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CHEMISTRY
FORM 4
MODULE 1
PPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMI

INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY,
THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM,
CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND
EQUATIONS

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

1.

You are given this formula:

X=

Number of Particles
Avogadro Cons tan t

What is X ?
A
B
C
2.

Molar mass
Molar volume
Number of moles

You are given the molecular formula of glucose: C6H12O6


The molecular formula of glucose shows the
A
B
C
D

3.

Molar mass of a substance is the mass


A
B
C

4.

actual mass of glucose


formula of a glucose molecule that exists in solid state
actual number of each atom of the elements in a glucose molecule
ratio for the number of atoms of each type of element in a glucose
molecule

of one mole of the substance


of one atom of the substance
of 6.023 x 10 24 particles of the substance

The diagram shows the symbol of an atom.


Nucleon number
Proton number

A
Z

The isotopes of hydrogen are 1 H


1

, 2

1H

and

3
1

What is isotopes?
A
B
C
D

Different atoms with the same number of electron, protons and neutrons.
Different atoms with the same number of electrons but different number
of protons.
Different atoms with the same number of neutrons but different number
of protons.
Different atoms with the same number of protons but different number of
neutrons.

5.

The value of Avogadro constant is 6.023 x 1023 mol-1


What is Avogadro constant?
A
The number of neutrons in an atom.
B
The mass in one mole of a substance
C
The number of protons and electrons of an atom.
D
The number of particles in one mole of a substance

6.

1 mole of any gas occupies 24 dm3 at room conditions is the definition of


A
B
C

7.

molarity
molar mass
molar volume

An amount of substance that contains as many particles as the number of


atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12
Which of the following terms explains the above statement?
A
B
C
D

8.

mole
molar mass
relative atomic mass
relative molecular mass

The equation below shows the reaction between magnesium and oxygen
2 Mg (s) + O2 (g)
Number
A
B
C
D

9.

MgO(s)

represents

mass
volume
number of moles
number of particles

Which of the following statements is true about matter?


A
B
C

Matter has mass only.


Matter has mass and occupies space.
Matter is the smallest particle of an element.

10.

Which of the following is not true about molar mass?


the mass of 6.02 x 10 23 particles
the mass of NA number of particles
the mass of one mole of the substances
the mass of one gram of the substances

A
B
C
D
11.

An atom is a neutral particle. It contains the same number of


A
B
C

12.

protons and neutrons.


protons and electrons.
neutrons and electrons.

The diagram shows the heating curve of solid naphthalene.


temperature/oC
S
Q
R
P

time/min
Which of the following points shows the melting process of naphthalene?
A
B
C
D
13.

At point P
From point P to point Q
From point Q to point R
From point R to point S

CaCO3 (s) +

HCI (aq)

CaCI2(aq) +

CO2 (g) + H2O(l)

What is (are) the reactant (s) for the above chemical equation?
A
B
C
D

CaCO3 only
CO2 and H2O
CaCO3 and HCl
CaCI2, H2O and CO2

14.

The diagram shows the electron arrangement of atom X

How many valence electrons are there in the atom X?


A
B
C
15.

2
5
7

The table shows the relative masses of the three subatomic particles.
Subatomic
Proton
Electron
Neutron

Relative mass
1
1
1840
1

Which of the subatomic particles has the least mass?


A
B
C
16.

Proton
Neutron
Electron

The table shows the simplest ratio of elements P and Q


Element
Simplest ratio

P
1

Q
3

What is the empirical formula of this substance?


A
B
C
D

PQ
P3Q
PQ3
P2Q3

17.

The diagram shows the changes in the state of a substance from P to Q under pro

Process X

What is process X ?
A
B
C
D
18.

What is the number of molecules in one mole of carbon dioxide gas, CO2?
[NA = 6.02 x 1023 ]
A
B
C
D

19.

Melting
Freezing
Sublimation
Condensation

6.02 10 23
2
1 x 6.02 x 1023
2 x 6.02 x 1023
3 x 6.02 x 1023

The number of electrons and the number of neutrons of atom X are 4 and 5
respectively.
What is the proton number and nucleon number of atom X?

A
B
C
D

Proton
number
4
4
9
1

Nucleon
number
9
5
4
9

20.

The table shows the relative atomic masses of copper and oxygen.
Elements

Copper

Oxygen

Relative atomic mass

64

16

How many times is copper atom heavier than oxygen atom?


A
B
C
D

0.25
4
48
80
23

21.

The symbol of sodium atom can be written as 11 Na


The nucleus of this sodium atom contains
A.
B.
C.
D.

22.

11 protons and 12 neutrons


11 neutrons and 12 protons
11 protons and 12 electrons
12 neutrons and 11 electrons

The table below shows the proton number and the number of electrons of four
different particles.
Particle

Proton number

Number of electrons

12

10

17

17

17

18

Which of the particles are ions?


A
B
C
D

P and Q
P and R
Q and R
Q and S

23.

The table below shows the number of protons of four atoms W, X, Y and Z.
Atom

Number of protons

16

17

19

Which of the atoms have the same number of valence electrons?


A
B
C
D
24.

Z
Z
Y
Z

Calculate the number of moles of 16 g of Copper.


[ Relative atomic mass : Cu , 64 ]
A
B
C
D

25.

W and
X and
X and
Y and

0.25
0.75
2.50
7.50

An experiment is carried out to determine the empirical formula of oxide of metal


X.
The data below shows the result of the experiment.
Mass of crucible and lid
Mass of crucible, lid and metal X
Mass of crucible, lid and oxide of metal X

What is the empirical formula of oxide of metal X?


[ Relative atomic mass: O,16 ; X, 65 ]
A
B
C
D

XO
XO2
X2O
X2O3

= 139.50g
= 148.31g
= 150.48g

26

What is the relative formula mass of hydrated copper(II) sulphate , CuSO4.5H2O?


[ Relative atomic mass : H , 1 ; O , 16 ; S , 32 ; Cu,64 ]
A
B
C
D

27.

160
186
250
818

An oxide of metal X contains 6.9 g of metal X and 4.6 g of oxygen.


What is the empirical formula of oxide of metal X ?
[ Relative atomic mass: O, 16 ; X, 24 ]
A
B
C
D

28.

XO
XO2
X2O
X2O3

The equation shows the reaction between calcium carbonate and nitric acid.
CaCO3(s) + 2HNO3 (aq )

Ca(NO3) 2(aq ) + H2O(l) + O2(g)

What is the volume of carbon dioxide gas released when 5 g of calcium carbonate
reacts completely?
[ Relative atomic mass: Ca,40 ; C,12 ; O,16 ; H ,1 ; one mole of any gas occupies
24 dm3 at room conditions]
A
B
C
D
29.

1.2 dm3
2.4 dm3
12 dm3
24 dm3

What is the number of moles of 560 cm3 of carbon dioxide gas at STP?
[Given that number of mole of gas = volume molar volume ;
molar volume : 22.4 dm3 mol -1 at STP ]
A
B
C
D

0.025 mol
0.25 mol
2.5 mol
25 mol

30.

The diagram shows the set-up of apparatus used to investigate diffusion in a solid
gel.

Gel

Potassium manganate(VII) cystal

After a few days, the entire solid gel turned purple.


What can we deduce from the above investigation?
A

Potassium manganate(VII) dissolves in the gel.

Potassium manganate(VII) is less dense than the gel.

Potassium manganate(VII) reacts with the gel to produce purple


colour

Potassium manganate(VII) particles diffuse through spaces


between the gel particles.

31.

The equation shows the reaction between carbon and oxygen gas.
C (s)

O2 ( g)

CO2 (g)

What is the mass of carbon dioxide gas released when 12 g of carbon reacts
completely in the reaction?
[ Relative atomic mass: C, 12 : O, 16 ]
A

12 g

28 g

32 g

44 g

32.

The diagram shows two balloons P and Q.

1.5 mol of
carbon
dioxide

2.5 mol of
oxygen

Balloon P is filled with 1.5 moles of carbon dioxide gas whereas balloon Q is
filled with 2.5 moles of oxygen gas.
What is the mass of carbon dioxide and oxygen ?
[ Relative atomic mass: C,12: O,16 ]

carbon dioxide

oxygen

22 g

16 g

42 g

40 g

44 g

32 g

66 g

80 g

10

33. You are given a chemical equation:


2 Mg (s) + O2 (g)

2MgO(s)

Write three information based on the chemical equation.

34.

i)

..

ii)

..

iii)

The figure shows the relationship between the number of particles, the number of
moles and the mass of a substance.
NA
Number of
particles

x Molar mass
Number of
moles

x NA

Mass
Molar mass

Based on the above figure write the formulae to determine :


i)

number of moles =

ii)

mass of a substance =

iii)

Number of particles

11

35. A crystal of copper(II) sulphate is placed at the bottom of a beaker filled with water. The
beaker is left aside until the water turns blue.

After 1 day
Water

Blue solution of
copper (II)
sulphate, CuSO4

Copper (II)
sulphate
crystal

Name the process occurred. Explain your answer.


Name of process :
Explanation

: .

....
.
.

12

36.

The figure shows the heating curve of solid naphthalene.


temperature/oC
S
Q
R
P

time/min

Describe the changes in term of the movement and the forces of attraction of
naphthalene particles from point
(a) P to Q:
1. Movement: ..
..
2. Forces of attraction:.....
...

(b) R to S:
1. Movement: ..
...
2. Forces of attraction:...
...

13

Listen carefully to the text read by the teacher. Answer questions 37 and 38.
37.

The smallest particle of an element that can participate in a chemical reaction is


called
A
B
C
D

38.

ion
atom
element
molecule

A negatively-charged and positively-charged particles are called


A
B
C
D

ions
atoms
elements
molecules

Listen carefully to the text read by the teacher. Answer questions 39 and 40
39.

Which of the following is not true about chemical equation?


A
B
C
D

40.

It can be written in words only.


It shows the state of substances.
It can be written in words or symbols.
It is a shorthand description of a chemical reaction.

What are the states of matter that involved in a chemical reaction?


i) ...
ii) .
iii) ..

14

PPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMI

CHEMISTRY
FORM 4
MODULE 2
PPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMI

PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS,


CHEMICAL BONDS

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

In the Periodic Table, the horizontal row of elements is known as the


A
B
C
D

group
family
period
series

The term ampotheric means


A
B
C
D

alkali in nature.
basic in nature.
acidic in nature.
both acidic and alkali in nature.

A measurement of the strength of an atom in its molecule to attract


electrons towards its nucleus.

Which of the following referred to the statement above?


A
B
C
D

What is an anion?
A
B
C

Electropositivity
Electronegativity
Electrical conductivity
Electropositivity

A neutral particle.
A positively-charged particle.
A negatively-charged particle.

What is the type of chemical bond in sodium chloride, NaCl?


A
B
C
D

Ionic bond.
Single bond.
Double bond.
Covalent bond.

One hydrogen atom combines with another hydrogen atom to form a covalent
molecule by
A
B
C
D

Group 18 elements are known as


A
B
C
D

boiling point.
atomic mass.
proton number.
nucleon number.

Which of the following is true?


A
B
C
D

11

iodine.
fluorine.
chlorine.
caesium

Elements in the Modern Periodic Table are arranged according to their


A
B
C
D

10

halogens.
noble gases.
alkali metals.
alkali earth metals

All the following elements are in group 17 except


A
B
C
D

sharing electrons.
accepting electron.
donating electron.
exchanging electrons.

Noble gases
Neon
Argon
Helium
Krypton

Uses
To detect pipes leakage.
To fill photographic flash lamps.
To fill up balloons and airships.
To fill light bulbs.

Which of the following scientists proposed the Law of Octaves ?


A
B
C
D

Lothar Meyer
John Newlands
Dmitri Mendeleev
Johann W. Dobereiner

12

Which of the following is true about the special properties of transition elements ?
I
II
III
IV
A
B
C
D

13

a cation.
an anion.
an ionic bond.
a covalent bond.

Where is

A
B
C
D
16

High melting point.


Does not dissolve in water.
Can conduct electricity.
Dissolve in organic solvents.

An atom that receives an electron forms


A
B
C
D

15

I and II
I and III
I , III , and IV
II , III , and IV

Which of the following is the property of ionic compounds?


A
B
C
D

14

low density.
act as catalysts.
form complex ions.
form coloured compounds.

23
11

X located in the Periodic Table?

Group
1
2
1
2

Period
3
3
4
4

The type of chemical bond in an oxygen molecule is


A
B
C

single covalent bond.


double covalent bond.
triple covalent bond.

17

Which of the following chemical formulae represents an ionic compound?


A
B
C
D

18

Which of the following pairs of elements will form a compound by sharing


electrons?
A
B
C
D

19

F
O2ClNa

Which of the following substances when dissolves in water, has the highest
electrical conductivity?
A
B
C
D

21

Sodium and chlorine.


Hydrogen and chlorine.
Potassium and oxygen.
Magnesium and oxygen.

Which of the following has the same number of electrons as neon?


[ Proton number : F, 9 ; Na , 11 ; Cl, 17 ; O , 8 ; Ne , 10 ]
A
B
C
D

20

CO2
H2O
K2O
SO2

Vinegar
Ammonia
Carbon dioxide
Potassium oxide

Element Y with proton number 19 reacts with water to form gas X.


What is gas X ?
A
B
C
D

Oxygen
Hydrogen
Carbon dioxide
Nitrogen dioxide

22

Element A has proton number 20.


What is the position element A in the Periodic Table?
A
B
C
D

23

Chlorine is more reactive than fluorine.


Chlorine is more reactive than bromine.
Chlorine is more electronegative than fluorine.
Atomic size for chlorine is larger than bromine.

Which of the following statements is not true about sodium metal?


A
B
C
D

25

Period
3
3
4
4

Which of the following statements is true about element chlorine?


A
B
C
D

24

Group
1
2
1
2

Sodium is more reactive than lithium.


Atomic size of sodium is larger than lithium.
Sodium reacts with oxygen to form white solid.
Tendency of sodium atom to release electron is higher than
potassium atom.

The electron arrangement of atom P is 2.8.8.1.


Which of the following is true about P?
I
II
III
IV
A
B
C
D

P reacts vigorously with water.


P is more electropositive than sodium.
P burns in air to produce white P oxides.
P reacts with chlorine gas to form yellow P chlorides.
I , II, and III
I, III, and IV
II , III, and IV
I, II, III, and IV

26

Which of the following substances has high melting point?


I
II
III
IV
A
B
C
D

27

M atom forms M2+ ion.


M2+ ion achieves octet electron arrangement.
Carbon atom combines with atom M to form a compound with chemical
formula CM2.
Sodium atom combines with atom M to form a compound with chemical
formula NaM.

An element M reacts with oxygen to form a covalent compound, MO2. What is the
electron arrangement of atom M?
A
B
C
D

29

I and II only
I and III only
II and III only
III and IV only

The proton number of element M is 8.


Which of the following is true about element M?
A
B
C

28

Ethanol
Sodium chloride
Lead(II) bromide
Tetrachloromethane

2.4
2.6
2.8.2
2.8.8.1

Which of the following compounds contain only covalent bonds?


A
B
C
D

K2O
CO2
CO2
K2O

30

Table shows the proton number of four atoms, P, Q, R and S.


Atom
Proton number

P
17

Q
8

R
11

S
6

Which of the following chemical formulae is correct?


A
B
C
D
31

PQ
SP
RP2
R2Q

Element P has an electron arrangement of 2.8.1.


Element R has an electron arrangement of 2.6.
Which of the following is true about the compound formed between elements P
and R?
A
B
C
D

Type of compound
Ionic compound
Ionic compound
Covalent compound
Covalent compound

Chemical formula
PR
P2R
PR
P2R

Question 32 to 34.
Write the answers in the spaces provided.
32

Based on the information given below, describe the formation of ionic bond in
sodium chloride, NaCl.
1. Sodium atom with .. 2.8.1 . .electron to
achieve .. electron
2. Chlorine atom with 2.8.7 . electron to
achieve . electron ...
3. Sodium ion and . ion formed are . to one
another by .. force.
The formation of sodium chloride,
1.

2. ...

3.
.

10

33

Diagram shows the electron arrangements of hydrogen atom and chlorine atom.

Hydrogen atom
- 1 valence
electron
- needs one
more electron
to achieve
duplet
electron
arrangement

Chlorine atom
- 7 valence
electrons
- needs one
more electron
to achieve
octet
electron
arrangement

Hydrogen chloride
- share electrons
- covalent bond

Based on the information given below, describe the formation of covalent bond in
hydrogen chloride.

11

34

The table below shows the properties of ionic compounds and covalent
compounds.

Properties
Melting point
Conduct electricity in molten and
aqueous
Solubility in water

Ionic
compound
High
Yes

Covalent
compound
Low
No

Yes

No

Based on the table describe three differences between ionic compounds


and covalent compounds.

...............................................................................................................

Listen carefully to the text read by the teacher. Answer the questions 35
and 36 that follows.
35

Why do the ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points?

...............................................................................................................

12

36

What is another property for the ionic compounds?

...............................................................................................................
Listen carefully to the text read by the teacher. Answer the questions 37, 38,
39 and 40 that follows.
37

What happen when a piece of sodium is placed in the water?

...............................................................................................................
38

State the changes of universal indicator when added to the solution.

...............................................................................................................
39

Name the gas released during the reaction.

...............................................................................................................
40

Name the product formed.

...............................................................................................................

13

PPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMI

CHEMISTRY
FORM 4
MODULE 3
PPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMI

ELECTROCHEMISTRY

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

The diagram shows a type of cell that consists of batteries, electrolyte and two
electrodes.

Battery

Carbon electrodes

Electrolyte

Name the cell.


A
B
C
D
2

Electrode cell
Electrolyte cell
Electrolytic cell
Electrolysis cell

An electrode which is connected to the positive terminal of the source of electricity


in an electrolytic cell is called
A
B
C
D

anion
cation
anode
cathode

The diagram shows the decomposition of molten lead(II) bromide into its
constituent elements when an electric current passes through it.

Carbon electrodes
Molten lead(II) bromide

Heat

What is the process called?


A
B
C
D

Extraction
Purification
Electrolysis
Electroplating

The diagram shows an experiment to prevent the iron ring from rusting.

Copper
strip
Iron
ring

CuSO4
solution

Iron coated
with copper

Name the process involved.


A
B
C
D
5

What is meant by electrolytes?


A
B
C
D

Extraction
Purification
Electroplating
Neutralization

Substances that can conduct electricity in any state but are not chemically
changed.
Substances that can conduct electricity in solid or molten but are not
chemically changed.
Substances that can conduct electricity in aqueous solution only and
undergo chemical changes.
Substances that can conduct electricity either in molten state or in aqueous
solution and undergo chemical changes.

Ion that is attracted to the positive terminal during electrolysis is known as


A
B
C
D

anion
proton
cation
electron

Which of the following substances undergoes electrolysis?


A
B
C
D

Which of the following is not a factor that affects the electrolysis of an aqueous
solution?
A
B
C
D

Electrical energy to potential energy.


Potential energy to chemical energy.
Electrical energy to chemical energy.
Chemical energy to electrical energy.

Which of the following pairs of electrodes are inert?


A
B
C
D

11

Position of ions in electrochemical series


Types of electrodes
Presence of catalyst
Concentration of ions

What is the change of energy that occurs in a voltaic cell?


A
B
C
D

10

Molten sulphur
Glucose solution
Molten lead metal
Sodium chloride solution

Copper and carbon.


Carbon and platinum.
Copper and magnesium.
Platinum and magnesium.

What are the ions that present in copper(II) sulphate solution?


A
B
C
D

Copper(II) ion and sulphate ion.


Copper(II) ion and hydrogen ion.
Copper(II) ion, hydrogen ion, sulphate ion and oxide ion.
Copper(II) ion, hydrogen ion, sulphate ion and hydroxide ion.

12

13

What are the ions that present in the molten lead(II) bromide?
A

Lead(II) ion and bromide ion only.

Lead(II) ion, hydrogen ion and bromide ion only.

Lead(II) ion, hydroxide ion and bromide ion only.

Lead(II) ion, hydrogen ion, hydroxide ion and bromide ion.

The electrochemical series can be constructed based on


A
B
C

14

the ability of a metal to displace another metal from its salt solution.
the availability of an element in many organic substances.
the ability of an element to exist in more than one oxidation number.

The table shows the differences between electrolytic cell and voltaic cell.
Choose the false statement.

Characteristic
Energy changes

Flow of electrons

Types of
electrodes

Electrolytic cell
Electrical energy chemical
energy
From negative to positive
electrodes.
Same or different types of
metals or graphite
electrodes.

Voltaic cell
Chemical energy electrical
energy
From positive to negative
electrodes.
Two different types of metals.

15

Diagram shows the electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide.

Carbon electrodes
Molten lead(II) bromide

heat

What are the observations at the anode and cathode?


A
B
C
D
16

Anode
Colourless gas is given
off
Brown gas is given off
Brown gas is given off
Grey solid is deposited

Cathode
Grey solid is deposited
Colourless gas is given off
Grey solid is deposited
Bromine gas is given off

The diagram shows the set-up of apparatus for the electrolysis of concentrated
iron(III) chloride solution using carbon electrodes.
X

Concentrated iron(III) chloride solution


Carbon electrodes

What are the products formed at test tubes X and Y during the electrolysis?
A
B
C
D

X
Chlorine gas
Hydrogen gas
Chlorine gas
Hydrogen gas

Y
Hydrogen gas
Oxygen gas
Iron metal
Chlorine gas

17

Which of the following voltaic cells shows the correct direction of electron flow?

Magnesium

Tin

Aluminium

Copper

Dilute
hydrochloric
acid
D

Lead

Iron

Zinc

Zinc

Dilute
hydrochloric
acid
18

The diagram shows a part of the electrochemical series.

Ca

Mg

Al

Zn

Fe

Electropositivity decreases
Based on the electrochemical series, which of the following pairs of the terminals is
correct?
A
B
C
D

Negative terminal
Aluminium
Zinc
Aluminium
Iron

Positive terminal
Iron
Magnesium
Magnesium
Zinc

19

Which of the following pairs of metals that gives the highest voltage in a voltaic
cell?
A
B
C
D

20

Zinc and iron.


Tin and lead.
Copper and tin.
Silver and magnesium.

The diagram shows an experiment of the electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide.

Carbon electrodes
Molten lead(II) bromide

heat

Which of the statements is true?


A
B
C
D

Solid lead(II) bromide is a


molecule.
Molten lead(II) bromide is a molecule.
Solid lead(II) bromide contains freely moving ions.
Molten lead(II) bromide contains freely moving
ions.

10

21

The diagram shows an electrolysis of sodium chloride solution.

Carbon
electrodes

Sodium chloride
solution

What are the ions that are attracted to the cathode?


A
B
C
D

22

Q is a metal that can displace lead from lead(II) nitrate solution.


Which of the following metals cannot displace Q from its salt solution?
A
B
C
D

23

Sodium ion , Na+ and chloride


ion, ClSodium ion, Na+ and hydrogen
ion, H+
Chloride ion, Cl- and hydroxide
ion, OHHydrogen ion, H+ and hydroxide
ion, OH-

Iron.
Silver.
Aluminium.
Magnesium.

Which of the following compounds could be used as an electrolyte in


electroplating of iron spoon with silver?
A
B
C
D

Silver nitrate solution.


Iron(II) chloride solution.
Copper(II) sulphate solution.
Dilute hydrochloric acid.

11

24

Sodium chloride does not conduct electricity in solid state because


A
B
C
D

25

it has a high density.


it has a high melting point.
the sodium ions and the chloride ions are only present in molten state.
the sodium ions and the chloride ions are held in a fixed position in the crystal
lattice.

In the diagram below, the electrons flow from the zinc electrode to the copper
electrode because

Zinc

Copper

Dilute sulphuric acid

A
B
C
D

copper is more reactive than zinc.


sulphuric acid contains free electrons.
zinc is more electropositive than copper.
there is more electrons at the zinc electrode.

12

26

The diagram shows a Daniell cell using magnesium and lead as electrodes.

Magnesium electrode

Lead electrode

Porous pot
Magnesium sulphate solution

Lead(II) nitrate solution

Which of the following represents the half-equation at lead electrode?


A
2H+ + 2e H2
B
Pb Pb2+ + 2e
C
Pb2+ + 2e Pb
D
Mg2+ + 2e Mg
27

The diagram below shows the set-up of apparatus to coat an iron spoon with
copper.

Iron spoon

Copper strip

Aqueous copper(II) sulphate solution

What can be observed at the anode and cathode after 30 minutes?


A
B
C
D

Anode
Copper strip becomes thinner
Copper strip becomes thicker
Copper strip becomes thinner
Copper strip becomes thicker

13

Cathode
Gas bubbles are released
Brown solid is formed
Brown solid is formed
Gas bubbles are released

28

A solution of sodium nitrate is electrolysed by using carbon electrodes.


Which of the following statements shows the reaction that occur at the beginning
of the electrolysis?
A
B
C

Nitrate ions are discharged at the anode.


Sodium ions are discharged at the cathode.
Hydrogen ions receive electrons at the
anode.
Hydrogen ions receive electrons at the
cathode.

29

The diagram shows four simple voltaic cells.


Which of the cells shows the highest potential difference?

C
Aluminium
Copper

Copper

Dilute
hydrochloric
acid
D

Zinc

Lead

Copper

Dilute
hydrochloric
acid

14

Copper

30

The table shows pairs of metals and the results obtained when they are used as
electrodes in chemical cells.
Pair of
Metal
P/Q
R/Q
S/R
S/P

Voltage/V

Negative terminal

0.78
2.72
0.72
1.22

P
R
R
S

The electrochemical series formed in descending order is


A
B
C
D
31

P, Q, R, S
S, R, P, Q
R, P, Q, S
R, S, P, Q

The tables show the ions present in aqueous silver nitrate, AgNO3 and the ions
that are attracted to the cathode and the anode during the electrolysis.
Electrolyte
Ions present
Electrode
Ions attracted

Silver nitrate solution


Ag+, NO3, H+, OH
Cathode
Ag+, H+

Anode
NO3, OH

Based on the tables,


(a) explain the electrolysis of aqueous silver nitrate, AgNO3, using
carbon electrodes.
.

(b) name the products at the cathode and anode.

15

32

The diagram shows a simple voltaic cell.

Metal X

Metal Y

Electrolyte

Based on the diagram, describe the structure of the simple voltaic cell.
.
.
.
.
Listen carefully to the text read by the teacher. Answer questions 33
and 34.
33

Name the ore that contains aluminium oxide.


A
B
C
D

34

Galena
Bauxite
Hematite
Casiterite

What is the function of adding cryolite to aluminium oxide?


A
B
C
D

To melt the ore.


To act as the anode.
To act as the cathode.
To lower the melting point of aluminium oxide.

16

Listen carefully to the text read by the teacher. Answer questions 35 and 36.
35

What is electrochemical series?


A
B
C
D

36

An arrangement of metals based on its reactivity with oxygen.


An arrangement of metals based on its reactivity with hydrogen.
An arrangement of metals based on the tendency of each metal atom to
accept electrons.
An arrangement of metals based on the tendency of each metal atom to
donate electrons.

Which of the following is true about the electrochemical series?


A
B
C
D

It can be used to determine the standard cell voltage.


It is based on the tendency of a metal atom to accept electron.
The metal which is situated at a higher position in the series will be the negative
terminal.
The greater the tendency of a metal atom to accept electron the higher it is in the
series.

17

PPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMI

CHEMISTRY
FORM 4
MODULE 4
PPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMI

ACIDS AND BASES


& SALTS

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

What is meant by strong acid?


A
B
C
D

Acid that partially ionized to produce low concentration of hydrogen ions


Acid that partially ionized to produce high concentration of hydrogen ions
Acid that completely ionized to produce low concentration of hydrogen ions
Acid that completely ionized to produce high concentration of hydrogen
ions.

The equation below represents a reaction between acid and alkali.


Acid

+ alkali

salt

+ water

What is the name of this reaction?


A
B
C
D
3

Titration.
Precipitation.
Fermentation.
Neutralisation.

The diagram shows a flow chart to identify substance P.


Substance P

Test for
gases

Test for
anions

Test for
cations

What is the type of analysis used to identify substance P?


A
B
C
D

Qualitative analysis
Quantitative analysis
Psychometric analysis
Spectrometry analysis

What is salt?
A
B
C
D

An indicator is added to an alkali and acid solution respectively.


Which of the following is correct?

A
B
C
D
6

A mixture formed when an acid is added to a metal or an ammonium compound.


A mixture formed when an alkali is added to a metal or an ammonium compound.
A compound formed when the hydrogen ion of an acid is replaced by a metal ion or
an ammonium ion.
A compound formed when the hydroxide ion of an alkali is replaced by a metal ion or
an ammonium ion.

Indicator
Phenolphthalein
Phenolphthalein
Methyl orange
Methyl orange

Colour in alkali
colourless
pink
red
red

Which of the following is not a monoprotic acid?


A
B
C
D

Nitric acid
Sulphuric acid
Hydrochloric acid
Methanoic acid

Colour in acid
pink
colourless
yellow
orange

The diagram below shows changes that occur before and after water is added to
a chemical substance.

H+

CH3COOH

CH3COO

H+
+

CH3COOH

CH3COOH

H
-

CH3COO

H+

CH3COOH

Before adding water

After adding water

Name the substance.


A
B
C
D

Which of the following is an insoluble salt?


A
B
C
D

Silver nitrate
Lead(II) sulphate
Sodium carbonate
Copper(II) chloride

Neutralisation process is used in various fields in our daily life.


Which of the following statements is false?
A
B
C
D

10

Acid.
Salt
Base.
Alkali.

Vinegar is used to prevent coagulation of latex


An antacid is used to neutralise excess acid in the stomach.
Acidic soil is treated with powdered lime, lime stone or ashes of burnt wood
Toothpaste is used to neutralise the acid produced by bacteria in our mouth.

Which of the following is the physical characteristic of crystals?


A
B
C
D

Crystals of the same substance have same size.


Crystals of the same substance have different shapes.
Crystals have same angles between two neighbouring surfaces.
Crystals have flat surfaces, straight edges and sharp angles.

11

The diagram shows the pH values of five different solutions.


V

pH = 1

pH = 4

pH = 8

pH = 12

Which of the solutions has the highest concentration of hydrogen ions?


A
B
C
D
12

V
W
X
Y

The diagram shows types of particles in a solution.

NH4+

OH-

OH
NH4

NH3

NH3

NH4+
OH-

The solution is a
A
B
C
D

weak acid
strong acid
weak alkali
strong alkali

13

The table shows the concentration and pH value of sodium hydroxide solution,
NaOH in test tube P, Q, R and S.
Test
tube
P
Q
R
S

Concentration of NaOH
solution (mol dm-3)
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1

pH value
10
11
12
13

Which of the following statements is true?


A
B
C
D
14

When the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution increases, the concentration


of hydrogen ions decreases.
When the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution increases, the concentration
of hydroxide ions decreases.
When the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution increases, the concentration
of hydrogen ions also increases.
When the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution increases, the concentration
of hydroxide ions also increases.

The diagram shows the titration of sodium hydroxide solution with dilute
hydrochloric acid.

Burette
Dilute hydrochloric acid

NaOH solution + phenolphthalein


What is the function of phenolphthalein?
A
B
C
D

To determine the amount of the product.


To determine the degree of ionization of an acid.
To determine the degree of ionization of an alkali.
To determine the end point of neutralisation reaction.

15

The diagram shows the results when electricity is passed through two solutions
R and S.

Solution R

Carbon
electrod
Bulb does not light up

Solution S
Bulb lights up

Based on the observations, solution R and solution S are

A
B
C
D
16

Solution S
Sodium hydroxide in methyl benzene.
Ammonia in methyl benzene.
Hydrochloric acid in propanon.
Ethanoic acid in water.

Which of the following ions forms a white precipitate which will dissolve in excess
sodium hydroxide solution and ammonia solution?
A
B
C
D

17

Solution R
Sodium hydroxide in water.
Ammonia in propanon.
Hydrochloric acid in water.
Ethanoic acid in methyl benzene.

Zn2+
Ca2+
Al3+
Pb2+

Which of the following is used to prepare lead (II) sulphate?


A
B
C
D

Add lead metal to sodium sulphate.


Add lead(II) nitrate to potassium sulphate.
Add lead(II) chloride to sodium sulphate
Add lead(II) carbonate to potassium sulphate.

18

The equations below show the reaction used to prepare insoluble salt.
AgNO3 + KCl
CaCl2 + Na2CO3

AgCl + KNO3
CaCO3 + 2NaCl

Which of the following pairs is insoluble salt?


A
B
C
D
19

and
and
and
and

NaCl
CaCO3
NaCl
CaCO3

Which of the following salts is prepared by titration method?


A
B
C
D

20

AgCl
AgCl
KNO3
KNO3

Copper(II) nitrate
Lead(I) nitrate
Magnesium nitrate
Potassium nitrate

The equation below shows the neutralisation reaction between hydrochloric acid
and sodium hydroxide solution.
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O
What is the concentration of 50 cm3 hydrochloric acid, HCl needed to neutralise
50 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution?
A
B
C
D

0.25 mol dm
0.50 mol dm
0.75 mol dm
1.00 mol dm

21

The equation below shows the reaction between sodium and oxygen.
4Na + O2 2Na2O
What is the mass of sodium oxide formed when 2.3g of sodium reacts
completely with oxygen?
[Relative atomic mass : Na, 23 ; O, 16]
A
B
C
D

22

What is the volume of 0.1 mol dm-3 nitric acid required to neutralise completely
25.0 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution?
A
B
C
D

23

1.55g
3.10g
4.65g
6.20g

10.0 cm3
25.0 cm3
30.0 cm3
45.0 cm3

What is the concentration of hydrogen ion in 0.10 mol dm-3 nitric acid?
A
B
C
D

0.05 mol dm-3


0.10 mol dm-3
0.15 mol dm-3
0.20 mol dm-3

10

24

The table below shows the information in a qualitative analysis.


Reagent
Sodium hydroxide
solution until excess

Aqueous ammonia
until excess

Potassium iodide
solution

Observation
White
precipitate
Dissolve in
excess
White
precipitate
Does not
dissolve in
excess
Yellow
precipitate

Result
Zn2+
Al3+
Pb2+
Al3+
Pb2+

Pb2+

A solution may contain Pb2+ ions, Zn2+ ions or Al3+ ions.


Explain the chemical test to confirm the presence of ions Pb2+ , Zn2+ and Al3+ .

Answer:

...
...
...

11

25

The equation below shows the reaction when zinc nitrate is heated strongly.
2Zn(NO3)2

2ZnO + 4NO2 + O2

State three observations when zinc nitrate is heated strongly.


Answer:

26

The diagram shows the heating process of zinc carbonate.


Zinc carbonate
Heat
Lime water

State two observations for the heating of zinc carbonate.


Answer:

12

27

The diagram below shows the flow chart for the chemical test of Fe2+ ions and
Fe3+ ions.
Test I
Solution
contains
Fe2+ ions
or Fe3+
ions.

Potassium
hexacyanoferrate(II)
K4Fe(CN)6

Light blue
precipitate

Fe2+ ions

Dark blue
precipitate

Fe3+ ions

Test II
Solution
contains
Fe2+ ions
or Fe3+
ions.

Potassium
thiocyanate
KSCN

No change

Fe2+ ions

Blood red
solution

Fe3+

Based on the flow chart, explain how to differentiate Fe2+ ions and Fe3+ ions.
Answer:

13

Listen carefully to the text read by the teacher. Answer questions 28 and 29.
28

State one common use of salt.

29

State one effect when we take excess salt in our food?

Listen carefully to the text read by the teacher. Answer questions 30, 31, and 32.
30

Name a substance that can be used to overcome the gastric problem.

31

What can be used to reduce pain caused by bee sting?

32

State the other use of neutralisation.

14

PPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMI

CHEMISTRY
FORM 4
MODULE 5
PPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMIPPSMI

MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN
INDUSTRY

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA

1. The diagram shows the formation of a large molecule by joining together all the subunits in process X.

X
Large molecule
Sub-units
What is proses X?
A
B
C
D

Freezing
Refraction
Polymerisation
Depolymerisation

2. What is Contact Process?


A

An industrial process for the manufacture of ammonia

An industrial process for the manufacture of nitric acid

An industrial process for the manufacture of sulphuric acid

An industrial process for the manufacture of hydrochloric acid

3. What is a composite material?


A

A mixture of elements and has metallic properties

A long chain molecule formed by joining together many small repeating units

A material with more superior properties that formed by combining two or


more different substances

4. What is an alloy?
A

An alloy is a mixture of two or more ions with a certain fixed composition.

An alloy is a mixture of two or more atoms with a certain fixed composition.

An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed


composition.

An alloy is a mixture of two or more molecules with a certain fixed


composition

5. Name the industrial process that produce ammonia?


A

Haber process

Contact process

Ostwald process

6. Which of the following is not the property of ammonia?


A

Colourless gas

Soluble in water

Changes moist blue litmus paper to red

Changes moist red litmus paper to blue

7. Which of the following are the uses of ammonia in daily life?


I

To manufacture nitric acid

II

To manufacture explosives

III

To manufacture sulphuric acid

IV

To manufacture nitrogenous fertilizers

III and IV

I, II and III

I, II and IV

I, II, III and IV

8. Polymer X is used to make safety glass, lens and reflectors. Its monomer is
methylmethacrylate.
What is the name of polimer X?
A

Nylon

Perspex

Polythene

Polypropene

9. The chemical equation below shows the reaction of the manufacture of sulphuric acid
in stage II.
SO2(g) +

O2(g)

SO3(g)

What is the optimum conditions for the reaction in stage II

A
B
C
D

Temperature/C

Catalyst

Pressure/ atm

450
450
450
450

Iron
Iron
Vanadium(V) oxide
Vanadium(V) oxide

1
10
1
10

10. The diagram shows the arrangement of atoms in alloy X.


Tin
Copper

Alloy X
What is the name of alloy X?
A
B
C
D

Steel
Brass
Bronze
Duralumin

11.Which of the following is not true about the uses of sulphuric acid?
A

Leather tanning

Manufacture of paint

Production of margerine

Manufacture of detergents

12. Which of the following is not the aim of making alloy?


A

To prevent rusting

To minimize corrosion

To improve physical appearance

To lower the melting of the metal

13. Which of the following pairs is not true?

A
B
C
D

Process
Manufacture of sulphuric acid
Manufacture of ammonia
Manufacture of nitric acid
Manufacture of margerine

Catalyst
Vanadium(V) oxide
Copper(II) sulphate
Platinum
Nickel

14. Which of the following information is true?


Type of glass
A
B
C
D

Soda lime glass

Borosilicate glass

Fused silicate glass


Lead crystal glass

Properties
Low melting point
High density
High melting point
Reflects light rays
Low melting point
High refractive index
Low melting point
More resistant to
chemical

15. The diagram shows an experiment to investigate the rate of corrosion of iron nail,
steel nail and stainless steel nail.
Jelly solution + potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)

Iron nail

Steel nail Stainless steel nail

The manipulated variable in the experiment is


A

type of nails

rate of corrosion

condition of experiment

16. The diagram shows the structure of polymer P


H

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

Which of the following is the monomer of polymer P?


A

B
H

Cl

C
H

Cl

H
H

Cl

Cl

D
H

17. Which of the following statements explains the reason of why steel is harder and
stronger than iron?
A

The orderly arrangement of atoms in steel enables the layer of atoms to slide on
one another

The defects in the arrangement of atom in steel allows the layer of atoms to
slide on one another

The presence of foreign atoms disturbs the orderly arrangement of atom in


steel thus reduces the layer of atoms from sliding on one another

18. What is the percentage of nitrogen by mass in ammonium sulphate, (NH4)2SO4?


[Relative Atomic Mass : H,1; N,14; O, 16; S, 32]
A

4.71 %

B
C
D

10.60 %
21.21 %
28.00 %

19. Fertilizer ammonium sulphate can be prepared by reacting ammonia with sulhuric
acid.
Which of the following balanced chemical equation is correct?
A

NH3

2NH3

NH3

2NH3

HSO4

+ H2SO4
+

H2SO4

+ HSO4

NH4SO4

(NH4)2SO4
(NH4)2SO4

(NH4)2SO4

20. The following shows the composition, properties and uses of alloy X.

Alloy X

Composition
96% tin
3% copper
1% antimony

Properties

luster
shiny
strong

What is alloy X?
A

Steel

Brass

Pewter

Stainless steel

10

Uses

Making of souvenirs

21. The diagram shows the environmental pollution caused by sulphur dioxide.

SO2

SO2
SO2
O2

Acid rain

O2

Acid rain

SO2

(a) State two types of pollution.


1 : ..
2 : ..

(b) State one effect caused by each pollution in (a)


1: ...
2: ...

11

(c) Explain the formation of acid rain. You may used the keywords below.
SO2 factories.
Burning petrol SO2.
SO2 water and oxygen acid rain.

...

22. The diagram shows the manufacturing of ammonia in an industry.


Reactor
N2
gas

H2
gas

Mixture: N2 + H2
Temperature: 450 OC

NH3

Pressure: 200 atm


Catalyst: Iron

Based on the diagram in the manufacturing of ammonia, NH3 , answer the following
questions.
(a) What are the raw materials used?
..

12

(b) Describe the manufacturing of ammonia and state the conditions involved.
.....
.......

...

(c) Write the chemical equation involved.


...

13

23. The table below shows three stages involved in the manufacturing of sulphuric acid.
Stage

Reactant

Product

Sulphur and oxygen

Sulphur dioxide

II

Sulphur dioxide and oxygen

Sulphur trioxide

Sulphur trioxide and concentrated sulphuric acid

Oleum

Oleum and water

Sulphuric acid

II

Explain the manufacturing of sulphuric acid. Your explanation should start with stage
I until you finally get the sulphuric acid.
..
..
..
..
..
Listen carefully to the text read by the teacher. Answer questions 24, 25 and 26.
24. What is the pH of natural rain water and the pH of acid rain?

25. Name the gas that caused acid rain


...
26. How is acid rain formed?
...
...

14

Listen carefully to the text read by the teacher. Answer questions 27, 28 and 29.
27. Polymer is made up of
..
28.

State two examples of natural polymer


. ......

29.

Man-made polymers are known as


.....

Listen carefully to the text read by the teacher. Answer questions 30, 31 and 32.
30.

State three examples of ceramic.

...

31.

Ceramics are made of


..

32.

State two properties of ceramic.


.....
.....

15