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CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
3. MATERIALS AND MEHODS
4. RUSULTS AND DISCUSSION
5. CONCLUSION
6. REFERENCES

Chapter-1
Introduction

1. INTRODUCTION
Definition:
Water is a chemical compound consisting of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen. The
name water typically refers to the liquid state of the compound. The solid phase is known
as ice and gas phase is called steam.

Fig 1: Atomic molecule of Hydrogen


Water is the common name applied to the liquid form (state) of the hydrogen and oxygen
compound H2O. Pure water is an odorless, tasteless, clear liquid. Water is one of nature's
most important gifts to mankind. Essential to life, a person's survival depends on drinking
water. Water is one of the most essential elements to good health - it is necessary for the
digestion and absorption of food; helps maintain proper muscle tone; supplies oxygen and
nutrients to the cells; rids the body of wastes; and serves as a natural air conditioning
system. Health officials emphasize the importance of drinking at least eight glasses of
clean water each and every day to maintain good health is everywhere.
Since water contains no calories and can serve as an appetite suppressant and helps the
body metabolize stored fat, it may possibly be one of the most significant factors in
losing weight. In the book, titled "The Snowbird Diet" Dr. Donald Robertson says the
body will not function properly without enough water and discusses the importance of
drinking plenty of water for permanent weight loss: "Drinking enough water is the best
treatment for fluid retention; the overweight person needs more water than the thin one;
water helps to maintain proper muscle tone; water can help relieve constipation; drinking
water is essential to weight loss."

Basic Types of Water Defined


In general, water for drinking and cooking should be wholesome. It should be both
potable and palatable. It must be bacteriologically and chemically safe for drinking and
be good tasting. It should be clear, colorless, and have no unpleasant taste or odor.In our
present-day world, we need at least three basic types of water of somewhat different
quality, depending on the requirements of each use:
1. Utility Water. Water which is suitable for use in sanitation and lawn sprinkling;
adequate in quantity, bacteriologically safe, but not necessarily treated to the highest
quality.
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2. Softened Water. Water which is optimum for bathing, shampooing, personal


grooming, laundering and dishwashing. Since many of these uses demand hot water, fully
softened water produces better results with minimum soap and detergent usage, and, in
addition, provides conservation of energy required for water heating.
3. Drinking Water. Water to be used for drinking and cooking must be of high quality. It
must meet or exceed the bacteriological and chemical requirements of both the EPA
Interim Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. Since water used for
drinking and cooking amounts to only about 1/2 of 1% of the total water supplied by a
community, this amounts to 0.875 gallons per person per day of the 175 gallons per
person per day furnished by the community. The remaining amount (over 174 gallons per
person per day) is used for a variety of purposes such as sprinkling lawns and irrigation,
flushing toilets, fighting fires, cleaning streets, as well as utility commercial and
industrial uses within the community.
4. of course, many commercial establishments (laundries, beauty salons, car washes,
etc.), industries (for rinsing and specific processes), and institutions (hospitals, for
example for laboratory use, hem dialysis, etc.) will want to provide extremely high
quality water of different types for specific applications at the point of use.
Today, more than ever before, water is what we make it -not only for community water
supplies, but also for individual water supplies. Point-of-use water treatment today is an
extremely viable and readily available means by which water of extremely high quality
can be provided. Moreover, since treatment takes place just before the water is used,
point-of-use water treatment also provides distinct and unique advantages in that only the
amount of water needed for each specific purpose or application is treated to the desired
quality and also that there is virtually no opportunity for recontamination of the water
from the distribution system after treatment.

Water Analysis
Water analysis is crucial whenever a process requires water of a specific quality. Water
used for sustaining life, during specific production processes and other basic living
functions requires specific and careful water analysis. Dangerous levels of
microorganisms and mineral deposits can make a water source unfit, and only water
analysis can afford the proper insight necessary to determine the relative safety of a
source. Due to the necessity of quality water, both in current processes and for future
environmental quality, water analysis is a critically important scientific process.

TYPES OF WATER
Water is commonly described either in terms of its nature, usage, or origin. The
implications in these descriptions range from being highly specific to so general as to be
non-definitive. Ground waters originate in subterranean locations such as wells, while
surface waters comprise the lakes, rivers, and seas.

1. Fresh Water
Fresh water may come from either a surface or ground source, and typically contains less
than 1% sodium chloride. It may be either "hard" or "soft," i.e., either rich in
calcium and magnesium salts and thus possibly forming insoluble curds with
ordinary soap. Actually, there are gradations of hardness, which can be estimated
from the Langelier or Ryznar indexes or accurately determined by titration with
standardized chelating agent solutions such as versenates.
2. Brackish Water
Brackish water contains between 1 and 2.5% sodium chloride, either from natural sources
around otherwise fresh water or by dilution of seawater. Brackish water differs from open
seawater in certain other respects. The biological activity, for example, can be
significantly modified by higher concentrations of nutrients. Fouling is also likely to be
more severe as a consequence of the greater availability of nutrients.
Within harbors, bays, and other estuaries, marked differences can exist in the amount and
type of fouling agents present in the water. The main environmental factors responsible,
singly or in combination, for these differences are the salinity, the degree of pollution,
and the prevalence of silt. Moreover, the influence of these factors can be very specific to
the type of organism involved. Apart from differences that can develop between different
parts of the same estuary, there can also be differences between fouling in enclosed
waters and on the open coast. In this respect the extent of offshore coastal fouling is
strongly determined by the accessibility to a natural source of infection. Local currents,
average temperature, seasonal effects, depth, and penetration of light are operative
factors. The presence of pollutants can also be quite important and highly variable in
coastal areas.
3. Seawater
Seawater typically contains about 3.5% sodium chloride, although the salinity may be
weakened in some areas by dilution with fresh water or concentrated by solar evaporation
in others. Seawater is normally more corrosive than fresh water because of the higher
conductivity and the penetrating power of the chloride ion through surface films on a
metal. The rate of corrosion is controlled by the chloride content, oxygen availability, and
the temperature. The 3.5% salt content of seawater produces the most corrosive chloride
salt solution.

Chapter-2
Review of Literature

ANALYTICAL METHODS OF WATER


Water analyses are done by several methods. The most common types of measurements
are gravimetric (weighing), electrochemical (using meters with electrodes) and optical
(including visual). Instrumental methods are becoming increasingly popular, and
instrumentation is getting "smarter" and easier to use with the inclusion of
microprocessors. In the simplest case, a sample may just be placed in an instrument and a
result read directly on a display. More often some physical separation technique or
chemical procedure is needed before a measurement is made, in order to remove
interferences and transform the analyses-- the target of the analysis-- into a form which
can be detected by the instrument.
Since even raw sewage is generally more than 99.9% water, most environmental analyses
are measuring very low concentrations of materials. The results of these measurements
are usually expressed in the units "milligrams per liter," abbreviated as mg/L. Since a
milligram is one thousandth of a gram, and a liter of water weighs about a thousand
grams, a mg/L is approximately equal to one part per million by weight. A part per
million ("ppm") is only one ten thousandth of one percent. For toxic metals and organic
compounds of industrial origin, measurements are now routinely made in the part per
billion (microgram per liter) range or even lower. At such low levels, sensitive equipment
and careful technique are clearly necessary for accurate results. Avoiding contamination
of the sample and using methods which prevent interferences from other substances in
the water are crucial requirements for successful analyses. that can be obtaine

Electrochemical:
The outer portions of all atoms and molecules consist of "shells" of electrons, and all
chemical reactions involve interactions with these outer electrons-- sharing or transfer, or
something in between. It is not surprising,, then, that electricity and chemistry are
interrelated

Properties of Water
Water (H2O) is the most abundant compound on Earth's surface, constituting about 70%
of the planet's surface. In nature it exists in liquid, solid, and gaseous states. It is in
dynamic equilibrium between the liquid and gas states at standard temperature and
pressure. At room temperature, it is a nearly colorless with a hint of blue, tasteless, and
odorless liquid. Many substances dissolve in water and it is commonly referred to as the
universal solvent. Because of this, water in nature and in use is rarely pure and some of
its properties may vary slightly from those of the pure substance. However, there are
many compounds that are essentially, if not completely, insoluble in water. Water is the
only common substance found naturally in all three common states of matter and it is
essential for life on Earth. Water usually makes up 55% to 78% of the human body.

Physical Properties of Water

We live on a planet that is dominated by water. More than 70% of the Earth's surface is
covered with this simple molecule. Scientists estimate that the hydrosphere contains
about 1.36 billion cubic kilometers of this substance mostly in the form of a liquid
(water) that occupies topographic depressions on the Earth. The second most common
form of the water molecule on our planet is ice. If all our planet's ice melted, sea-level
would rise by about 70 meters.
Water is also essential for life. Water is the major constituent of almost all life forms.
Most animals and plants contain more than 60% water by volume. Without water life
would probably never have developed on our planet.
Water has a very simple atomic structure. This structure consists of two hydrogen atoms
bonded to one oxygen atom (Figure 8a-1). The nature of the atomic structure of water
causes its molecules to have unique electrochemical properties. The hydrogen side of the
water molecule has a slight positive charge (see Figure 8a-1). On the other side of the
molecule a negative charge exists. This molecular polarity causes water to be a powerful
solvent and is responsible for its strong surface tension (for more information on these
two properties see the Discussion on below).
The atomic structure of a water (or dehydrogenate monoxide) molecule consists of two
hydrogen (H) atoms joined to one oxygen (O) atom. The unique way in which the
hydrogen atoms are attached to the oxygen atom causes one side of the molecule to have
a negative charge and the area in the opposite direction to have a positive charge. The
resulting polarity of charge causes molecules of water to be attracted to each other
forming strong molecular bonds
When the water molecule makes a physical phase change its molecules arrange
themselves in distinctly different patterns (Figure 8a-2). The molecular arrangement
taken by ice (the solid form of the water molecule) leads to an increase in volume and a
decrease in density. Expansion of the water molecule at freezing allows ice to float on top
of liquid water.
The three diagrams above illustrate the distinct arrangement patterns of water molecules
as they change their physical state from ice to water to gas. Frozen water molecules
arrange themselves in a particular highly organized rigid geometric pattern that causes the
mass of water to expand and to decrease in density. The diagram above shows a slice
through a mass of ice that is one molecule wide. In the liquid phase, water molecules
arrange themselves into small groups of joined particles. The fact that these arrangements
are small allows liquid water to move and flow. Water molecules in the form of a gas are
highly charged with energy. This high energy state causes the molecules to be always
moving reducing the likelihood of bonds between individual mole forming.
Water has several other unique physical properties. These properties are:

Water has a high specific heat. Specific heat is the amount of energy required to
change the temperature of a substance. Because water has a high specific heat, it

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can absorb large amounts of heat energy before it begins to get hot. It also means
that water releases heat energy slowly when situations cause it to cool. Water's
high specific heat allows for the moderation of the Earth's climate and helps
organisms regulate their body temperature more effectively.

Water in a pure state has a neutral pH. As a result, pure water is neither acidic nor
basic. Water changes its pH when substances are dissolved in it. Rain has a
naturally acidic pH of about 5.6 because it contains natural derived carbon
dioxide and sulfur dioxide.
Water conducts heat more easily than any liquid except mercury. This fact causes
large bodies of liquid water like lakes and oceans to have essentially a uniform
vertical temperature profile.
Water molecules exist in liquid form over an important range of temperature from
0 - 100 Celsius. This range allows water molecules to exist as a liquid in most
places on our planet.
Water is a universal solvent. It is able to dissolve a large number of different
chemical compounds. This feature also enables water to carry solvent nutrients in
runoff, infiltration, groundwater flow, and living organisms.
Water has a high surface tension (Figures 8a-3 and 8a-4). In other words, water is
adhesive and elastic, and tends to aggregate in drops rather than spread out over a
surface as a thin film. This phenomenon also causes water to stick to the sides of
vertical structures despite gravity's downward pull. Water's high surface tension
allows for the formation of water droplets and waves, allows plants to move water
(and dissolved nutrients) from their roots to their leaves, and the movement of
blood through tiny vessels in the bodies of some animals.

Fig 2: Hydrogenbonding
The following illustration shows how water molecules are attracted to each other to
create high surface tension. This property can cause water to exist as an extensive thin
film over solid surfaces. In the example above, the film is two layers of water molecules
Water molecules are the only substance on Earth that exists in all three physical
states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. Incorporated in the changes of state are
massive amounts of heat exchange. This feature plays an important role in the
redistribution of heat energy in the Earth's atmosphere. In terms of heat being
transferred into the atmosphere, approximately 3/4's of this process is
accomplished by the evaporation and condensation of water.

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The freezing of water molecules causes their mass to occupy a larger volume.
When water freezes it expands rapidly adding about 9% by volume. Fresh water
has a maximum density at around 4 Celsius (see Table 8a-1). Water is the only
substance on this planet where the maximum density of its mass does not occur
when it becomes solidified

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