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- Lee - Geometrical Method and Aristotle's first principles<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd"> <HTML><HEAD><META HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type" CONTENT="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"> <TITLE>ERROR: The requested URL could not be retrieved</TITLE> <STYLE type="text/css"><!--BODY{background-color:#ffffff;font-family:verdana,sans-serif}PRE{font-family:sans-serif}--></STYLE> </HEAD><BODY> <H1>ERROR</H1> <H2>The requested URL could not be retrieved</H2> <HR noshade size="1px"> <P> While trying to process the request: <PRE> TEXT http://www.scribd.com/titlecleaner?title=Lee+-+Geometrical+Method+and+Aristotle's+first+principles.pdf HTTP/1.1 Host: www.scribd.com Proxy-Connection: keep-alive Accept: */* Origin: http://www.scribd.com X-CSRF-Token: ae6838aae3e154568a5e0f095aaa1baab67e1d03 User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.0) AppleWebKit/537.22 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/25.0.1364.172 Safari/537.22 X-Requested-Wi

You are on page 1of 22

I1

237

I2

201499

I3

90

I4

30

I6

11

I7

23

I8

10

I9

293

21

(= 8 ) I10 1016064

34

34

I11

I1

4

I12 2012

I13 730639

I14 13

I15 81.64

An integer x minus 12 is the square of an integer. x plus 19 is the square of another integer.

Find the value of x.

x 12 = n2 (1); x + 19 = m2 (2), where m, n are integers.

(2) (1): (m + n)(m n) = 31

31 is a prime number

m + n = 31 and m n = 1

m = 16, n = 15

x = 152 + 12 = 237

I2

102

I5

= 0.000

n times

10 201500 = 0.000

01

n times

I3

I4

n = 201500 1 = 201499

As shown in Figure 2, ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral,

where AD = 5, DC = 14, BC = 10 and AB = 11.

Find the area of quadrilateral ABCD.

Reference: 2002 HI6

AC2 = 102 + 112 21110 cos B ...............(1)

AC2 = 52 + 142 2514 cos D ...................(2)

(1) = (2): 221 220 cosB = 221 140 cosD (3)

B + D = 180 (opp. s, cyclic quad.)

cos D = cos B

(3): (220 + 140) cos B = 0 B = 90 = D

Area of the cyclic quadrilateral

= area of ABC + area of ACD

1

1

= 11 10 5 14 = 90

2

2

Figure 1 shows a right-angled triangle ACD where

B is a point on AC and BC = 2AB. Given that AB = a

and ACD = 30, find the value of .

a

In ABD, AD =

tan

3a

AD

In ACD, AC =

=

tan 30 tan

However, AC = AB + BC = a + 2a = 3a

3a

= 3a

tan

3

tan =

3

= 30

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Page 1

A school issues 4 types of raffle tickets with face values $10, $15, $25 and $40. Class A uses

several one-hundred dollar notes to buy 30 raffle tickets, including 5 tickets each for two of

the types and 10 tickets each for the other two types. How many one-hundred dollars notes

Class A use to buy the raffle tickets?

100 is an even number, the face values $15 and $25 are odd numbers. Only 5 tickets of $15

and 5 tickets of $25 can make a sum of even numbers.

10(10) + 15(5) + 25(5) + 40(10) = 700 Class A uses 7 $100 notes.

I6 Find the remainder when 22011 is divided by 13.

26 = 64 = 135 1 1 mod 13; 212 1 mod 13

2011 = 12167 + 7

22011 = 212167 + 7 = (212)16727 27 262 12 2 11 mod 13

I7 Find the number of places of the number 2202512. (Reference: 1982 FG10.1, 1992 HI17)

2202512 = 220524 = 102054 = 6251020

The number of places = 23

I8 A, B and C pass a ball among themselves. A is the first one to pass the ball to other one. In

how many ways will the ball be passed back to A after 5 passes?

Construct the following table:

Number of passes

1

2

3

4

5

0

1+1=2

1+1=2

3+3=6

5+5=10

A

1

0+1=1

1+2=3

3+2=5

5+6=11

B

1

0+1=1

1+2=3

3+2=5

5+6=11

C

There will be 10 ways for the ball to pass back to A.

I9 Given that a and b are distinct prime numbers, a2 19a + m = 0 and b2 19b + m = 0. Find

a b

the value of . Reference: 1996 HG8, 1996FG7.1, 2001 FG4.4, 2005 FG1.2, 2012 HI6

b a

a and b are prime distinct roots of x2 19x + m = 0

a + b = sum of roots = 19 (odd)

a and b are prime number and all prime number except 2, are odd.

a = 2, b = 17 (or a = 17, b = 2)

a b 17 2 293

21

= =

(= 8 )

b a 2 17 34

34

I10 It is given that a1, a2, , an, is a sequence of positive real numbers such that a1 = 1 and

I5

an+1 = an + an

1

. Find the value of a2015.

4

1 9

a2 = 2 + =

4 4

9 3 1 16

a3 = + + =

4 2 4 4

n 12 for n 1

Claim: an =

4

Pf: By M.I. n = 1, 2, 3, proved already.

k 12 for some positive integer k.

Suppose ak =

4

2

2

2

1 k 1 k 1 1 k 1 2k 1 1 k 1 1

+

=

ak+1 = ak + a k =

=

4

4

2

4

4

4

By M.I., the statement is true for n 1

2016 2

a2015 =

= 10082 = 1016064

4

http://www.hkedcity.net/ihouse/fh7878

Page 2

I11

If the quadratic equation (k2 4)x2 (14k + 4)x + 48 = 0 has two distinct positive integral

roots, find the value(s) of k.

Clearly k2 4 0; otherwise, the equation cannot have two real roots.

Let the roots be , .

= (14k + 4)2 4(48) (k2 4) = 22[(7k + 2)2 48k2 + 192] = 22(k2 + 28k + 196) = [2(k + 14)]2

14k 4 2k 14 7k 2 k 14 8k 16

8

6k 12

6

= 2

=

,= 2

=

.

=

=

2

2

2 k 4

k 4

k 4 k 2

k 4 k 2

For positive integral roots, k 2 is a positive factor of 8 and k + 2 is a positive factor of 6.

k 2 = 1, 2, 4, 8 and k + 2 = 1, 2, 3, 6

k = 3, 4, 6, 10 and k = 1, 0, 1, 4

k = 4 only

Method 2 provided by Mr. Jimmy Pang from Po Leung Kuk Lee Shing Pik College

The quadratic equation can be factorised as: [(k 2)x 8][(k + 2)x 6] = 0

8

6

or

k 2 and k 2 x =

k 2

k 2

By similar argument as before, for positive integral root, k = 4 only.

I12 Given that y = (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)(x + 4) + 2013, find the minimum value of y.

2

Reference 1993HG5, 1993 HG6, 1995 FI4.4, 1996 FG10.1, 2000 FG3.1, 2004 FG3.1, 2012 FI2.3

y = (x + 1)(x + 4)(x + 2)(x + 3) + 2013 = (x2 + 5x + 4)(x2 + 5x + 6) + 2013

= (x2 + 5x)2 + 10(x2 + 5x) + 24 + 2013 = (x2 + 5x)2 + 10(x2 + 5x) + 25 + 2012

= (x2 + 5x + 5)2 + 2012 2012

The minimum value of y is 2012.

I13 How many pairs of distinct integers between 1 and 2015 inclusively have their products as

multiple of 5?

Multiples of 5 are 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, , 2015. Number = 403

Numbers which are not multiples of 5 = 2015 403 = 1612

Let the first number be x, the second number be y.

Number of pairs = No. of ways of choosing any two numbers from 1 to 2015 no. of ways of

choosing such that both x, y are not multiples of 5.

2015 2014 1612 1611

5 2014 4 1611

= 403

= C 22015 C 21612 =

2

2

2

2

I14 Let x be a real number. Find the minimum value of x 2 4 x 13 x 2 14 x 130 .

Q(7, 9)

Reference 2010 FG4.2

8

Consider the following problem:

Let P(2, 3) and Q(7, 9) be two points. R(x, 0) is a variable point

6

on x-axis. To find the minimum sum of distances PR + RQ.

If we reflect P(2, 3) along x-axis to P(2, 3), M(2, 0) is the foot

of perpendicular,

then PMR PMR

(S.A.S.)

y = PR + RQ = PR + RQ PQ (triangle inequality)

2

7 2 9 3

2

P(2, 3)

2

M(2, 0)

= 13

x 2 4 x 13 x 2 14 x 130 is 13.

http://www.hkedcity.net/ihouse/fh7878

R(x, 0)

-2

P'(2, -3)

Page 3

Find the value of BF2.

Reference: 2005 HI5

AB = 14 + 7 = 21, BC = 10 + 10 = 20

AB2 + BC2 = 212 + 202 = 841 = 292 = AC2

ABC = 90 (converse, Pythagoras theorem)

Let BF = a, CBF = , ABF = 90

Area of BEF + area of BCF = area of BCE

1

1

20 7

20 a sin a 7 cos

2

2

2

20a sin + 7a cos = 140 (1)

Area of BDF + area of ABF = area of ABD

1

1

10 21

21 a cos a 10 sin

2

2

2

21a cos + 10a sin = 210 (2)

2(2) (1): 35 a cos = 280

a cos = 8 (3)

3(1) (2): 50 a sin = 210

21

a sin =

(4)

5

2

16

21 2041

(= 81 = 81.64)

(3) + (4) : BF = a = 8 + =

25

25

5

2

http://www.hkedcity.net/ihouse/fh7878

Page 4

1

6

15-16

Individual

11

1

15-16

Group

8

14

1

2016

1

2

12

2

672

2

7

1007

200

17

3

3

8

45

46

4

9

12

14

5

10

5985

32

13

522

14

20

15

75 cm2

63

2 2011

72

386946

281

8

= 21 10 4062241

13

13

Individual Events

I1 0.1252016(22017)3

2016

I2

2016

2017

1

1

= 8

23

8 = 8

0.125 (2 ) =

8

8

x1 x 2 x 2 x3 x3 x 4 x 2014 x 2015 x 2015 x 2016 1

x1

x1 x 2 x3 x 2015 x 2016 x 2016

x1 x 2 x 2 x3 x3 x 4 x 2014 x 2015 x 2015 x 2016 1

, find

Given the equations

x1 x 2 x3 x 2015 x 2016 x 2016

2016

2017 3

x1 + x2 = x2 + x3 x1 = x3

x2 + x3 = x3 + x4 x2 = x4

x3 + x4 = x4 + x5 x3 = x5

Let a = x1 + x3 + + x2015 = 1008x1; b = x2 + x4 + + x2016 = 1008x2.

Sub. the above results into equation (2): 1008(x1 + x2) = x2016 = x2

1008 = x2

x1 + x2 = 1 x1 = 1 1008 = 1007

I3

x 2016 x

2016 x is an integer?

2016 x = 0, 1, 2, or 44.

I4

I5

xy xy (x + 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 50

If x, y are integers, how many pairs of x, y are there which satisfy the equation

(x + 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 50?

The integral solutions to a2 + b2 = 50 are (a, b) = (5, 5), (7, 1) or (1, 7).

The number of pairs of integral solutions are 223 = 12.

63 2016 63 63

The sum of 63 consecutive integers is 2016, find the sum of the next 63 consecutive integers.

The sum of next 63 consecutive integers = 2016 + 6363 = 5985

http://www.hkedcity.net/ihouse/fh7878

Page 5

I6

I7

I8

I9

8 8 A 8

A

Given that the mean, median, range and the only mode of 8 integers are also 8. If A is the

largest integer among those 8 integers, find the maximum value of A.

Suppose the 8 integers, arranged in ascending order, are a b c d e f g A.

abcd e f g A

= 8 a + b + c + d + e + f + g + A = 64 (1)

8

d e

= 8 d + e = 16 (2)

2

a = A 8 (3)

Sub. (2) and (3) into (1): A 8 + b + c + 16 + f + g + A = 64 2A + b + c + f + g = 56 (4)

Median = 8 d 8 e

Mode = 8 d = e = 8

In order to maximize A and satisfy equation (4), b, c, f, g must be as small as possible.

f = g = 8, b = A 8, c = A 8; sub. these assumptions into (4):

2A + 2A 16 + 8 + 8 = 56

The maximum value of A = 14.

1 500 2

How many 2s are there in the numbers between 1 to 500?

1 to 9, 2 appears once. 10 to 99, 2 appears in 12, 20, 21, 22, , 29, 32, , 92: 19 times.

100 to 199, 2 appears 20 times, 200 to 299, 2 appears 120 times,

300 to 399, 2 appears 20 times, 400 to 499, 2 appears 20 times.

2 appears 200 times.

16 1140 a 240 a

A number in base 16 is 1140. The same number in base a is 240, what is a?

114016 = 163 + 162 + 416 = 441610 = 240a = 2a2 + 4a

a2 + 2a 2208 = 0

(a 46)(a + 48) = 0

a = 46 or 48 (rejected)

P (6, 240) P 16 P

The polar coordinates of P are (6, 240). If P is translated to the right by 16 units, find the

distance between its image and the pole.

Before translation, the rectangular coordinates of P is (6 cos 240, 6 sin 240) = (3, 3 3 ).

After translation, the rectangular coordinates of P is (13, 3 3 ).

I10 ABC BD CE AC AB

BD CE BD = 8CE = 6ABC

and AB of ABC respectively, and BD CE. Given that BD = 8,

CE = 6, find the area of ABC.

E

8

Figure 1 B

http://www.hkedcity.net/ihouse/fh7878

Page 6

Then G divides each median in the ratio 1 : 2.

16

8

CG = 4, GE = 2; BG = , GD = .

3

3

1

16

SBCE = 6 = 16 sq. units

2

3

SABC = 2 SBCE = 32 sq. units

8

3

2

16

3

B

G

4

C

100[log(63x)][log(32x)] + 1 = 0

It is known that the equation 100[log(63x)][log(32x)] + 1 = 0 has two distinct real roots and

. Find the value of .

100[log(63x)][log(32x)] + 1 = 0 100(log 63 + log x)(log 32 + log x) + 1 = 0

100 (log x)2 + 100(log 32 + log 63)x + log 32 log 63 + 1 = 0

This is a quadratic equation in log x. The two distinct real roots are log and log .

100log 32 log 63

1

1

=

= log

log = log + log = sum of roots =

100

32 63

2016

I12 ABC CDEF FGH ABC //

B C

FGHAB = 42GH = 40EF = 6 FG = 8 ABC

D

FGH 41 BC

As shown in Figure 2, ABC, CDEF and FGH are straight lines, A

ABC // FGH, AB = 42, GH = 40, EF = 6 and FG = 8. Given that

the distance between ABC and FGH is 41, find BC.

Let the mid-point of AB be M.

H

Draw the perpendicular bisector MN of AB cutting GH at N.

E

AM = MB = 21 and AB MN.

Figure 2

F G

HNM = AMN = 90

(alt. s, AB // GH)

MN must pass through the centre O of the circle.

C

B

GN = NH = 20

( from centre bisect chord)

D

21 M

Let ON = x, then OM = 41 x. Join OA, OH. Let the radius be r.

41-x

2

2

2

(Pythagoras theorem on AMO) A

21 + (41 x) = r (1)

2

2

2

r

(Pythagoras theorem on HNO)

20 + x = r (2)

2

2

O

r

(1) = (2): 441 + 1681 82x + x = 400 + x

x = 21

x

H

Sub. x = 21 into (2): r2 = 202 + 212 r = 29

20

E

N

FGFH = FEFD

(intersecting chords theorem)

6

F 8G

848 = 6(6 + ED)

ED = 58 = 2r = diameter of the circle

O is the mid-point of ED.

It is easy to show that OMC ~ ONF (equiangular)

MC NF

OM ON

21 BC 8 20

41 21

21

17

BC =

3

I11

http://www.hkedcity.net/ihouse/fh7878

Page 7

I13 AB C

(a) ACB 3

(b) BAC 4

(c) BCA 5

(d) CBA

ABC

Let A, B and C be three digits. The number formed by these three digits has the following

properties:

(a) ACB is divisible by 3;

(b) BAC is divisible by 4;

(c) BCA is divisible by 5;

(d) CBA has an odd number of factors.

Find the 3-digit number ABC.

From (a), A + B + C = 3m (1), where m is a positive integer.

From (b), 10A + C = 4n (2), where n is a positive integer.

From (c), A = 0 or 5 (3)

If A = 0, then ACB is not a three digit number. rejected

Sub. A = 5 into (2), C = 2 or 6

From (d), CBA has an odd number of factors CBA is a perfect square (4)

Sub. A = 5, C = 6 into (1): B = 1, 4 or 7

CBA = 615, 645 or 675, all these numbers are not perfect square, rejected.

Sub. A = 5, C = 2 into (1): B = 2, 5 or 8

CBA = 225, 255 or 285

Of these numbers, only 225 is a perfect square

A = 5, B = 2, C = 2

ABC = 522

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Page 8

I14 ABCD E AD

F DC DF : FC = 1 : 2FA

FB EC G H

ABCD

FGH

mid-point of AD and F is a point on DC such that DF : FC

= 1 : 2. FA and FB intersect EC at G and H respectively.

Find the value of

Figure 2

Area of ABCD

.

Area of FGH

D

2k

H

E

3k

3k

AB = 3k

(opp. sides //-gram)

CDE IAE

(DE = EA, given, A.A.S.)

IA = DC = 3k

(corr. sides, s)

CFG ~ IAE

(equiangular)

CG : GI = CF : IA = FG : GA = 2 : 3 (1)

(corr. sides, ~s)

CFH ~ IBH

(equiangular)

CH : HI = CF : IB = FH : HB = 2k : 6k = 1 : 3 (2)

(corr. sides, ~s)

Let IC = 20m. By (1), CG = 8m, GI = 12m.

By (2), CH = 5m, HI = 15k

GH = CG CH = 8m 5m = 3m

CH : HG = 5m : 3m = 5 : 3

Let SFGH = 3p, then SCFH = 5p

(FGH and CFH have the same height)

SCFG = 3p + 5p = 8p

3

SCAG = 8 p = 12p

(CFG and CAG have the same height & by (1))

2

SCAF = 8p + 12p = 20p

1

SDAF = 20 p = 10p

(DAF and CAF have the same height)

2

SCAD = 10p + 20p = 30p

ACD CAB

(A.S.A.)

SCAB = 30p

SABCD = 30p + 30p = 60p

Area of ABCD 60 p

=

= 20

Area of FGH 3 p

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Page 9

Given a sequence {an}, where an+2 = an+1 an. If a2 = 1 and a3 = 1, find the value of a2016.

a4 = a3 a2 = 1 (1) = 2

a5 = a4 a3 = 2 1 = 1

a6 = a5 a4 = 1 2 = 1

a7 = a6 a5 = 1 1 = 2

a8 = a7 a6 = 2 (1) = 1 = a2

a9 = a8 a7 = 1 (2) = 1 = a3

a10 = a9 a8 = 1 (1) = 2 = a4

The sequence repeats the cycle (1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2) for every 6 terms.

2016 = 6336

a2016 = a2010 = = a6 = 1

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Page 10

Group Events

G1 1

1 2

1

1

3 4

3

4

2016

At the beginning, there was 1 litre of alcohol in bottle A and bottle B is an empty bottle.

1

of the alcohol from bottle B

First, pour all alcohol from bottle A to bottle B; second, pour

2

1

1

of the alcohol from bottle A to bottle B; fourth, pour

of

back to bottle A; third, pour

3

4

the alcohol from bottle B back to bottle A, . After the 2016th pouring, how much alcohol

was left in bottle A?

No. of times

Amount of alcohol in A

Amount of alcohol in B

1

0

1

2

1 1

1

1 =

2 2

2

3

1 2 1

1 2

=

1 =

2 3 3

3 3

4

1 1

2 3 1

=

1 =

3 4 2

2 2

5

1 4 2

2 3

=

1 =

5 5

2 5 5

6

1 1

3 5 1

=

1 =

5 6 2

2 2

Let the amount of alcohol in A and B be an and bn after n trails.

1

n 1

n

, b2n1 =

.

Claim: For n > 1, a2n = b2n = , a2n1 =

2n 1

2n 1

2

Proof: Mathematical induction on n. n = 2, 3, proved by the above table.

1

Suppose a2k = b2k = for some positive integer k > 1.

2

1

k 1 1 ; b = 1 k = k 1 = k 1

2k

k

a2k+1 =

=

=

2k+1

2k 1 2k 1 2k 1 1

2 2k 1 2k 1 2k 1 1

k 1

k

, b2k1 =

for some positive integer k > 1.

Suppose a2k1 =

2k 1

2k 1

1 1

2k 1 1

k

= ; b2k = 1 =

b2k =

2k 1

2k

2

2 2

By the principal of mathematical induction, the claim is true for all positive integer n>1.

1

a2016 = a2(1008) =

2

http://www.hkedcity.net/ihouse/fh7878

Page 11

G2

ABCP AB Q CP

BQ CPPQ = 6 cmCQ = 9 cm

AQ = 13 cmABC

Figure 1 shows ABC, P is the mid-point of AB C

and Q is a point on CP. It is known that BQ CP,

PQ = 6 cm, CQ = 9 cm and AQ = 13 cm. Find the

area of ABC.

Produce QP to D so that PD = QP = 6 cm

AP = PB (given that P is the mid-point of AB)

APD = BPQ (vert. opp. s)

APD BPQ (S.A.S.)

C

ADP = BQP = 90 (corr. s, s)

A

13 cm

6 cm

9 cm Q

13 cm

9 cm Q

6 cm

AD = 13 12 cm = 5 cm (Pythagoras theorem)

QB = AD = 5 cm (corr. sides, s)

B

75

1

SBCP = 15 5 cm2 = cm2

2

2

75 2

SACP = SBCP = cm (They have the same base and the same height)

2

75

SABC = 2 cm2 = 75 cm2

2

Method 2 (Provided by Mr. Mak Hugo Wai Leung)

Using coordinate geometry method, we denote C as the

origin, then Q = (9, 0), P = (15, 0). We may let B =

(9, y), where y > 0. Since P is the midpoint of A and B,

the coordinates A = (21, y).

Q(9,0)

2

P 6 cm

Now AQ = 13 gives y 0 21 9 13 ,

solving yields y = 5 (since y > 0).

Therefore, A = (21, 5), B = (9, 5), C = (0, 0), and the

area of triangle ABC is given by:

0 0

1

1 9 5

cm2 = 45 105 cm2 = 75 cm2

2 21 5

2

0 0

2

http://www.hkedcity.net/ihouse/fh7878

C(0, 0)

A(21, y)

P(15, 0)

B(9, -y)

Page 12

G3

G4

1

Sn = 2 an n 1 a2016

2

Consider a sequence of numbers a1, a2, a3, . Define Sn = a1 + a2 + + an for any positive

1

integer n. Find the value of a2016 if Sn = 2 an n 1 .

2

n

Claim: an = n

2

1

Prove by induction. S1 = a1 = 2 a1 1 a1 =

2

1 1

1

1 2

S2 = a1 + a2 = 2 a2 + 2a2 = 2 a2 = =

2 2

2

2 4

m

Suppose am = m is true for m = 1, 2, , k, where k is a positive integer.

2

k

1 2 3 4

1

Sk+1 = + + + + + k + ak+1 = 2 ak+1 k (1)

2 4 8 16

2

2

k

3 4

1

2Sk+1 = 1 + 1 + + + + k 1 + 2ak+1 = 4 2ak+1 k 1 (2)

4 8

2

2

k

1

1

1 1 1

2Sk+1 Sk+1 = 1+ + + + + k 1 k + ak+1 = 2 ak+1 k

2 4 8

2

2

2

1

1 k

2 k 2a 2 1 2 2 k 2a 2 1 ak+1 = k 1

k 1

k 1

1 2k

2k

2k 2k

2k

2 k 1

1

2

By the principle of mathematical induction, the formula is true for all positive integer n.

2016 32 63

63

= 2011

a2016 = 2016 =

2011

2

32 2

2

x y log x + log y = log(2x y) + 1 (x, y)

If x and y are positive integers that satisfy log x + log y = log(2x y) + 1, find the number of

possible pairs of (x, y).

Reference: 2002 HG9, 2006 FI3.3, 2006 FG2.4, 2012 FI4.2

log(xy) = log(2x y) + log 10 xy = 10(2x y)

20x 10y xy = 0

200 + 20x y(10 + x) = 200 (20 y)(10 + x) = 200

20 y

10 + x

x

y

1

200

rejected

2

100

rejected

4

50

rejected

5

40

rejected

8

25

rejected

10

20

rejected

20

10

10

10

25

8

15

12

40

5

30

15

50

4

40

16

100

2

90

18

200

1

190

19

There are 6 pairs of (x, y) satisfying the equation.

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Page 13

G5

OB OP = 1 OR = 3

s = PX + XQ + QY + YR s

are points on OB such that OP = 1 and OR = 3.

If s = PX + XQ + QY + YR, find the least value of s.

X

15

Figure 2

Reflect O, P, Q, R, B along OA to give O, S, T, U, C.

Reflect O, X, Y, A along OC to give O, V, W, D.

Reflect O, S, T, U, C along OD to give O, L, M, N, E.

By the definition of reflection,

OS = OL = OP = 1, OT = OM = OQ, OU = ON = OR = 3

OV = OX, OW = OY

s = PX + XQ + QY + YR

= PX + XT + TW + WN

s is the least when P, X, T, W, N are collinear.

In this case, by cosine rule,

E

N

D

W

15 S

15

15

15

P

1

3

T

Y

X

Q

s2 = 12 + 32 213 cos 60 = 7

s= 7

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Page 14

G6

y = px2 + qx + r

(1) y x = 2016

(2) x AB AB = 4

(3) y = 10 CD CD = 16

q

(1) The axis of symmetry of y is x = 2016.

(2) The curve cuts the x-axis at two points A and B such that AB = 4 units.

(3) The curve cuts the line y = 10 at two points C and D such that CD = 16 units.

Find the value of q.

y = p(x 2016)2 + k

Let , be the roots of y = p(x 2016)2 + k = 0

p(x2 4032x + 20162) + k = 0

px2 4032px + 20162p + k = 0

2016 2 p k

k

= 20162 +

+ = 4032, =

p

p

2

| | = 4 ( ) = 16

( + )2 4 = 16

k

(4032)2 4(20162 + ) = 16

p

k = 4p

y = p(x 2016)2 4p = px2 4032px + (20162 4)p

Let r, s be the roots of px2 4032px + (20162 4)p = 10

2014 2018 p 10

10

= 20142018 +

r + s = 4032, rs =

p

p

2

|r s| = 16 (r + s) 4rs = 256

10

40322 4(20162 4 + ) = 256

p

40

16 = 256

p

40

= 240

p

1

p =

6

1

q = 4032p = 4032 = 672

6

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Page 15

G7

912 15

The lengths of the three medians of a triangle are 9, 12 and 15. Find the area of the triangle.

Let the triangle be ABC, with medians AD = 15, BE = 12, CF = 9.

A

The centriod G divides each median in the ratio 1 : 2.

AG = 10, GD = 5, BG = 8, GE = 4, CG = 6, GF = 3.

Produce GD to H so that GD = DH = 5.

Join BH, HC. By the definition of median, BD = DC.

BHCG is a parallelogram. (diagonals bisect each other)

F 10

E

CH = 8, BH = 6 (opp. sides of //-gram)

4

2

2

2

2

2

2

In BGH, BG + BH = 6 + 8 = 36 + 64 = 100 = 10 = GH

3

GBH = 90 (converse, Pythagoras theorem)

G

8

6

1

1

SBGH = BH BG = 6 8 = 24

5

2

2

24

B

D

C

SBDG = SBHG = = 12 (equal base, same height)

2

5

8

6

SCDG = SBDG = 12 (equal base, same height)

SBCG = 12 + 12 = 24

H

3

24

SBGF = SBCG = = 12 (different bases, same height)

6

2

SBCF = 12 + 24 = 36

SACF = SBCF = 36 (equal base, same height)

SABC = 36 + 36 = 72

Method 2 (Inspired by Mr. Mak Hugo Wai Leung)

4

Claim: Area of triangle =

mm ma m mb m mc (*), where ma, mb and mc are

3

m mb mc

.

the lengths of the 3 medians from vertices A, B and C respectively, and m = a

2

The centriod G divides each median in the ratio 1 : 2.

A

2

2

2

AG = ma , BG = mb , CG = mc .

3

3

3

1

Produce GD to H so that GD = DH = ma .

F

E

3

Join BH, HC. By the definition of median, BD = DC.

2m

G

BHCG is a parallelogram (diagonals bisect each other)

3 c

HC = BG, BH = CG (opp. sides of //-gram)

2m

C

CGH is similar to a larger triangle whose sides are B

3 aD

2m

ma, mb, mc. By Heron formula,

3 b

2

H

2

SCGH = mm ma m mb m mc = SBGH

3

1

4

SBCG = SBCH = S BGCH =

mm ma m mb m mc

2

9

4

SACG = SABG =

mm ma m mb m mc

9

4

4

SABC = 3

mm ma m mb m mc =

mm ma m mb m mc

9

3

m = 12 9 12 15 = 18, m ma = 18 9 = 9, m mb = 18 12 = 6, m mc = 18 15 = 3

SABC = 43 189 63 = 72

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Page 16

G8

(1) 11

(2) 1

(1) the number of digits = 11,

(2) the number of 1s = 6 and the number of 0s = 5,

then the number is said to be a good number.

(For example, 2016 is a good number as 2016 = 111111000002.)

Find the sum of all good numbers.

G9

Let the 11-digit binary number be X = abcdefghijk , where a = 1 and all other digits are either

0 or 1. If X is a good number, then, discard the leftmost digit, there are 5 1s and 5 0s.

10 9 8 7 6

= 252

The number of good numbers is C510 =

1 2 3 4 5

Starting from rightmost digit to 29-digit, each digit has 126 1s and 126 0s

Sum of all good numbers is 252210 + 12629 + 12628 + + 126

211 1

= 126 210 126

2 1

= 126(1024 + 2047)

= 1263071 = 386946

ab c f (x) = x(x a)(x b)(x c) x a

b c x = (x a) + (x b) + (x c) f (x) = 900

Let the three sides of a triangle are of lengths a, b and c where all of them are integers. Given

that f (x) = x(x a)(x b)(x c) where x is an integer of size greater than a, b and c.

If x = (x a) + (x b) + (x c) and f (x) = 900, find the sum of the lengths of the three

altitudes of this triangle.

a, b and c are the sides of an right-angled triangle with integral values.

(a, b, c) = (3, 4, 5), (6, 8, 10), (5, 12, 13), (9, 12, 15), (8, 15, 17),

3 4 6 8 5 12 9 12 8 15

,

,

,

,

, = 6, 24, 30, 54, 60,

Area of the triangle =

2

2

2

2

2

x = (x a) + (x b) + (x c) a + b + c = 2x = perimeter of the triangle

By Herons formula, area of the triangle = x x a x b x c = f x = 900 = 30

a = 5, b = 12, c = 13

60

.

The three altitudes of the triangle are: 12, 5,

13

60 281

.

Sum of all altitudes = 12 + 5 + =

13 13

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Page 17

14 2015 4 2016 4

12 2015 2 2016 2

14 2015 4 2016 4

.

Find the value of 2

1 2015 2 2016 2

Reference: 2008 FGS.4

Let x = 2015.5, then 2015 = x 0.5, 2016 = x + 0.5

4

4

14 2015 4 2016 4 1 x 0.5 x 0.5

=

12 2015 2 2016 2 1 x 0.52 x 0.52

G10

1 2 x 4 60.5 x 2 0.54

=

1 2 x 2 0.52

1

1 2 x 4 3x 2

8

=

1

1 2x2

2

9

2 x 4 3x 2

8

=

3

2x2

2

4

16 x 24 x 2 9

=

44 x 2 3

2

4 x 3

=

44 x 3

2

4x2 3

4

2

2 2015.5 3

=

4

2

4031 3

=

4

2

4000 31 3

=

4

16000000 248000 961 3

=

4

16248964

= 4062241

=

4

Method 2 (provided by Mr. Mak Hugo Wai Leung)

In general, we have

=

1 x 4 x 1 2 x 4 2 x 3 3 x 2 2 x 1

x2 x 1

=

=

= x2 + x + 1

2

2

2

2

2 x x 1

x x 1

1 x x 1

Substituting x = 2015 yields

14 2015 4 2016 4

= 1 + 2015 + 20152 = 1 + 2015 + (2000 +15)2

2

2

2

1 2015 2016

= 2016 + 4000000 + 60000 + 225

= 2016 + 4060225

= 4062241

4

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Page 18

Geometrical Construction

1.

Suppose there are three different parallel lines, L1, L2 and L3. Construct an equilateral triangle

with only one vertex lies on each of the three parallel lines.

L1L2 L3

Reference:

http://www2.hkedcity.net/citizen_files/aa/gi/fh7878/public_html/Geometry/construction/trian

gle/Equilateral_tri_on_3_parallel_lines.pdf

L1

L2

L3

()

(1)

AB Y

XYZ

R

5

(3)

ZR

(4)

Z ZR AB P CD Q

(5)

PR QR

Y AB CD X EF R

(2)

X D

PQR

PQ ZR AB YR

()

PYRZ

(=)

RPZ = RYZ

()

= XYZ = 60

PQ ZR CD RX

()

QXRZ

(=)

RQZ = RXZ

()

= YXZ = 60

PRQ = 180 60 60 = 60

()

PQR

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Page 19

()()

(1) AB P

P AB H K

(2) H HP J

K KP L

(3)

(4)

(5)

JPL = 60 PJ EF X

CD R PL CD Q

XQ

X XYYXQ = 60 AB

Y

YQ

XYQ

HPJ KPL

HPJ = 60 = KPL

JPL = 60

PRQ = 60 = PQR

PQR

QXY = 60 = QPY

PXQY

XYQ = XPQ = 60

XQY = HPX = 60

XYQ

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Y K

2

J

2

E

C

4

2 L

60

3

F

D

()

()

()

(AB // CD )

()

()

()

()

Page 20

()()

(1) AB P

H

1

(2)

PEG PFH

GH CD Q PQ

(3)

(4)

QPR = 60 EF R

QR

PQR

60

C

1

QPF = xPFE = y

PEF PGH

PE = PGPF = PH

EPG = 60 = FPH

EPF = 60 + GPF = GPH

PEF PGH

PEF = PHG = y

RPF = 60 + x = QPH

PF = PH

RPF QPH

PR = PQ

PQR

PQR = PRQ

= (180 60)2

= 60

PQR

AB // CD // EF

()

()

(S.A.S.)

()

()

(A.S.A.)

()

()

()

()

P

B

R

E

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Page 21

2.

Given four points A, B, C and D as shown in the figure below, construct a square which passes

through these four points.

ABC D

D

P

4

R B

(1) Join AD and extend AD to both ends longer.

(2) Construct a line through C and perpendicular to AD which intersect AD produced at P.

(3) Construct a line through B and perpendicular to PC which intersect PC produced at Q.

(4) Use Q as centre and QP as radius to draw an arc, cutting QB produced at R.

(5) Construct a line through R and perpendicular to DA which intersect DA produced at S.

Then PQRS is the required square.

Proof: By construction, SPQ = PQR = PSR = 90

QRS = 360 90 90 90 = 90 (s sum of polygon)

PQRS is a rectangle

By step (4), PQ = QR = radii of the arc.

PQRS is a square.

Remark: A, B, C and D may lie outside the square.

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Page 22

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