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CM100 Multi-Sensor

Operations Manual

Version 3.0.0
Doc#: 100-100

UAV Vision Pty Ltd 2015


10 Uralla Road, Port Macquarie,
NSW 2444,
Australia
Phone/Fax +61 (0) 265 811 994
support@uavvision.com

www.uavvision.com

CM100 Multi-Sensor Operations Manual

Revision History
Version

Date

Page Number

Change Description

3.0.0
2.0.0
1.1.3

19/01/2015
22/05/13

All
NA

1.1.2

14/05/13

All

1.1.1

09/05/13

All

1.1.0

25/07/12

Various

1.0.0

Not recorded

NA

Significant Changes
Version Skipped
Document Number changed.
Reformatted; fixed spelling error; Warnings and Important Notes highlighted
in red
Document name, title changed, footer updated, page iii deleted, front section
reformatted
Grammatical changes, USB key supplied instead of DVD, continuous PAN
denoted, ambient temperature range adjusted, added Important Notes
regarding temperatures and IR Sensor performance
First release.

You are required to read this manual thoroughly and pay attention to voltages and mounting
instructions.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transcribed, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of UAV Vision.
The information in this manual is subject to change without notice and, except for the warranty, does
not represent a commitment on the part of UAV Vision. UAV Vision cannot be held liable for any
mistakes in this manual and reserves the right to make changes.

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Table of Contents
1.

2.

3.

Gimbal Specifications .............................. 1

5.

6.

7.

8.

IR FFC Mode Select ..................... 14

1.1.

Mechanical Specifications ............... 1

8.2.

IR Digital Zoom ............................. 14

1.2.

Electrical Specifications .................. 3

8.3.

IR Freeze Frame........................... 14

1.3.

Video Processor Specifications ....... 3

8.4.

IR Video Look Up Table ................ 15

1.4.

Compatible Sensors ........................ 4

8.5.

Video Resolution........................... 15

Handling and Setup .................................. 5

9.

Video Processor ..................................... 16

2.1.

Unpacking the Box .......................... 5

9.1.

Video Processor Functionality....... 16

2.2.

Bench Kit ........................................ 6

9.2.

Video Output ................................. 16

2.3.

Mounting the CM100 ....................... 6

9.3.

On Board Snapshots..................... 17

Powering the System ............................... 7

9.4.

Object Tracking............................. 17

Ideal Operating Conditions .............. 7

9.5.

Electronic Stabilization .................. 19

Gimbal Communication ........................... 8

9.6.

Video Streaming ........................... 19

3.1.
4.

8.1.

4.1.

Default Serial Parameters ............... 8

9.7.

Recording ..................................... 20

4.2.

Default Network Parameters ........... 8

9.8.

Video Overlay ............................... 20

4.3.

IP Address ...................................... 8

10. Geo-Referencing .................................... 21

Gimbal Configuration ............................... 9

10.1. What is Geo-Referencing? ............ 21

5.1.

Initialisation Sequence .................... 9

10.2. GEO-Lock ..................................... 21

5.2.

Stow................................................ 9

10.3. Offsets .......................................... 22

5.3.

Limits ............................................ 10

10.4. Magnetic Calibration ..................... 22

5.4.

Auto Initialisation ........................... 10

10.5. Configuration ................................ 23

Gimbal Control Modes ........................... 11

11. Firmware Upgrades ................................ 24

6.1.

Position Mode ............................... 11

6.2.

Velocity Mode ............................... 11

6.3.

Gyro Stabilization Mode ................ 11

12. Contact.................................................... 25

EO Camera Controls .............................. 12


7.1.

Zoom Velocity Set ......................... 12

7.2.

Focus ............................................ 12

7.3.

Exposure....................................... 12

7.4.

IR Cut Filter ................................... 13

7.5.

Defog Enhancement ..................... 13

IR Camera Controls ................................ 14

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1. Gimbal Specifications
The following specifications throughout this document are compatible with CM100 v3.0 and above.
For more information regarding previous versions, please contact UAV Vision.

Figure 1 - CM100 V3

1.1. Mechanical Specifications


Table 1 - CM100 Mechanical Specifications

Specification
Gross Weight (without Sensors)

650g

Dimensions

100mm D x 126mm H / 3.9in D x 4.9in H

Temperature

-20C , +50C / -4F, +122F

Slew Rate

105/sec (1.83rad/s)

Mechanical Axis

2 (Pan and Tilt)

Position Accuracy

0.022 (380 rad)

Pan Movement

360 Continuous

Tilt Movement

+130 ,- 112

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IP Rating

IP63

Max Wind Shear

200 Knots

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Figure 2 - CM100 Mechanical Dimensions

Figure 3 CM100 Pan and Tilt Axes

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1.2. Electrical Specifications


Table 2 - CM100 Electrical Interface

Parameter
Input Voltage
Power @12V
Start Up Power*
Parameter
Reverse Polarity Protection
Communications
Video

Typ.
Units
9 - 36
V
2.4
W
6
W
Description
Internal protection (Reverse Polarity > 200ms Internally Clamped)
RS232 Serial, Network
Encoded Ethernet (h.264 or M-JPEG), SD Analog (NTSC or PAL)

* Maximum power draw during first 12.6 secs of operation at 25 C


Table 3 - CM100 Pin Outs

Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Function
VCC 9 36 V
VCC 9 36 V
GND
GND
Control Serial In
Control Serial Out
AHRS Serial In
AHRS Serial Out
RxComponent Y/Yg

Pin
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

(RS232)
(RS232)
(RS232)
(RS232)
(Network)

Function
Component Pr
GND
Rx+
(Network)
VCC 9 36 V
TX(Network)
Not Used
Video 1 (EO)
Component Pb
Tx+
(Network)

1.3. Video Processor Specifications


The CM100 houses an internal video processor which provide the following capabilities as listed in
Table 4.
Table 4 CM100 Video Processor Specifications

Interface

Video Interface
Control Interface
Local Recording

MPEG-2 h.264 (720x574 / 640x480)


PAL / NTSC (720x574 / 640x480)
Ethernet and/or Composite
Ethernet or R232
Yes

On-Board Snapshots

.jpeg 1280x720, 720x576 or 640x480

Video Output

Features

Object Tracking

Motion Detection

KLV metadata insertion

Electronic Stabilization

H.264 compression

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1.4. Compatible Sensors


The CM100 currently supports the following sensors shown in Table 5.
Table 5 - CM100 Compatible Sensor Specifications

Sensors
Sensor 1

EO DISC120R

Sensor 1 Zoom

30x Continuous

Sensor 1 Res

1280x720

Sensor 1 FOV ()

1.5 Tele to 45 Wide

Sensor 2

IR - Quark 336

IR - Quark 640

Sensor 2 Zoom

2x , 4x

2x, 4x, 8x

Sensor 2 Res

336x256

640x512

Sensor 2 FOV ()

16x13

32x26

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2. Handling and Setup


The CM100 should not be moved manually at any time, permanent damage will occur.
The CM100 should be handled via the outer shell. Avoid handling the system via the ball.

2.1. Unpacking the Box


The CM100 is well protected and packaged. It is provided in a hard Pelicase, to provide additional
protection when it is removed from the platform or needs to be transported. The case has a foam
insert which the gimbal is stored in, along with associated cables and accessories.

1. Before opening, ensure that the box is upright.


2. Cut the Fragile Tape on the top of the box.
3. Do not discard any packaging. If the instrument must be
returned for servicing, the original packaging must be
used.
4. On top of the box you will find the Packing Slip of your
goods. Take it out of the box, this will help you to ensure
that you have received all your items.
5. Remove the void fill foam to discover your items. You will
find the Hard Pelicase box in the middle and additional
items on the side.
6. Included is a USB Flash Drive with a copy of UAV Visions
Gimbal Test Interface software and digital copies of the
operational manuals.
7. Check all items against the Packing Slip. If anything is
missing, contact UAV Vision immediately.
8. The cables required for operation are also included. It is
important to note voltage and power requirements before
supplying power to the gimbal.
9. When removing the CM100 take care not to apply
pressure upon the ball section.
10. Once the CM100 is free of the box place it on a soft
surface.
11. Do not place the gimbal on anything which could damage
the gimbal surface.

Figure 4 Packing and Shipment

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2.2. Bench Kit


The Bench Test Kit is a required accessory with all initial orders of the CM100. The kit includes a
bench stand, power supply, cabling, and software to enable you to test the operation of the gimbal
without having to install it on to a platform.
The Test Bench is designed for simplicity and to enable plug and play testing. Using the software
(supplied on the accompanying USB Flash Drive) you can control the gimbal.
To necessitate acceptance testing it is imperative that you attach your CM100 to the bench kit
before any other device. The Test Kit is designed to remove any external influences, and enables
the Gimbal to be tested independently, ensuring that it is functioning correctly after shipment.
Please take this opportunity to report any errors the system could have due to shipping.
To assemble the bench kit follow the steps shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5 How to Assemble the Bench Test Stand

2.3. Mounting the CM100


The CM100 can then be installed as shown in Figure 6 below using 4 M4x10mm screws, and 4mm
washers.

Figure 6 How to Secure the CM100 to the Bench Test Stand

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3. Powering the System


Note: Prior to powering the system, ensure that you are powering within the limits of the
CM100 as specified, taking particular notice of the minimum current draw/limit.
All new customers are required to purchase a Test Bench Kit.
If applicable please ensure that the CM100 is free from any obstructions, and is mounted using the
supplied Test Bench in a hanging configuration.
The CM100 will move in a predetermined manner during initialization and indexing. The operator
cannot control the unit during this process.
Before connecting to the gimbal, the gimbal must boot. This usually takes approx. 30 seconds.

3.1. Ideal Operating Conditions


Table 6 Recommended Operating Conditions

Symbol

Characteristic

Min

Typical

Max

Unit

VCC Supply
VCC Supply
Temperature

Main Supply Voltage


Main Supply Current Limit
Ambient Temperature

9
4
0

18
4
25

36
50

V
A
C

Important Notes
When operating the gimbal continuously in ambient temperatures of over 40C, the gimbal must
have airflow after two (2) hours to keep the IR Sensor performing at its optimum.
Constant direct sunlight for extended periods of time, will affect the performance of the IR sensor
and should be avoided when possible.
With prolonged usage, the image displayed from the IR sensor may deteriorate. Performing a Flat
Field Correction (FFC) will restore the image, and can be commanded manually via command line
using the UAV Vision protocol.

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4. Gimbal Communication
The gimbal contains a serial RS232 and Ethernet interfaces.

4.1. Default Serial Parameters


The gimbals serial interface uses the parameters shown in Table 7 .
Table 7 - Serial Parameters

Parameter
Baud
Data Bits
Parity Bits
Stop Bits
Flow Control

Value
115200
8
None
1
None

4.2. Default Network Parameters


The network interface uses the parameters shown in Table 8.
Table 8 - Default Network Parameters

Parameter
Transport Layer
Inbound Port
Reply Port

Value
UDP
18001
18002

The gimbal will listen for commands on the inbound port and send replies to the reply port.

4.3. IP Address
The CM100 has a static IP address that is assigned during the gimbal manufacturing process.
The default shipped settings are:
Range 192.168.0.100-254
Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0
Gateway 192.168.1.0

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5. Gimbal Configuration
5.1. Initialization Sequence
The CM100 performs an initialization sequence on powering up or, if auto initialization (formerly
auto boot) is disabled, when commanded to. The initialization sequence involves the gimbal moving
in pan and tilt to find its position on each axis before moving to its stow position. Gyro stabilization
is enabled following the stow position being reached.
The default stow position that the CM100 is shipped with is:
Pan = 0 degrees
Tilt = 0 degrees
During the course of operation, the gimbal stow position can be modified in both the Pan and Tilt
axis. If changed these new settings will be the position the gimbal drives to once the initialization
sequence is complete.
Please note that movement to the gimbal stow position occurs at a high speed. The gimbal should
only be initialized if it is fixed to a solid platform
Gimbal movement commands may be sent to the gimbal once the initialization sequence is
complete. Gimbal movement commands received before or during initialization will be ignored.

5.2. Stow
The CM100 can be commanded to drive to a stow position either for storage, launch, or landing.
The unit is shipped with a default stow position but this can be changed using the Gimbal Control
Panel software.
The unit moves to the stow position after completing the initialization sequence described in section
5.1.
Gimbal movement commands, object tracking and GEO-Lock commands are ignored while stowed.
5.2.1

Auto Stow

Gimbal Firmware 3.4 introduced Auto Stow where the gimbal will move to the gimbal stow position if
a valid gimbal protocol packet has not been received within the timeout period. This function can be
used on UAVs which can land on their own when communications with the Ground Control Station
have been lost.
By default, Auto Stowing is disabled.

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5.3. Limits
The movement limits can be sent to prevent the gimbal moving past a particular position, for
example because of a mechanical constraint near where the gimbal is mounted. Each axis has two
limits which determine the out of bounds region which the gimbal is not allowed to enter.
The gimbal will stop moving when it reaches either limit. Figure 7 shows the limits on the tilt axis.
The blue arc shows the region where the gimbal can be moved in tilt, and the red arc shows the
region on the tilt axis where the gimbal cannot be positioned. The pan limits operate in a similar
manner on the pan axis. Unlike the Tilt axis, the pan axis is able to continuously rotate. Continuous
rotation is set when both pan limits are equal.

Figure 7 - Description of Pan and Tilt Limits

Figure 7 shows the tilt axis positioned at 0 degrees tilt. The blue arc shows the allowable positions
the gimbal can be moved and the red arc shows the out of bounds region the gimbal will not be able
to be moved to given the current tilt limits.
By default the movement limits are:
Table 9 - Pan and Tilt Limits

Axis
Pan
Tilt

Upper
Lower
Continuous rotation
130
112

Pro Tip: Movement limits can be configured using the Gimbal Control Panel.

5.4. Auto Initialization


Auto initialization is a gimbal configuration setting which allows the gimbal to start its initialization
sequence immediately after powering up.
When auto initialization is disabled the gimbal will not initialize until the Initialize Gimbal Packet is
received.
Auto initialization can be configured using the Gimbal Control Panel.

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6. Gimbal Control Modes


After being initialized or booting up the gimbal is able to operate in one of three modes (excluding
GEO-Lock and object tracking.

6.1. Position Mode


This mode allows a user to demand Pan/Tilt positions. The CM100 will move to the demanded
position in the direction that is quickest for the system to arrive. The velocity of movement toward
the demanded position will be determined by the distance away from the demanded position.
The position demands are capable of demanding the system to 1 (one) of 32,768 positions in Pan,
corresponding to the full 360 rotation. The 32,768 positions result in a position resolution for the
system of 0.011 (360/32,768) in both the Pan and Tilt axes.

6.2. Velocity Mode


The Pan and Tilt can be set to rotate at a specified velocity. The velocity resolution is 0.01/sec with
upper and lower limits of 105/sec in both Pan and Tilt. Software limits preprogrammed into the
CM100 ensure the velocity is set to zero when the limits are reached.

6.3. Gyro Stabilization Mode


Gyro Stabilization mode is the default mode entered into following the Initialization sequence
completing.
When the CM100 is in Gyro Stabilization Mode, the user can demand velocities on both Pan and
Tilt. The demanded velocity is relative to the world and therefore external movements are
compensated for to achieve a stable image.
For example, the platform which is carrying the CM100 is rotating at +10/sec and the user would
like to continue to Pan the image slowly at -2/sec then the internal calculations will Pan the system
at -12/sec, relative to the CM100 but a smooth -2/sec relative to the image/world.
Please ensure the CM100 is securely mounted before enabling Gyro Stabilization Mode.

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7. EO Camera Controls
The UAV Vision control protocol allows all of the features provided by the Hitachi DISC120R sensor
to be controlled by the user to achieve the best possible image. These features are individually
discussed in the following section.

7.1. Zoom Velocity Set


The CM100 is fitted with a Hitachi DISC120R Sensor as standard and as such comes with 30x
optical continuous zoom; six different levels of zoom speed are available.

7.2. Focus
The CM100 is set to Auto Focus as default, although on occasion manual focus may be required.
Pro Tip: If looking backwards and an undercarriage leg is in view, the camera will focus on the
leg rather than the distance or point of interest. In this case manual focus can be used to focus
past the leg making it almost invisible.
The best method to achieve this is to point the CM100 away from the disturbing object, and
focus on the point of interest. At this point, set the CM100 to manual focus, then return the frame
to the previous position. You will notice the previously disturbing object will no longer effect the
focus
Pro Tip: If operating at a constant altitude, zoom in to an object and let the camera focus, press
manual focus and zoom out. Now everything at that distance will be in focus and the user will be
able to zoom in and out while keeping focus.
Alternatively the focus can be set to infinity when looking at an object that is over 10m away.

7.3. Exposure
The default setting for the CM100 is Auto-Exposure, however during operation, differences in
lighting conditions may cause poor image visibility. This can be overcome by switching auto
exposure off, which will then provide manual control of the Iris, Shutter and Gain.
If experiencing difficulties such as under or over exposure, enabling one or all of the following
settings will allow the user to manually adjust the sensor to provide better image quality.
Pro Tip: Prior to entering any of the following Manual Modes, practice and note the effects that
each has on the image quality to avoid missing the capture of vital data when operating during a
mission.
7.3.1

Auto Exposure Mode

When Auto Exposure is enabled (Enabled by default) the camera will automatically select Gain,
Shutter Speed and Iris (f-stop) values. When Auto Exposure is disabled, the camera is in Full
Manual Mode and the operator is responsible for setting Iris, Shutter Speed and Gains.

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7.3.2

Iris Priority Mode

Opening the Iris lets more light into the camera increasing the exposure of the image. The Iris
priority mode allows the Iris to be set manually but allows the camera to automatically select Gain
and Shutter Speed values.
The Iris can also be controlled in Full Manual Mode when Auto exposure is disabled.
7.3.3

Shutter Priority Mode

When the Shutter priority mode is enabled, the Shutter Speed can be manually controlled, however
the Iris and Gain controls will still be automatic.
Shutter Speed can also be controlled in Full Manual Mode.
User Tip: A faster Shutter Speed produces a sharper image of objects moving in the frame.
However, increasing the Shutter Speed allows less light through the aperture producing a darker
image.
7.3.4

Camera Gain Set

The Camera Gain can be set manually only if the Auto Exposure Control is disabled. Increasing the
gain artificially creates a brighter image.
Pro Tip: When manually adjusting the Camera Gain Set. The higher the gain the worse the
picture quality.

7.4. IR Cut Filter


Enabling IR Cut filter places a filter over the lens to block near infra-red wavelengths.

7.5. Defog Enhancement


When operating in fog or smog, the Hitachi DISC120R provides a real-time Defog Enhancement
which is able to significantly improve visibility. An example is shown below in Figure 8.

Figure 8 - Defog Example (Left = Disabled / Right = Enabled)

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8. IR Camera Controls
The CM100 can be fitted with a FLIR IR sensor for which a select number of commands have been
implemented in the UAV Vision protocol. These commands are listed in the following section:

8.1. IR FFC Mode Select


The FLIR Quark range of IR sensors are un-cooled, Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) sensors which
occasionally require a recalibration of the Neutral Temperature Offset by performing a Flat Field
Correction (FFC).
When a FFC is demanded the gimbal will:
Move to the pre-determined FFC position (IR sensor points towards inside the gimbal cradle)
Recalibrate the Neutral Temperature Offset.
Move to the position at which the FFC was initially demanded.
An FFC is only ever performed by an operators request and takes approx. 3 seconds to complete.
Pro Tip: If the IR sensor output is starting to show grainy, streaks or lose of definition, an FFC
should be performed.

8.2. IR Digital Zoom


The Quark range of IR sensors is able to provide multiple levels of digital zoom. These levels of
zoom range from 2x, 4x and 8x dependent on the model integrated into the CM100 and can be
seen in Section 1.4 page 4. Unlike optical zoom, digital zoom will decrease image quality.

8.3. IR Freeze Frame


Quark IR sensors provide the ability to freeze the video feed without requiring a Digital Video
Recorder (DVR). This feature is useful when a user requires some additional time to interpret an
image before moving on. The live stream resumes once the freeze is disabled.
Pro Tip: During a Freeze Frame, only the Freeze Frame will be recorded by the gimbal.

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8.4. IR Video Look Up Table


A Look up Table (LUT) provides the user with the ability to alter the colour profile of the video being
streamed from the IR sensor. Dependent on the environment of operation, using different LUT
palettes will provide benefits to the image being observed.
The available options supported by the Quark range of sensors are:
White Hot
Black Hot
Fusion
Rain
Pro Tip: When targeting vehicles, the White Hot palette is best suited

8.5. Video Resolution


The IR Sensor can be set to output PAL or NTSC. When used with the HD EO Sensor the output
resolution of the IR Sensor determines the output resolution of the video processor.

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9. Video Processor
The CM100 contains an internal video processor which stabilizes, object tracks, encodes video,
takes snapshots and streams video.

9.1. Video Processor Functionality


The Video Processor enables a number of features which can be unlocked before delivery or
upgraded in the field to allow new features to be made available.
Video Processor features include:
Video Stabilization removes unwanted translation and rotation from the displayed image
Object Tracking Up to 5 objects can be marked and then their position tracked through each
frame. The gimbal can also move to keep one of the tracked objects in the center of frame.
On-board Recording video is recorded onto a micro SD card inside the gimbal.
h.264 Compression video is encoded as h.264 and allows video to be streamed over a
network.
KLV Encoding metadata compliant with MISB Standards 0601, 0604 and RP0603 is inserted
into the video stream and is output with the video over a network or into the recording file.

9.2. Video Output


The Video Processor outputs video in two formats:
Analog SD PAL or NTSC as determined by the video mode of the EO and/or IR Sensor
h.264 encoded video contained in a MPEG2 Transport Stream KLV metadata compliant with
MISB Standards 0601, 0604 and RP0603 is inserted as an elementary stream on systems
which contain the KLV features.

The video frame size streamed and recorded is 720 x 574 when the IR sensor is set to PAL and 640
x 480 when the IR sensor is set to NTSC. The EO video feed is a windowed version of a 1280 x
720 frame received from the EO sensor.
Video can be streamed over the network and output through the analog channel simultaneously.
The frame rate is nominal 30 frames per second (fps) for NTSC inputs and 25fps for PAL inputs
however processor load can lower the output frame rate.
The video processor accepts both the EO and IR video sources but can only work on one video
source at a time. The active video source will be the video source which all video processor
operations are applied to.

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9.3. On Board Snapshots


On Board Snapshots can be made of the source frame. These snapshots do not contain any
overlays or the effects of Electronic Stabilization.
This allows full frame HD snapshots to be made from the EO Sensor. All snapshots are saved as
JPEG files on to a microSD card.
The frame size of each source is shown below in Table 10.
Table 10 - Snapshot Resolutions

Source Type
EO Source
IR Source

Image Size
1280x720
720x576 or 640x480
(depending on sensor output resolution)

File names are set internally and contain a time stamp. The file naming convention is:
YYYYMMDD_HHmmssf.ts
YYYY is the year
MM is the month
DD is the day
HH is the hour in 24 hour time
mm is the minute
ss is the second
f is a letter place holder.
The time stamp is in UTC +00:00.

9.4. Object Tracking


Object Tracking allows an objects position in forth coming frames to be tracked and allows the
gimbal to move to keep an object in the center of frame.
A primary track is a track which the gimbal will move to keep in the center of frame and secondary
tracks are tracks whose position will be tracked through the frame.
A tracked object will have a colored bounding box drawn around it as a video overlay element.

Pro Tip: When engaging Object Tracking, GEO-Lock will be disabled. Similarly, when GEOLock is enabled, Object Tracking will be disabled.
Pro Tip: Best results are achieved when the object being tracked clearly stands out from objects
in the background.

Object tracking has different parameters which affect the quality of an Object Track:

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9.4.1

Acquisition Size

The Acquisition Size determines the size of the object which will be tracked when a new track is
started.
The acquisition size should be set to the expected size of the object which will be tracked so that
the object fits inside the bounding box without too much background. The acquisition size can be
changed after a track has been made and the object will be reacquired using the new acquisition
size.
Pro Tip: To start tracking moving objects position the gimbal crosshairs in front of the object and
begin tracking when the object moves through the cross hairs.
9.4.2

Tracking Mode

There are different profiles which are best suited for tracking different objects, there are:
Moving - for tracking moving objects such as people and cars.
Stationary - for tracking stationary targets such as a window
Scene - Scene lock tracks an entire scene. The gimbal will move to keep the center of the
scene in frame.
9.4.3

Stabilize on Track

When Stabilize on Track is active, if the tracked object in the center of frame moves, the frame will
move to remove disturbances. This mode is only active when electronic stabilization is active and
provides the most stable footage possible.

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9.5. Electronic Stabilization


Electronic Stabilization complements the mechanical stabilization and translates and rotates the
video to remove external disturbances.
Electronic Stabilization can be configured by the following parameters:
Re-centering Rate: The rate which the frame returns to center after a disturbance. A high rate
will return the frame to center faster and may allow some disturbances to be noticed. A lower
rate will smooth out disturbances but can take longer to return to center.
Maximum Translation the frame will be stabilized up to a maximum disturbance translation in
pixels after which point greater disturbances will not be compensated for.
Maximum Rotation The maximum amount of rotational disturbance compensated for in
degrees. High values of compensation increase the load on the video processor.
Background Type the type of background used in the compensating frame. When a frame is
electronically stabilized it is translated and rotated to remove any change in position of the
frame. As the frame is rotated or tilted, the previously output frame or a black frame will be
superimposed behind the current frame to fill in the spaces left by the current frame being
moved.

9.6. Video Streaming


Compressed video can be output over the gimbals Ethernet interface as MPEG2-TS (h.264 with
MISB 0601 metadata). Video can be compressed to bit rates between 64kbps to 10000 kbps.
The gimbal supports Unicast streaming and Multicast streaming.
To give operators control over bandwidth usage vs image quality the bit rate, intra frame interval
and frame rate can be controlled.
The intra frame interval can affect bandwidth usage by modifying the rate at which larger reference
frames are sent. Measured as the number of frames between I-frames being sent, a shorter I-frame
interval can increase image quality but also bandwidth.
The default value is to send an I-frame every 30 frames.
The frame rate is controlled by a frame step. When the frame step is 1, every frame is output.
When the frame step is 2, every second frame is output and so on up to a frame step of 120.

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9.7. Recording
Video is recorded onto an internal microSD card. The video is recorded to a .ts file and is identical
to the network streamed video.
File names are set internally and contain a time stamp. The file naming convention is:
YYYYMMDD_HHmmssf.ts
YYYY is the year
MM is the month
DD is the day
HH is the hour in 24 hour time
mm is the minute
ss is the second
f is a letter place holder.
The time stamp is in UTC +00:00.
Snapshots and video recordings can be accessed using an SCP client and copied over a network
connection.

9.8. Video Overlay


The video display can have an overlay superimposed.
Overlay elements include:
Sensor field of view angle
Cross hair
Target location
Slant range distance from platform to target
Object tracks
Time as UTC +00:00
The entire overlay or individual elements are able to be enabled or suppressed.

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10. Geo-Referencing
Geo-Referencing allows the geographic position of the gimbals boresight to be calculated based on
the platforms position, orientation, camera parameters, the gimbals angles and a digital elevation
model.

10.1. What is Geo-Referencing?


Geo-Referencing calculates the location on the Earths surface of a point at the gimbals boresight
(in the crosshair on the overlay). Geo-Referencing outputs the target location as a latitude and
longitude on the WGS 84 Ellipsoid. When terrain height is provided, the ground target elevation is
calculated.
Geo-Referencing works best when the angle of depression between camera boresight and target is
large and is most accurate when the camera is looking nadir.
Geo-Referencing calculates the target location and the locations of the four corners of the field of
view and is only valid when the gimbal is looking below the horizon.
Geo-Referencing currently only operates when the gimbal is mounted in its standard configuration
which is with the gimbal ball directly under the mounting points.
10.1.1 Seed Terrain Height
For Geo-Referencing to be more effective, the terrain height of the current location should be sent
to the gimbal. When UAV Vision software is used, this will be done by providing digital elevation
model files.
The terrain height above mean sea level should be provided for the last received target location at a
rate of at least 1Hz.

10.2. GEO-Lock
GEO-Lock uses the output of the Geo-Referencing engine to steer the gimbal so that a desired
target location is kept in the center of frame.
GEO-Lock can commence by using the location of the gimbal, its current point, or by supplying a
new target location in which case the gimbal will move as best it can to position the new target
location in the center of frame.
If GEO-Lock is started with the gimbal looking above the horizon, the gimbal will tilt down at 10
degrees per second until a valid Geo-Reference is made before commencing GEO-Lock control.

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10.3. Offsets
10.3.1 Misalignment Offsets
The Geo-Reference engine receives information on platform position and orientation from an
external GNSS device. In order for Geo-Referencing to be as accurate as possible, the GNSS
should be aligned with the platforms axis. Any rotation away from the platforms axis can be
corrected by setting the misalignment matrix of the GNSS through the gimbal. Please refer to
Section 5 of document UV600-100.
10.3.2 GNSS Antenna Offset
The Antenna Offset is the distance of the GNSS antenna to the GNSS device along the
misalignment corrected axis of the GNSS Device. Setting the GNSS increases the accuracy of the
GNSS Positioning estimate.
10.3.3 Gimbal Offsets
The gimbal should also be aligned with the platforms axis. An offset to the pan angle should be
applied to the gimbal such that when the gimbal is at pan position 0 degrees it is facing to the front
of the platform.

10.4. Magnetic Calibration


The GNSS should be magnetically calibrated whenever the device is moved in relation to magnetic
materials or magnetic materials are moved in relation to the GNSS.
The magnetic calibration can be performed through the gimbal and the gimbal will provide feedback
on the calibration.
A 2D or 3D calibration can be performed.
10.4.1 2D Calibration:
Power on the system and wait 5 minutes for the GNSS filters to stabilize
Start 2D calibration by sending the appropriate Gimbal Protocol packet or by using the Gimbal
Control Panel.
Rotate around the platforms Z axis three times, being careful not to introduce too much roll or
pitch deviation as this will cause a calibration error and the calibration will have to start again.
The calibration will complete after approximately three rotations.
If the calibration fails, let the system rest, unmoving for two minutes before starting a new
calibration.
10.4.2 3D Calibration:
Power on the system and wait 5 minutes for the GNSS filters to stabilize.
Start 3D calibration by sending the appropriate Gimbal Protocol packet or by using the Gimbal
Control Panel.
In any order, rotate twice around the platforms X axis, Y axis and Z axis.
The calibration will complete after approximately all six rotations are made.
If the calibration fails, let the system rest, unmoving for two minutes before starting a new
calibration.

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10.5. Configuration
The GNSS can be configured through the gimbal for different vehicle types.
Vehicle types:
Unconstrained
Car
Fixed wing
3D aircraft
Car
Hovercraft
Stationary
The ranges of the accelerometers, gyroscope and magnetometer can be changed. The range of
accelerometers should be changed if the GNSS is subject to high amplitude high frequency
vibrations.

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11. Firmware Upgrades


Gimbal firmware can be upgraded over the main serial port or via Ethernet.
Gimbal firmware should be uploaded using the Gimbal Control Panel application provided by UAV
Vision.
Updates should only be made if instructed by UAV Vision.

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12. Contact
UAV Vision strongly believes in supporting customers throughout the product lifecycle and we
encourage open and regular feedback regarding our products and services.

Any technical or support enquiries should be directed to support@uavvision.com

Any Sales or General Enquiries should be directed to sales@uavvision.com

Alternatively,
We can be contacted via telephone during Australian business hours at +61 (0) 265 811 994, or
outside of business hours if scheduled previously.

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