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REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM USING

PULSE WIDTH MODULATION TECHNIQUE


ON BRUSHED DC MOTOR
A project report
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
by
V. SUNDEEP REDDY

12211A03A4

K. SHIVA KUMAR

12211A0388

J. UJWAL REDDY

12211A03A5

Under the guidance of

DR. V. MURALI KRISHNA


Professor and HOD, Mechanical Engineering

Department of Mechanical Engineering

B. V. Raju Institute of Technology


Vishnupur, Narsapur, Medak District-502213
2015-2016

Department of Mechanical Engineering

B. V. Raju Institute of Technology


Vishnupur, Narsapur, Medak District-502213

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project entitled Regenerative
braking system using pulse width modulation technique on
brushed dc motor is the bonafide work done by
V. SUNDEEP REDDY
K. SHIVA KUMAR
J. UJWAL REDDY

12211A03A4
12211A0388
12211A03A5

in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, B. V. Raju Institute of


Technology, Narsapur, Medak (Dist) and submitted to Jawaharlal Nehru
Technological University Hyderabad in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the award of B.Tech degree in Mechanical Engineering
in the academic year 2015-2016. This work has been carried out under
my guidance.

Guide

Head of the Department

( Dr. V. Murali Krishna )

External Examiner

Declaration
We hereby declare that the entire project work embodied in this dissertation

Speed control of brushed dc motor using pulse width


modulation technique along with regenerative braking
system has been independently carried out by us. As per my Knowledge, no
entitled

part of this work has been submitted for any degree in any institution, university,
and organisation previously.

(V. SUNDEEP REDDY)

(K. SHIVA KUMAR)

(J. UJWAL REDDY)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The satisfaction that accompanies the successful completion of any task
would be incomplete without the mention of the people who made it possible and
whose encouragement and guidance has been a source of inspiration throughout the
course of the project.
It is my privilege and pleasure to express my profound sense of gratitude and
Indebtedness to my project guide Dr. V. Murali Krishna, Head of the Mechanical
Engineering Department, B. V. Raju Institute of Engineering & Technology, of his
guidance, cogent discussion, constructive criticisms and encouragement throughout
this dissertation work.
I take the opportunity to offer my humble thanks to Dr. V. Murali Krishna,
Head of the Department, Mechanical Engineering, B.V. Raju Institute of
Engineering & Technology, for his encouragement and constant help.
I also thank Dr. Ch. Venkateshwarulu, Principal, B.V.RAJU INSTITUTE
OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, for his support in this Endeavour.
In addition I would like to thank all the Faculty members of Department of
Mechanical Engineering, who provided me with good lab facilities and helped me
in carrying out the project successfully.
I finally thank my family members and friends for giving moral strength and
support to complete this dissertation.

V SUNDEEP REDDY
K. SHIVA KUMAR
J. UJWAL REDDY

ABSTRACT

A brake is a mechanical device which inhibits motion. Conventional brakes


use friction of brake shoes and drums to convert kinetic energy developed by the
vehicle into heat energy. In this type of braking where the heat energy generated at
the contact surfaces is dissipated to surroundings. It has been found from literature
survey that a new type of braking called regenerative braking system has been
found. Regenerative Braking System is the way of slowing vehicle by using the
motors as brakes. Instead of the surplus energy of the vehicle being wasted as
unwanted heat, the motors act as generators and return some of it to the overhead
wires as electricity.
In the present study the vehicle is primarily powered from the electrical
energy taken from the battery (source) is used by an electric motor that provides
motive force to the wheels. The regenerative braking taking place on the vehicle is
a way to obtain more efficiency, so a model to control the speed of the installed
0.5hp motor is been simulated using PROTEUS. The laboratory test has been
performed on the built model before been mounted on the vehicle. The circuit is
repeatedly tested for the desired wave functions and are absorbed on the
oscilloscope. The final project is made and run for the tests and the results are
tabulated for the amount of power generated at different speeds of the motor and at
different loads.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER

PAGE No

Abstract
Contents
List of figures
List of tables and graphs
1. Introduction
1.1 Background

06

1.2. Conventional braking system in use

08

1.3. Regenerative Braking system

08

1.4. Objectives

09

02. Literature survey


2.1. Fundamental laws governing the motoring and generating operations

10

2.2. Speed control with regeneration

11

2.3. Scope of the present work

12

03. Hardware components


3.1. Capacitors

13

3.2. Resistors

14

3.3. Diodes

16
1

3.4. DPST switch

17

3.5. Potentiometer
17
3.6. Motor and battery

19

3.7. 555 Timer IC and pin configuration

20

3.8. IGBT/MOSFET

21

04. Chopper circuit


4.1 Dc choppers

22

4.2 Principle of chopper operation

23

4.3 Control strategies

25

4.3.1 Time ratio control


4.3.2 Current limit control
05. Experimental setup and description
5.1. Experiment setup

26

5.2. Description of the setup

27

5.3. Speed control and speed measurement

27

5.4. Final project

29

06. Results and discussion

30

07. Conclusion

36

08. Reference

37

LIST OF FIGURES

PAGE No

Fig.2.1. Biot law representation

10

Fig.3.1. Ceramic capacitor

11

Fig.3.2. Four and Five band resistors

14

Fig.3.3. Diode

16

Fig.3.4. F/w and R/w bias circuit arrangement

16

Fig.3.5. Double pole double throw switch

17

Fig.3.6. Potentiometer

18

Fig.3.7. PMDC motor

20

Fig.3.8. Lead acid battery (12v-35Ah)

20

Fig.3.9. 555 timer IC

21

Fig.4.0. Power IGBT

21

Fig.4.1.Basic motoring and braking circuit

23

Fig.4.2. Voltage waveforms

23

Fig.4.3. Duty cycles for amplitude of 5Volts

25

Fig.5.1. Experimental setup

26

Fig.5.2. Project arrangement

28

Fig.5.3. Final project

29
3

LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS


Table
Table.3.1

Item description
Resistor colour codes

PAGE No
15

Table.1.1

Power generation at rated speed 400rpm against time

30

Table.1.2

Power generation at rated speed 600rpm against time

30

Table.1.3

Power generation at rated speed 800rpm against time

30

Table.1.4

Power generation at rated speed 1000rpm against time

31

Table.2.1

Current ratings against loading conditions at rated speed


1065rpm under loads

31

Table.2.1.1 Power generation at rated speed 1067rpm against


time under 1.0Kg load

31

Table.2.1.2 Power generation at rated speed 1067rpm against


time under 1.9Kg load

31

Table.2.1.3 Power generation at rated speed 1067rpm against


time under 2.5Kg load

32

Table.3.1 Speed against time at no load conditions

32

Table.3.2 Speed against time at given loading conditions

33

GRAPHS
Graph No.

Item description

Graph.01

Rated speeds v/s power generated

Graph.02

Speed v/s power generated from rated speed


Of 1067 rpm under loaded conditions

Graph.03

34

34

Different rated speeds v/s time under no load


Conditions

Graph.04

PAGE No

35

Different rated speeds v/s time under loaded


Conditions

35

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background
DC motors form the backbone of many industries and as such their speed
control becomes of immense importance. It has been found that many of these
applications perform with a greater efficiency when the motors are fed from a
source of variable dc power. In this report we analyse the permanent magnet dc
motor using MATLAB (Simulink) and Proteus for speeds against power developed
using a second quadrant chopper circuit. The chopper circuit receives a signal from
the firing circuit and then gives an output signal for armature voltage control of the
permanent magnet dc motor and the speed is accordingly increased or decreased
using a potentiometer. In this system we use control system called the driver circuit
for speed control thereby controlling armature voltage. The control system (firing
circuit and driver circuit) uses a pulse width modulation technique to control as in
this a timer itself is the heart of the driver circuit and if any burn out can easily be
replaced and the control provided is very fast.
Dc motor operations include battery operated vehicles, subway cars, battery
charging etc. The conversion of fixed dc voltage to variable dc can be obtained by
using semiconductor devices. Earlier it has been achieved by AC link chopper but
are costly, bulky and less efficient. This is the place where the dc chopper comes
into play. Being a single stage conversion device the dc chopper has altogether
heralded a new era in rapid transit systems. As most of the traction systems in India
still operate via dc motors this project aims to simulate and analyze a model of dc
chopper using power MOSFET or an IGBT and study the speed control
characteristics and the advantages and limitations of using a power MOSFET.
6

There are basically two kinds of techniques available for speed control of
permanent magnet dc motor.
Variable armature voltage control method
Variable field flux control method.
The different methods that can be and have been used in speed control of dc
motors are:
Earlier armature voltage using rheostat was used to be varied.
Conventional kind of PID controllers can also be used.
Nowadays neural network controllers are also used.
Constant power motor field weakening controller.
Single phase uniform PWM ac-dc buck-boost converter having just one
switching device is utilized in armature voltage control.
Using NARMA-L2 (Non-linear Auto-regressive Moving Average)
controller for the constant torque region.
The speed of the motor can be controlled by any of the above mentioned
methods. Here the speed is been controlled by armature voltage regulation by
PWM technique. The regulated supply of voltage to the armature terminals of the
motor is inputted by means of driver circuit. The complete description of the driver
circuit is been discussed in the subsequent chapters to follow. Speed of the motor
varies according to the voltage available at the motor terminals.

1.2. Conventional braking system in use


Conventional or mechanical braking systems use friction to counteract the
forward momentum of a moving car. As the brake pads rub against the wheels,
excessive heat energy is created. This heat energy dissipates into the air, wasting up
to 30% of the car's generated power.
Types of conventional brakes

Drum brakes
Disc brake
Anti-lock braking system
Emergency brakes

1.3. Regenerative Braking system


A regenerative brake is an energy recovery mechanism which slows a vehicle
or object by converting its kinetic energy into a form which can be either used
immediately or stored until needed. This contrasts with conventional braking
systems, where the excess kinetic energy is converted to unwanted and wasted heat
by friction in the brakes. In addition to improving the overall efficiency of the
vehicle, regeneration can greatly extend the life of the braking system as its parts
do not wear as quickly.
Electric motors when used in reverse function as generators, convert
mechanical energy into electrical energy. Vehicles propelled by electric motors use
them as generators when using regenerative braking by transferring mechanical
energy from the wheels to an electrical load.

Objectives
The objectives of the present work are given below
Simulation of the driver circuit using PROTEUS.
Development of the simulated circuit on the breadboard with hardware
components connected using connecting wires.
Testing of the circuit for voltage waveforms using the regulated power
supply equipped with an auto transformer.
Connecting the circuit on to the bike and regulating the speed.
Operating the circuit in regenerative mode using a double pole single
throw switch.
Tabulating the results for power generated against varying speeds
while the vehicle is in regeneration mode.

CHAPTER II
9

Literature survey
2.1. Fundamental laws governing the motoring and generating operations

Biot savart law

The Biot Savart law is an equation describing the magnetic field generated
by an electric current. It relates the magnetic field to the magnitude, direction,
length and proximity of the electric current. The law is valid in the magneto static
approximation and is consistent with both Ampre's circuital law and Gauss's law
for magnetism. The Biot Savart law is used for computing the resultant magnetic
field B at position r generated by a steady current (I). It is a continual flow of
charges which is constant in time and the charge neither accumulates nor depletes
at any point. The law is a physical example of a line integral, being evaluated over
the path C in which the electric currents flow.

equation

Fig.2.1 Biot law representation

Faradays electromagnetic principle

10

Faraday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how


a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive
force (EMF) a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction. It is the fundamental
operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors,
generators and solenoids.
2.2. Speed control circuit with regenerative braking
Many researchers have investigated different control circuits for speed
regulation of the dc motor and regenerative braking circuit. J. K. AHN et al. [1]
has done analysis on hybrid electric vehicle with regenerative braking system using
an electro mechanical brake. The regenerative brake alone is not sufficient to
completely stop the vehicle since its performance drops with decreasing speeds.
The results showed that with a control algorithm for operating in a way, taking the
advantage of regenerative mode without compromising on braking distance is
implemented. State of charge (SOC) of the battery is called of when the battery
charges to 50-70% , since overcharging the battery decreases its durability.
Aashay naik et al. [2] implemented the open and closed loop control of the
regenerative braking system. The simulation of the circuit for constant speeds
against varying torques is structured using a PI controller using this controller the
delay is removed and fast control is achieved.
Ravichandran [3] developed a closed loop operation for dc motor. Open
loop control of the DC motor can be achieved by changing the armature voltage or
resistance but it does not provide the same accuracy as that of closed loop control.
V. Adle et al. [4] designed and implemented a controller for two quadrant
chopper fed dc motor drive. The firing circuit will provide pulses to the gate

11

terminal of IGBT. The speed of the motor is controlled by controlling the duty ratio
of the chopper circuit using a wire wound variable resistance.
G. A. Vokas et al. [5] The two main categories of dc motor drives are
controlled rectifier (thyristor) and chopper-fed DC drives. Choppers are divided
into hard-switching and soft-switching converters. Both of these converters are
further classified as one, two or four-quadrant converters. Hard-switching
converters utilize thyristor, GTO, BJT, MOSFET and IGBT. Thyristors and GTOs
are utilized for high power applications and for low switching frequencies. Power
BJTs and mainly IGBTs and MOSFETs are used when high frequency (20-50khz)
and for low to medium power is required. All these choppers usually employ PWM
control techniques.
2.3. Scope of the present work
The objective of the project is to know the amount of power generated in
regenerative braking mode which is one of the way to improve the efficiency of the
vehicle. The braking time or the time taken for the motors speed to decrease is
worked out. Two quadrant chopper fed dc motor with IGBT firing is developed.
The experiments are conducted on the for different speeds and power dissipation
are found at rated load of 300ohms.

CHAPTER III
12

Hardware components
3.1. Capacitor
A ceramic capacitor is a fixed value capacitor in which ceramic material acts
as the dielectric. It is constructed of two or more alternating layers of ceramic and a
metal layer acting as the electrodes. The composition of the ceramic material
defines the electrical behaviour and therefore applications. Ceramic capacitors are
accurate, temperature-compensating capacitors. They offer the most stable voltage,
temperature, and to some extent frequency. They have the lowest losses and
therefore are especially suited for resonant circuit applications where stability is
essential or where a precisely defined temperature coefficient is required, for
example in compensating temperature effects for a circuit. The basic materials of
ceramic capacitors are composed of a mixture of finely ground granules of para
electric materials such as Titanium dioxide (TiO2), modified by additives of Zinc,
Zirconium, Niobium, Magnesium, Tantalum, Cobalt and Strontium, which are
necessary to achieve the capacitors desired linear characteristics.
The capacitance formula (C) of a ceramic capacitor is based on the formula
for a plate capacitor enhanced with the number of layers:

Fig.3.1. Ceramic capacitors

C= nA /d
= Dielectric permittivity
13

A = Electrode surface area


n = Number of layers and
d = Distance between the electrodes.
3.2. Resistor
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements
electrical resistance as a circuit element. Resistors act to reduce current flow, and,
at the same time, act to lower voltage levels within circuits. In electronic circuits,
resistors are used to limit current flow, to adjust signal levels, bias active elements,
and terminate transmission lines among other uses. High-power resistors, that can
dissipate many watts of electrical power as heat, may be used as part of motor
controls in power distribution systems or as test loads for generators. Fixed
resistors have resistances that only change slightly with temperature, time or
operating voltage. Variable resistors can be used to adjust circuit elements (such as
a volume control or a lamp dimmer) or as sensing devices for heat, light, humidity,
force or chemical activity.

Fig.3.2. Four and Five band resistors.

Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and
are ubiquitous in electronic equipment. Practical resistors as discrete components

14

can be composed of various compounds and forms. Resistors are also implemented
within integrated circuits.
The electrical function of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common
commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of
magnitude. The nominal value of the resistance will fall within a manufacturing
tolerance.

Table.3.1. Resistor colour codes

3.3 Diodes
15

A diode is an electrical device allowing current to move through it in one


direction with far greater ease than in the other. The most common kind of diode in
modern circuit design is the semiconductor diode, although other diode
technologies exist. Semiconductor diodes are symbolized in schematic diagrams
such as Figure below. The term diode is customarily reserved for small signal
devices, I 1 A. The term rectifier is used for power devices, I > 1 A.
When placed in a simple battery-lamp circuit, the diode will either allow or
prevent current through the lamp, depending on the polarity of the applied voltage.

Fig.3.3. Diode

Diode operation
(a) Current flow is permitted: The diode is forward biased.
(b) Current flow is prohibited: The diode is reversed biased.

Forward bias

Reverse bias

Fig.3.4. Forward and Reverse bias circuit arrangement.

3.4 DPDT Switch


16

A Double Pole Double Throw (DPDT) switch is a switch that has 2 inputs
and 4 outputs; each input has 2 corresponding outputs that it can connect to each of
the terminals of a double pole double switch can either be in 1 of 2 positions. This
makes the double pole double throw switch a very versatile switch. With 2 inputs, it
can connect to 4 different outputs. It can reroute a circuit into 2 different modes of
operation.

Fig.3.5. Double pole single throw switch

3.5 POTENTIOMETER
A potentiometer or pot is a three-terminal resistor with a continuously
adjustable tapping point controlled by rotation of a shaft or knob or by a linear
slider. It is called a potentiometer because it can be connected as an adjustable
voltage divider to provide a variable potential at the terminal connected to the
tapping point. A volume control for an audio device is a common use of a
potentiometer. A typical low power potentiometer is constructed of a flat resistance
element of carbon composition, metal film, or conductive plastic, with a springy
phosphor bronze wiper contact which moves along the surface. An alternate
construction is resistance wire wound on a form, with the wiper sliding axially

17

along the coil. These have lower resolution, since as the wiper moves the resistance
changes in steps equal to the resistance of a single turn.
High-resolution potentiometers are used in a few precision applications.
These have wire wound resistance elements typically wound on a helical mandrel,
with the wiper moving on a helical track as the control is turned, making
continuous contact with the wire. Some include a conductive-plastic resistance
coating over the wire to improve resolution. These typically offer ten turns of their
shafts to cover their full range. They are usually set with dials that include a simple
turns counter and a graduated dial, and can typically achieve three digit resolution.
Electronic analog computers used them in quantity for setting coefficients, and
delayed-sweep oscilloscopes of recent decades included one on their panels.

Fig.3.6. Potentiometer

18

3.6. Motor and battery


Motor
The permanent magnet dc motor is the sink. The motor has a permanent
magnet enclosed in a cylindrical housing. This permanent magnet is the field flux
of the motor and is designated as stator. The armature windings are wounded on the
paramagnetic material known has rotor. Motor starts rotating when the power is
supplied across the terminals. The mechanical commutation of the supply is done
by commutating brushes. These are mounted on the rotating shaft.

Fig.3.7. Permanent magnet dc motor

Battery
12V maintenance free lead acid batteries are used to power the motor.
Batteries are connected in series to make it to 24V.

Fig.3.8. Lead acid battery (12V-35Ah)

19

3.7 555 Timer Pin Configuration


PIN 1 (GROUND): Connects to the 0v power supply.
PIN 2 (TRIGGER): Detects 1/3 of rail voltage to make output HIGH. Pin 2

has control over pin 6. If pin 2 is LOW, and pin 6 LOW, output goes and
stays HIGH. If pin 6 HIGH, and pin 2 goes LOW, output goes LOW while
pin 2 LOW. This pin has a very high impedance (about 10M) and will
trigger with about 1uA.
PIN 3 (OUTPUT): (Pins 3 and 7 are "in phase.") Goes HIGH (about 2v less
than rail) and LOW (about 0.5v less than 0v) and will deliver up to 200mA.
PIN 4 (RESET): Internally connected HIGH via 100k. Must be taken below
0.8v to reset the chip.
PIN 5 (CONTROL): A voltage applied to this pin will vary the timing of
the RC network (quite considerably).
PIN 6 (THRESHOLD): Detects 2/3 of rail voltage to make output LOW
only if pin 2 is HIGH. This pin has a very high impedance (about 10M) and
will trigger with about 0.2uA.
PIN 7 (DISCHARGE): Goes LOW when pin 6 detects 2/3 rail voltage but
pin 2 must be HIGH. If pin 2 is HIGH, pin 6 can be HIGH or LOW and pin
7 remains LOW. Goes OPEN (HIGH) and stays HIGH when pin 2 detects
1/3 rail voltage (even as a LOW pulse) when pin 6 is LOW. (Pins 7 and 3
are "in phase.") Pin 7 is equal to pin 3 but pin 7 does not go high - it goes
OPEN. But it goes LOW and will sink about 200mA.
PIN 8 (SUPPLY): Connects to the positive power supply (Vs). This can be
any voltage between and15V DC, but is commonly 5V DC when working
with digital ICs.

20

Fig.3.9. 555 Timer IC.

3.8. IGBT /MOSFET


IGBT/MOSFET is nowadays the most preferred switching device used in the
chopper circuits. MOSFET is a voltage controlled device and has zero storage time.
MOSFET is highly suitable for high frequency switching and as such is widely
used because of absence of minority carrier storage time.
An insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is a three-terminal power
semiconductor device primarily used as an electronic switch which, as it was
developed, came to combine high efficiency and fast switching. It switches electric
power in many modern appliances such as variable-frequency drives (VFDs),
electric cars, trains, variable speed refrigerators, lamp ballasts, air-conditioners and
even stereo systems with switching amplifiers. Since it is designed to turn on and
off rapidly, amplifiers that use it often synthesize complex waveforms with pulsewidth modulation and low-pass filters. In switching applications modern devices
feature pulse repetition rates well into the ultrasonic range-frequencies which are at
least ten times the highest audio frequency handled by the device as amplifier.

Fig.3.10. Power IGBT.

21

CHAPTER IV
Chopper circuit
4.1 DC Choppers
A chopper is a particular kind of static device which is adept in converting
fixed dc voltage to variable dc voltage. Earlier ac link choppers were used for
converting fixed dc to variable dc but those were bulky and inefficient as they
involved multi step conversion. But with the introduction of dc choppers things
have changed. These are single step static devices and hence are more efficient and
less bulky and are available in a lower price tag.
With the intervention of choppers the efficiency of dc machine systems have
increased to a great extent and as such the dc choppers have become a key
component of the modern dc applications and as a whole of the entire industry
employing dc power. Nowadays choppers have become an essential component of
rapid transit systems. They have also found extensive applications in mine haulers,
forklift trucks and marine hoists. They are also used in hybrid electric vehicles as
they provide the regenerative braking facility.
A power semiconductor device is used as a switch in the overall chopper
circuitry. This device can be a MOSFET, a GTO or an IGBT. These power
electronic devices have a voltage drop of around 0.5-2.5 volts which has been
neglected as such in the analysis carried out in this project report.

22

4.2 Principle of chopper operation


Chopper is basically a very high speed on/off switching device. Its basic job
is to connect and disconnect the load from source at a great speed. In this way the
constant dc voltage is chopped and we obtain a variable dc voltage. There are
basically two time periods in chopper operation, one is the on time denoted as
TON and other is the off time denoted as TOFF. During TON we get the constant
source voltage VS across the load and during TOFF we get zero voltage across the
load. The chopper plays the role of providing this pattern of providing alternate
zero and VS. In this way we obtain a chopped dc voltage in the load terminals.

Fig.4.1. Motoring and braking circuit

Fig.4.2. Voltage waveforms

VO = Average output voltage of the circuit


23

VS = Source voltage of the circuit


VO = TON / (TON + TOFF) TON
TON/ (TON+TOFF) = Duty cycle denoted by .
Thus we see that we can control the average output voltage by varying the duty
cycle.

Fig.4.3. Duty cycles for amplitude of 5Volts.

4.3 Control strategies

24

We observed that the average output voltage can be controlled by varying


the duty cycle the chopper circuit. So the task in front of our selves is basically to
vary the duty cycle so as to get the required voltage output. Two modes exist which
can help us in varying the duty cycle of the system in order to get the required
output voltage. The two control strategies existent are:
Time ratio control (TRC).
Current limit control (CLC).
4.3.1 Time ratio control: In this method we vary the time ratio which is in two ways.

Constant frequency system- In this method we vary the on time of the system

but as whole the chopping frequency or we can say the time period is kept
constant. Basically in this method we are varying the width of the pulse and
as such this method is also known as PULSE WIDTH MODULATION.
Variable frequency system- In this method we are varying the chopping
frequency, that is, we are varying the time period of the system but in doing
so we are keeping either the TON or TOFF constant.
4.3.2 Current limit control

In this method of control the turn on and off times of the chopper circuit is
determined PWM method is generally the preferred mode of operation. by the
former value of load current. The previous maxima and minima of the load current
act as set values and decide the on and off time of the chopper circuit. When the
current in through the load crosses the maxima the device is switched off and when
it falls below the minima the device is switched on.

CHAPTER V

25

Experimental setup and description


5.1. Experiment setup

Oscilloscope

The assembled circuit on the bread board is been tested for the voltage
waveforms using the a oscilloscope. The waveforms are thus controlled using the
potentiometer. Potentiometer is tuned clockwise and anticlockwise with the handle
facing your side to control the duty cycle.

Regulated power supply

As the name suggests the power supply to the driver circuit can be varied
using the RPS. The wiring of the circuit is shown in the below diagram.

Designed chopper circuit on breadboard

The simulated circuit diagram is constructed on a breadboard. The


breadboard is a circuit testing pin configured device where the top and bottom
holes are shorted horizontally and the middle two segmentally arranged rows are
shorted vertically.

Fig.5.1. Experimental setup

5.2. Description of the setup


26

This setup consists of a DC motor 0.5HP, 220V, 1500 rpm whose speed has
to be controlled in closed loop control using controller & IGBT drive. Firing
circuit is based on 555integrated circuit & power circuit is based on two quadrant
chopper. Automatically variable DC supply is provided to set the speed of the DC
motor. A speed sensor is attached to the motor shaft. A tachometer constructed
internally is provided to read the motor speed in rpm. A pulley is attached to the
shaft of the DC motor for mechanical loading arrangement.

An ammeter is

provided to notice motor current. And a voltmeter is also provided to read voltage
across the DC motor.
5.3. Speed control and speed measurement
A DC voltage from three phase rectifier supply controlled from controller
through the IGBT based two quadrant chopper. The DC supply is given to the
chopper. The field supply is by the permanent magnet stator winding. The speed
sensor must be connected from motor assembly to the instrument by the socket
provided in the front panel of the control circuit. The speed sensor, sense the speed
of the motor and generates rectangular signal whose frequency is proportional to
the rpm. The signal conditioner converts frequency into voltage corresponding to
rpm. The digital panel meter displays the speed in rpm at the front panel of the
instrument.
Connect motor terminals (field & armature) to respective points in the power
circuit & speed sensor to feedback terminals socket.
Circuit connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram using three

phase auto transformer & three phase isolation transformer.


Keep stop/start switch to stop position.
FM/RM at FM position.
Connect 3 pin power cords from power unit (rectifier) to the mains supply.
Switch on the power supply.
27

Keeping auto transformer at minimum position, switch on the three phase

power input.
Switch on the power circuit through MCB.
Switch on the firing unit.
Set the rpm through the knob (say 800 rpm).
Adjust the auto transformer for suitable voltage, maximum 80%.
Load the motor up to 1 A in step of 0.5A load. Note down the speed for
different loads.

Remove the load, keep stop/start switch to stop position, reduce auto
transformer voltage to minimum value. Switch off power circuit by MCB, Switch
off three phase mains supply, switch off firing circuit, switch off field supply &
remove the connections.
The above experiment may be repeated for the reverse rotation of the motor by
keeping RM/FM switch to RM position.

Fig.5.2. Project arrangement

5.4. Final project


The circuit simulated and tested is now been setup on to the electric bike.
The speed of the assembled motor is regulated for various speeds and then by using
28

dpst switching system the motor terminals are transferred to the regenerative mode.
The power regenerated is tabulated and the results are discussed using the graph.

Fig.5.3. Final project

CHAPTER VI
Results and discussion
29

No load

Table.1.1 Power generation at rated speed 400rpm against time

s.n
o
1.

Set
rpm
400

2.

Run rpm Time (sec)

Voltage(V) Current(I) Power generated(V x I)

400

59

0.11

6.49

400

373

40

0.06

2.4

3.

400

291

06

0.02

0.12

4.

400

207

Table.1.2 Power generation at rated speed 600rpm against time

s.no
1.
2.
3.
4.

Set rpm
600
600
600
600

Run rpm
600
577
345
239

Time (sec)
0
2
3
4

Voltage(V)
79
77
20
0

Current(I)
0.10
0.09
0.06
0

Power generated(V x I)
7.9
6.93
1.2
0

Table.1.3 Power generation at rated speed 800rpm against time

s.no
1.
2.
3.
4.

Set rpm
800
800
800
800

Run rpm
800
587
315
210

Time (sec)
0
3
4
5

Voltage(V)
110
33
15
0

Current(I)
0.12
0.09
0
0

Power generated(V x I)
13.2
2.97
0
0

Table.1.4 Power generation at rated speed 1000rpm against time

s.no
1.
2.
3.

Set rpm
1000
1000
1000

Run rpm
1000
800
482

Time (sec)
0
2
4

Voltage(V)
134
54
13

Current(I)
0.12
0.09
0.07

Power generated(V x I)
16.08
4.86
0.91

Load table
Table.2.1 current ratings against loading conditions at rated speed 1065rpm

s.no
1.
2.

Spring load 1
1.0 Kg
1.9 Kg

Spring load 2
0
0

S1-S2
1.0 Kg
1.9 Kg
30

Current rating
0.50A
0.75A

Set rpm
1065
1065

3.

2.5 Kg

2.5 Kg

1.00A

1065

Under loads
Table.2.1.1 Power generation at rated speed 1067rpm against time under 1.0Kg load

s.no
1.
2.
3.

Set rpm
1067
1067
1067

Run rpm
1067
1041
619

Time (sec)
0
2
3

Voltage(V)
146
105
0

Current(I)
0.50
0.02
0

Power generated(V x I)
73
2.1
0

Table.2.1.2 Power generation at rated speed 1067rpm against time under 1.9kg load

s.no
1.
2.
3.

Set rpm
1067
1067
1067

Run rpm
1067
862
582

Time (sec)
0
2
3

Voltage(V)
150
42
0

Current(I)
0.75
0.07
0

Power generated(V x I)
112.5
2.94
0

Table.2.1.3 Power generation at rated speed 1067rpm against time under 2.5Kg load

s.no
1.
2.
3.

Set rpm
1067
1067
1067

Run rpm
1067
884
600

Time (sec)
0
2
3

Voltage(V)
151
91
0

Current(I)
1.00
0.08
0

Power generated(V x I)
151
7.28
0

Speed v/s time


Table.3.1 Speed against time at no load conditions

31

s.no

Time (sec)

Speed(rpm)

Speed (rpm)

Speed (rpm)

Speed (rpm)

1.

400

600

900

1000

2.

373

589

888

997

3.

207

540

479

805

4.

065

343

155

481

5.

044

110

072

155

6.

014

051

023

072

7.

006

024

016

023

8.

002

011

004

008

9.

000

004

003

005

10.

002

001

002

11.

10

001

000

001

Table.3.2 Speed against time at given loading conditions

s.no

Time
(sec)

Speed
(0.5A/1.0Kg load)

Speed
(0.75A/1.9Kg load)

Speed
(1.0A/2.5Kg load)

1.

1065

1065

1065

2.

1041

1050

885

3.

619

393

274

4.

283

181

087

5.

061

058

041

6.

029

027

020

7.

014

013

007

8.

007

006

003

9.

002

002

001

10.

001

001

000

32

Discussion of graphs
1300

1200
1100

Rated speed v/s Power generated

1000
900
800
700

Rated speed 400

600

Rated speed 600

500

Rated speed 800

400

Rated speed 1000

300
200
100
-100

x
2

10

33

12

14

16

18

20

22

y
2000
1800

Speed v/s Power generated


from rated speed of 1067 under
loaded conditions

1600
1400
1200

0.5A or 1.0 kg load


0.75A or 1.9kg load
1.0A or 2.5kg load

1000
800
600
400
200
-10

1000

x
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200

900
800

Different rated speeds v/s time


under no load condition

700
600

Set speed 400rpm

500

Set speed 600rpm

400

Set speed 900rpm


Set speed 1000rpm

300
200
100

x
2

-100

34

10

1000

900
800

Speed v/s time under loaded conditions

700

0.5A/1.0kg load

600

0.75A/1.9kg load

500

1.0A/2.5kg load

400
300
200
100

x
2

10

-100

CHAPTER VII
Conclusions
Here we see that the speed of a dc motor can be successfully controlled by
employing a chopper circuit.
The circuit is simulated and the various plots obtained under various
conditions are carefully studied.
The regeneration of power is for a very short duration of time, a maximum of
4 secs.
The maximum power regenerated in the project been 7.28 at maximum load
conditions taken while reading.
The above statement emphasis that with increasing load the amount of power
generated also increase.
35

It is absorbed that there is a slight variation in the power regenerated at peak


speeds(400,600,800,1000) with mean timings
With dropping speeds the power generated is almost in the same range
irrespective of the load.
The model shows good results under all conditions employed during
simulation.
By reference with the simulation results hardware is implemented and tested
successfully.

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39

Mode

Control

in