r{EVIEW QLiESl"t()NS,
,.1,
.i:
!,
,s
RXOR are illustrated in Figure 6.10. The XOR function calculates the column parity.
RXOR is a diagonal padty check, achieved by rotating each successive 16bit word in
the data block one bit and then performing a bitwise XOR.
a. Will this checksum detect all errors caused by an odd number of error bits?
Explain.
210
coRRECTIoN
cHAPTER 6 / ERRoR DETECTIoN AND
a.Drawtheshiftregistercircuitthatwouldperformthistask(seeFigure6.4).
(leftmost.bit is the least significant)
b. Encode
,ti";i;t ;;;;or
c.
Norv
assume
tro"rn
:*:yotg
irr. rsst in the codeword
the error'
strowihat the detection algorithm detects
P
choose
scheme,
In a cRc errordetecting
(x) :
6.14 a.
10010011011'
b. srp;;;li"'.tunrr"t
rro#i'io
is in error and
x4 +
(i.e., a flip
introduces an error pa!!9.n 100010000000000
error be
the
can
received?
is
what
* p"rl,r", iuna s).
til.;;^Oi;l
detected?
c.
defined as follows:
R(X)
+ XkL(X)
.,
u'P6)
P@
FCS: L(x) + R(x)
x16D(x)
where
L(X) :
Yts
Yta
+ Xt3 +
"'
X+
andkisthenumberofbitsbeingchecked(address,control,andinformationfields).
a. 00000,10101,01010
b. 000000,010101, 101010,
110110
6:rlSection6'6discussesblockerror.correctingcodesthat.makea'decisiononthebasis
of s equally likely codewords of
consisting
of minimum distance. That is, given a code
ieceiverielects the codeword w for which
v,
ttre
each;i;;;;;;r."iJ
for
tength r,
tite to prove that thjs scheme is "ideal" in
woutJ
we
the distance d{w,v)is a minimum.
probability of w
selecrs G codervord for which the
the sense that rhe J;;;;;;i;"ys'B"tuu'"
all codewords are assumed equally likely' the
given v, p (wlv ),
i.';;;';In;'
codewordthatmaximizesp(wl")lsttresameasthecodewordthatmaximizesp(vw).
a.Inorderthatwbereceivedasv,theremustbeexactlyd(w,.v)errorsintransmisLet p be
occur in those bits where w and v disagree.
sion, and th".; ;;;;;;ri
ol
length
the
be
andn
incorrectly
the probabilit; ;#; 11"". ui, i, trun*r.riu.d
d(w. v). and n'
of
function
a
as
B,
pi"i*)
to.
expression
a codeword. write an
and the number of bits not in error is
Hint: T\enumber of bitsln error is ai*' 'l
n d(w,v).
b. Now compare p ( vlwr ) 1na. p ( vlw2 ) for two different
c.
calcuiating
(
P ( vlwr )/P vlw2
)'
codewords w1 and w2 by
> p(vlw2)
if
and only if
p(vlw1 )
Assume that 0 < p < 05 and show that
tn ttrit giveithe largest value
ttre'coO'eiord
ttrat
proves
This
d( vw, ) < d( v,w2) '
minimum'
v
a
is
from
it ilut tii"o whose distance
"i, ilfit I
6.18Section6.6statesthatforagivenpositiveinteger.4ifa.codesatisfiesd^in22t+,
to ufia including errorsof t bits' Prove this
then the code can correct all bit errors "p
io;;;;;*ord rito be decodedw'as another
assertion. Hl"/, i;;;;ilt[r*"irg,r,rr
be at least as close to w' as to
must
sequence
the received
codeword w',
6.lgAcommontechniqueforimplementingCRCistouseatablelookupalgorithm.The
several papers describl?i.*:t
document site uiU'o*'to*laict0e containi
1'""ttiit
approach to in
general
the
pui"tiitui tt'**uti'es
Write a ,tott
",t',
i,;5:
234
cHAPTER 7
DATA LINK
coNTRoL PRorocoLS
7.10
7.ll
7,12
7.13
7.14
7.15 Define data transParencY'
7.L6 What are the three frame types supported by HDLC?
Describe each'
Problems
T.:^Considerahalfduplexpointto.pointlinkusingastop.andwaitscheme,inwhich
into a number of frames'
a series
b.
7.3
"ri".iii_line
size?
stant message
con
size?
What is the effect on line utilization of increasing frame
process of actively being
the
in
are
that
line
transmission
a
The number of bits on
but have not yet been
transmitted
transmitted 1i.e., iii" ,".U"i of bits that have been
distance versus the
line
the
Plot
line.
the
length
bit
the
gf
is
received) i, ."t"r."a io
velocity of
propagation
a
Assume
transmission ,p""j toi uuii'r*gtr, 5t rooo bits.
c.
7.2
what i, trre
2 x 108r/s.
to node c through node
In Figure 7.10 frames are generated at node A and sent
B and c so that the
nodes
between
the minimum data rate required
B. Determine
oBetweenAandB,aslidingwindowprotocolwithawindowsizeof3isused.
.
r
T.4AchannelhasadatarateofRbpsandapropagationdelayofts/km'Thedistance
Nodes exchange fixedsize
between tire senOliganJi"*i"i"g nodes ii Liiiometers.
framesofBbits.Findaformulathatgivestheminimumsequencefieldsizeofthe
L (cJnsidering maximum uiilization)' Assume that
frame as u tun"tlon oi4 ff,
""0
ACK frames are negtigiLte in size and the processing at the nodes
is instantaneous.
+
1000km
Figure
7'3
u.8
8.6
8.7
KF.Y
I'tl{MS.
ITEVIE.\)y QUESTIONS.
Why is a statistical timedivision multiplexer more efficient than a synchronous timedivision multiplexer?
Using Table 8.3 as a guide, indicate the major difTerence between North American
and international TDM carrier standards.
Problerns
tl.l
that will allow the transmission of these four sources over the telephone channel using
a. Frequencydivision multiplexing with SSB (single sideband) subcarriers
b. Timedivision multiplexing using PCM; assume 4bit samples
Show the block diagrams of the complete system, including the transmission, channel,
a.nd reception portions. Include the bandwidths of the signals at the various points in
the systems.
8.2 To paraphrase Lincoln: "... all of the channel some of the time, some of the channel
all of the time...." Refer to Figure 8.2 and relate the preceding to the figure.
8.3 Consider a transmission system using frequencydivision multiplexing. What cost
factors are involved in adding one more pair of stations to the system?
8.4 In synchronous TDI\!, it is possible to interleave bits, one bit from each channel participating ina cycle. If the channel is using a selfclocking code to assist synchronization, might this bit interleaving introduce problems because there is not acontinuous
stream of bits from one source?
tl.s Why is it that the start and stop bits can be eliminated when character interleaving is
used in synchronous TDM?
ll.6 Explain in terms of data link control and physical layer concepts how error and flow
control are accomplished in synchronous timedivision multiplexing.
It.7 One of the 193 bits in the DS1 transmission format is usecl for frame synchronization. Explain its use.
S.tt In the DS1 format, what is the control signal data rate for each voice channel?
tl.9 Twentyfour voice. signals are to be multiplexed and transmitted over twistecl pair.
What is the bandwidth required for FDM? Assuming a bandwidth efficiency (ratio of
data rate to transmission bandwidth, as explained in Chapter 5) of 1 bps/Fiz, what is
the bandwidth required for TDM using PCM?
it.l {) Draw a block diagram similar to Figure 8.8 for a TDM PCM system that will accommodat9loq 300bps, synchronous, digital inputs and one analog input with a bandwidth
of 500 Hz. Assume that the analog samples will be encoded into 4bit pcM words.
$"1I A characterinterleaved timedivision multiplexer is used to combine the data
streams of a number of 11Obps asynchronous terminals for data transmission over
a 2400bps digital line. Each terminal sends asynchronous characters consisting of
7.data bits, 1 parity bit, 1 start bit, and 2 stop bits. Assume that one synchronizaiion
character is sent every 19 data characters and, in addition. at least 3% of the line
capacity is reserved for pulse stuffing to accommodate speed variations from the various terminals.
n. Determine the number of bits per character.
tr. Determine the number of terminals that can be accommodated by the multiplexer.
c. Sketch a possible framing pattern for the multiplexer.
l't'l: Find the number of the following devices that could be accommodated by a T1type
TDM line if 1% of the T1 line capacity is reserved for synchronization purposes.
l. 110bps teleprinter terminals
h. 300bps computer terminals
e.ii
Pr<lblenrs
I'l
Consider a simple telephone network consisting of two cnd offices and one intermediate switch with a 1MHz fullduplex trunk between each end office and the
intermediate switch. Assume a4kHz channel for each voice call. The average telephone is used to make tbur calls per 8hour workday, with a mean call duration of six
minutes. Ten percent of the calls are long distance. What is the maximum number of
9,2 r. If a crossbar
s.3
9.J
{i.s
{fr
rl
_7
N:
L:
B:
P:
.::
:j,
: i:.
rn
300
cHAPTER 9
/ wAN TECHNOLOGY
AND PRorocoLS
a.
:
0'2' D = 0'001' compute
For N = 4, L= 3200, B = 9600, P 1024, H.: 16'5=
packet switching, and
circuit
virtual
switching,
circuii
ior
delay
end_to_end
the
Ignore
acknowledgments'
no
are
there
that
Assume
il"gr;; p;;ket switching'
processing delaY at the nodes'
(.u)','ll"' two at a
gJneral"expressions for the three techniques of part
the condiiions under which the delays are
sh.wing
all),
in
i;h?;"!*f."rrio"r
b.
"' berive
t*"
equal.
9.8
9.9
9.1&
!l:).
! ir.:.
i1.,
,::'.,
{:,r:
ii:i5
iii::
Whaivalue of P, as a function of M L,
r"t*o.t?
;;;;;a;";
h+i xa
e:l
ii
at
*i!t:l
Ei.::
t xB
h+i
number of bits in the data field'
where ft is the number of bits in the header and I is the
and not corrected' In that case'
detected
not
are
header
a. Suppose that errors in the
to.the.wrong destination;
of
misrouting,
a
in
i"rult
a header
.the.cell
uy
i bits will not arrive at
and
"rro.
destination,
incorrecr
an
at
arrive
therefore, , bits
87? Find an expression
the correct destination. what is the overall bit error rate
Bl I B
i;; th" multiplication effect on the bit error tate" Ml corrected'
In that case, i bits
not
but
detected
are
errors
t
tfrui
.uppo.i
f.fo*
U.
;ili
'
"uO"r
correct destination. What is the overall bit error tate 8,2?
will not urrlr" utthe
: 82lB'
Find an
""p...riorio,
u." detected and corrected. What is the overall
tir"iir""a".
c. Now suppose
".ro.i
effect on the bit error
bit error rate BrtFi;a an expression for the multiplication
:
83 lB.
rate: M3
:
d. Plot Mt, M2, i"a UZ as a function of header length' for I = 48 x 8 384 bits'
Comment on the results'
':.
of overhead octets
the
packets. In this case the overhead consists of
L:
H
X:Numberofinformationoctetstobetransmittedasasinglemessage
.:,\'
330
cHAPTTER 10
forbasestationtransmission.Aduplexcircuitconsistsofone30kHzchannelineach
and 19'
factor' which is 4'7
direction. The systems
";;"d";;;1J"a
uy tt'" reuse
'12'
respectivelY.
of cells (4,7,12,19) is duplicated
a. Suppose that in each of the systems, the cluster
that can be supported
communications
iimultaneous
of
number
16 times. Find the
hv each
by a
b.
svstem'
that can be supported
Find the number of simultaneous communlc ations
c.
*il;;*" i'
;. ffiffi" il;Il ;"
by each .yrt;;:'iird;1" **t"r
covered
f*:9
100 cells is
T1:f
" communications
that
of simultaneous
10.3
10.4
,!:;.,:
of Figurel0'6 for
Describe u ,"qr.n." of events similar to that
a. a call from a mobile unit to a fixed subscriber
t. u t o* a fixed subscriber to a mobile unit
""ii
of bandwidth and uses two 25kHz
An analog cellular system has a total of 33 MHz
voice and control channels'
simplex (oneway) .rr"","ftl" pitvide iulldupfex
il!.:
10.5
10.6
is defined ds llo
For a cellular system, FDMA spectral efficiency
_,
!t**
ri::iii'
x;in.,
and
\?6
a.Whatisthenumberofchannelsavailablepercellforafrequencyreusefactorof
b.
spectrum
tion, a guard band at;;;g;;iihtLllotuttd
available channels?
of
number
iItn"
wt
at
kHz.
30
of
il."if*it,n
BN,
: j;1
*t'"'"
B.: channelbandwidth
Bw : total bandwidth in one direction
area
Nr : total number of voice channels in the covered
What is an upper bound on 4,?
':,:1:
::1'.1
,i:l
::
'j
360
CHAPTER
II /
4. D:1km,B:50Mbps'P =
, .
 ^c
rate
oir"ill* with a number of equally spaced stations with a data
l
"
km'
10 Mbps and a bus length of 1
^1L^ +^r:^6
a. what is the mean tl*" to *""a a. tray1.g!190,0^bi:t^:::,?::l"llli,l#;ii:::t#
Assume a propaga .,:
i"Jrr'"i;g oitiu"**i.rion to the end of reception?
bus
.^ of
':
'.4 """r,#
':
i"i"ii"ii"
,. iliiJ3",*;ii1##,',"
transmit, at exactrv.the
PTIt'11,11:l'*"1;:
Ji1l'j
::
.,i
times?
11.5RepeatProblem15.4foradatarateof100Mbps.
in which
switching
network'
L,:.
matrix and the routing
of Figure 11.8, show the central routing
s^a *^ o .r.,i..
":1
:.'!
.l
iil'"1",:',?3."ilTl'ii,';:JilJ,1"#'li';#r"9;i'1.:.r":.r':*,1lrametoadevicel
does the bridge '!
the segmentr .?iil" ,"tiin"i*ort. what
that is not present on any of
do with this frame?
' 1al
:.i
.::
.a..:.
::l
,l:i1
Bridge
_1.i:Til.:,:i!..i*!;.1:r,'
3g4
CHAPTER 12 /
l24
ETIIERNET
l',
backoff'
Fast
'net?
Ethernet?
options for
12.5 Wf'ut u'" ti" t'un*'ni"lon medium
rate?
iOgnSBf' other than the data
trom
12.6 How does Fast Ethernet amer
it iutfauplex operationl
12.7 In the context of Ethernet' *ttut

t''
::
Problems
''t:
for:1\:.:Hir:'.ff#$ii?;t':#:
i{:ir"*:T:,i"",1'r::e:::'"*i:;
,221*';u.:m**r*:lr:ffjii'i:+f
current.t'gTT1s::11*r*1',:'i:i":Tfi
listenrng to
unit
mit
period. Ir fi3ilJ:
the time l*f'#::
the
and is
used
i"o"rinite
H:iil:.: Iilff:Ti".iil:,ffi'#'::il".i"'
"'
iterations of step I of the protonu*Utiot
t*ttgt
tttt
th'i
show
in the protocol is T.
col is i/p and that tt
to wait
"."ffi3:$".;5;;ilil;;i;'i^fu"
is defined bv
exponential backoff algorithm
;#TffT'tri,1#.i,"""ipie
ij
11ve
i:ji::?:::o,'lil'',"
'l
K : min(n,10).
sta.
^.:^.. .rr^r, Ac<rrme that two sta'
siI;:"J ;;;il,";e
t':tii.?:''".":,"111.ff:'#;that
;["i:1::f:'"'::]'il]'.'"i:,'l,.'f
t'"'[
i;i"ilT',fli
what is the'i
J:,,'""::1Hi:1'ri";*siu*v ret'an'mits?
:'"o#:#tgi"lT,#?ffi#;;;;
ftames to t""d:
answer if three stations
.' Manchesterencoded':":'
nn..n""r".o...de#
bv the
tt" medium ..
H:ffiil;;J;;;*;Jo,,
',:;it f:ffi:
rrrc Lr
r
'
802 3 rrames in
or
'lhe 'lrairer
is 33 Mbps with
channel
dlt:^j::: on a single
"*ltt used' what
L2.6 With 886T coding' the effective
lllf.'l:J:*?t';n;*t
signaling rate of 25 Yb'*l'
rate of i5 Mbaud?
is the effectivd
:ii;f;i: iii
t2.7
ti
*lgnuring
in
imps nesates a, of the ternary symbols
algorithm somet11'I5:::'^1,11f{
uvear6vr,*;;;Gi;;
ti"bC
ule
coolng'
receivet
8ts6r
sB6r.ooing'
with
With
does the recervcni:
$;Ji..s
this fondition? How
How does t
':ffi
discriminatebetween":;"1"#:"#";i:il1il:{1':;"{:J;:::,::fXf
i#;,t
byte 38 is the
diagra*G
a code grouP.
:ffi
t^a,rPrv'
rilffi i:'ff
;Lilii:!x1iy",,*{#i'f
oI rnat' lauto"'.,
fionoftttut'namely'+00+
negatton
'hecodegroip"'o*'it''::
l2.SDrawtherulroecooerstatediagramthatcorrespondstotheencod.".**:.:
ofFigure 12'12'
NRZI' Mancheste!
skei:l,t}3,waveforms for NRZL'
12.9 For the bit stream 0L01110'
oifl*""tlal Manchester' and MLT3'
, o ^,^^^^.r. t" lhe implemet
corresp:l*
""0
illusrrated. in Figure 12.l8a
12.10 a. verify *rat ttreiJision nv caruur4trrrF
calculating
'**'F;;re'
ta
ll't
12't7abv
re
lytl
to tn
"''
Figu
tation of Figure
lF"t"t:ik":'ii",%it'#.:.:;3ffi1
dv
tZ.igU corresponds
u*
#o'
p
rl f'*[::'\T, ;']'fi ' :',t;ilil*," ii ;;'"J''Ii
' #ity:t1ii::
r2., ,*t;?,:::Jli;il;,
]r,ri;
^:;;""^
Analyze the advantases ol navrng
12.5 ffiil:ffi::'.,[,l;::1ry*;q6,'r:H""''IEEE
of the frame'
t'tuJtt
itt"
tna'iin
rather
frame
the
it
arter
a"lrn
times'to delav
or slot time' rhe number or slot
random
distributed
O tly=Yt:ui"tlt:tt'''
retransmr#ilitt;il
/,r, rvrrq.erlu"ri
rrrs nth
before
Derore the
2i,wiere
integer r in the range 0
.
the roundtripi^;"#;:
tions arways have a
tj
1'tt
"'
:.::.
,lj.
l.].lJ
Review Questions
l3.l
Problerns
13.1 Consider
the sequence of actions within a BSS depicted in Figure 13.14. Draw a timeline, beginning with a period during which the medium is busy and ending with a
period in which the CFEnd is broadcast from the AP. Show the transmission periods
and the gaps.
1.1.2 For IEEE 802J1a, show how the modulation technique and coding rate determine
the data rate.
of
data scrambling
(see
is
P(X):t+sA+f,
In this case the shift register consists of seven elements, used in the same manner as
the fiveelement register in Figure 72.17. For the 802.11 scrambler and descrambler,
ffi
*Subscriher A
5. Data + CFACK
8.
CFEnd
i,
w
Subscriber B
ri
fi'.,
,.
i!'
qr::
,l
i'::
::
Subscriber C
Iiigure
l"l.lrl
13.1
'i