store nitrogenous waste product
Serves as embryonic respiratory organs for birds
Lies beneath the inner shell membrane
For respiration & absorption of calcium for shell
Formed from splanchnopleure that overgrows
yolk
Endodermal cells of yolk sac digest yolk w/c are

External nares

Mesonephric kidneys

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Chorion

Amnion

Extraembryonic
coelom

syn: exocoel

Hindgut
Lateral body fold
cloaca
Cloacal membrane
syn: anal plate

Caudal intestinal
portal
syn: posterior intestinal
portal

[EMBRYO LAB]
transported to developing embryo via vitelline
veins
Outer wall of each amniotic fold
Ectoderm on outside w/ adjacent layer of
mesoderm inside
Inner wall of each amniotic fold
Consist of somatic mesoderm on outside and
ectoderm on inside
Somatic mesoderm lined cavity within each
amniotic fold
Continuous with intraembryonic coelom
Endoderm line cavity
Posterior region of the gut
Forms the boundary bet. Embryonic &
extraembryonic regions
Posterior portion of hindgut w/c continuous
ventrally w/ allantois & mesonephric ducts
Double-layered membrane
Ventral endoderm of cloaca fuses w/ ventral skin
ectoderm
Opening formed from hindgut into the
subgerminal cavity

Upon rupture:
anal opening