You are on page 1of 9

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Two system of branching tubes of


the circulatory system that
encloses circulating fluids would
be blood-vascular system and
the lymphatic system.

BLOOD VASULAR SYSTEM

Branching tubes: lymphatic


vessels and open spaces:
lymphatic sinuses
Lymphatic sinuses: beneath the
skin and between the muscles
Lymph glands has the
lymphocytes which are a variety
of white blood corpuscles
Tonsils, thymus and spleen
belong the lymph glands
Fluid: lymph

A closed system
Made up of blood vessels

arteries, veins and capillaries


BLOOD AND BLOOD VESSELS
and the heart
Heart: contractile muscular organ
Arises from the mesoderm
that is situated in the median
mesenchyme cells and the
ventral portion of the body
patches are called the blood
Arteries: carry blood AWAY from
corpuscles
the heart and have thicker walls
Somatic vessels and splanchnic
Veins: carry blood TOWARDS
vessels
the heart and are made up of
VITELLINE VEINS: earliest blood
thinner walls
vessel to form on the surface of
1. Systemic veins flow
the yolk sac
directly into the right side of
the heart
HEART
2. Pulmonary veins flow from
the lungs into the left side of
Ventral mesentery
the heart
Dorsal and ventral mesocardia
3. Portal veins this no longer
Anterior region of the heart:
returns to the heart which flow
Ventral aorta
through
a
system
of
Aortic arches: pair of branches
capillaries
that
are
which encircle the pharynx
reconnected
to
the
Dorsal aortae (dorsal part of the
systemic veins
body)
Capillaries: attached to the ends
Caudal artery (dorsal artery
of the arteries and the front of the
which extends up to the tail
veins
region)
Carries blood which is color red
Affarent branchical vessels
and plasma which is colorless
from the aorta to the branchial
and the corpuscles
bars
(SEEN
IN
CYCLOSTOMES)
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
Efferent branchial vessels or
An open system
epibranchial vessels from the
branchial bars to the aorta (SEEN
IN CYCLOSTOMES)

TRANSVERSE
SEPTUMbridges the splanchnic and
somatic mesoderm
Anterior and posterior cardinal
veins
DUCT OF CUVIER OR THE
COMMON CARDINAL VEIN
passes each side of the heart
through the transverse septum
LATERAL
OR
VENTRAL
ABDOMINAL VEINS enter the
heart along with the common
cardinal vein
Two vitelline veins
1. subintestinal
vein

mesentery of the gut and


constitutes the chief vein of
the digestive tract
2. caudal vein this continues
up to the tail as the caudal
vein
1.
Median
visceral
or
splanchnic branches (digestive
tract)
2. Lateral visceral branches
(urogenital system)
3. Parietal visceral branches
(body wall)

PORTAL SYSTEM

Part of the VENOUS system


1. Hepatic portal system (liver)
2. Renal portal system (kidney)
HEPATIC PORTAL SYSTEM
- transverse system is posterior
end of the heart
a. hepatic vein Hepatic portal
vein
b. mesenteric vein
RENAL PORTAL SYSTEM
a. subcardinal vein
b. renal portal vein

HEART

S-shaped
4 chambers
1. Sinus venosus thin walled
chambered and at the anterior
region of the heart
2. Atrium thin- walled and is
laterally (atrium has atrial
appendages which are the
flaps of the atrium)
3. Ventricle thick walled
4. Conus
arteriosusmost
anterior portion and is anterior
to the ventral aorta

INTERVENTRICULAR SEPTUM:
divides the ventricle into the left
and right compartments
Sinus venosus is now part of
the RIGHT ATRIUM
CONUS ARTERIOSUS split
into two: systemic aorta and
pulmonary trunk
Systemic aorta: connects with the
LEFT VENTRICLE
Pulmonary trunk: connects with
the RIGHT VENTRICLE
Muscular contaction begins
with the sinus venosus
Sinoatrial mode: beating of the
heart

CIRCULATION OF BLOOD

Right auricle or atrium to


the right ventricle via the
tricuspid valve.
Right ventricle to the lungs
via the pulmonary trunk
Lungs to the left auricle via
the pulmonary vein
Left auricle to the left
ventricle via the mitral
valve or bicuspid valve
Exits via the systemic
aorta

Conus arteriosus splits into


the pulmonary and the aorta
Two auricles and two ventricles
and are separated by a septum
Double circulation
Left part: aortic arch
Renal portal system fuses with
the POSTCAVAL VEIN
ONLY HAS THE HEPATIC
PORTAL SYSTEM
Sinus venosus is merged with
the RIGHT AURICLE
HEART

CAT CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Sinus venosus and


arteriosus are absent

conus

The heart is covered with the


pericardial sac
2 ventricles: RIGHT AND LEFT
Ventricle: thick walled
1. apex (posterior part)
2. base (anterior part and is
broad)
- groove
which
separated the two
ventricles
contains
branches
of
the
coronary artery and
vein (surface of the
ventricles)
- left ventricle is larger
than the right ventricle
and the left ventricle
includes the APEX
2 atriums or auricles: LEFT AND
RIGHT
- auricles have lobes
which
are
called
appendages
- Between two arteries
would
be
the
pulmonary
artery
(arch to the left then
disappears) (anterior
to the arteries)

STRUCTURE OF THE HEART

blood from the ventricle


back to the auricle

Aorta and the arch of the aorta dorsal to the pulmonary artery

2 AURICLES
2 VENTRICLES
PULMONARY VEINS ENTER
THE LEFT AURICLE
INTERAURICULAR SEPTUM
LARGE
AURICOULOVENTRICULAR
OPENINGS (FLOOR OF THE
ARTERIES)
CORONARY SINUS IPENS UP
TO THE RIGHT AURICLE
PULMONARY ARTERY (RIGHT
VENTRICLE)

VENOUS SYSTEM

RIGHT VENTRICLE
TRABECULAE CARNAE
PAPILLARY MUSCLES
CHORDAE TENDINAE
FLAPS:
TRICUSPID
VALVE
Tricuspid valve: guards
the
right
auriculoventricular
opening and prevents
the blood from flowing
back from the ventricle
to the auricle
Three-pocket
shape:
SEMILUNAR VALVES
INTERVENTRICULAR
SEPTUM: separates the
two ventricles
BICUSPID AND MITRAL
VALVE
(LEFT
VENTRICLE)
Bicuspid valve: guards
the
left
auriculoventricular
opening and prevents
the regurgitation of the

The two systemic veins of the


cat: postcaval and precaval
veins
PRECAVAL VEIN (anterior vena
cava or descending vena cava)
anterior margin of the RIGHT
AURICLE
Coronary
sinus

LEFT
AURICLE runs to the dorsal
side of the heart between the
auricles and ventricles
SINUS enters to the right
auricle
AZYGOS VEIN
Pressing the RIGHT lung to the
left INTERCOSTAL VEINS
(anterior intercostal veins and
posterior intercostal veins)
Intercostal veins are along the
POSTERIOR border of the ribs
ANTERIOR TO THE PRECAVAL
VEIN

TWO INTERNAL MAMMARY


VEINS from the midventral wall
of the chest
- diaphragm, chest wall and
pericardium
Running through the abdomen
SUPERIOR EPIGASTRIC VEINS
INNOMINATE
VEIN
OR
BRANCHIOCEPHALIC VEIN 2nd rib
VERTEBRAL VEIN
- thymus gland and
adjacent muscles
- traced to the cervical
vertebrae

COSTOCERVICAL VEIN
- from the muscles of
the back
- inner muscles of the
first two ribs
SUBCLAVIAN VEIN
EXTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN
AXILLARY VEIN
- pectoral musle
- insertion: humerus
SUBSCAPULAR VEIN
- proximal part of the
upper arm to the
dorsal side of humerus
- upper
arm
and
shoulder
- beginning is in the
trapezius muscles
POSTERIOR
CIRCUMFLEX
VEIN
- external surface of the upper
arm
VENTRAL THORACIC VEIN
- medial portions of the pectoral
muscles
LONG THORACIC VEIN
THORACODORSAL VEIN
- longissimus dorsi
BRACHIAL VEIN
- inner surface of the
upper arm
- nerves and brachial
artery
INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN
- neck
- carotid artery and
vagus nerve
TRANSVERSE
SCAPULAR
VEIN
- shoulder
CEPHALIC VEIN
- arm
- superficial vein of the
forelimb

ANTERIOR FACIAL VEIN


- face,
jaws,
submaxillary
and
lymph glands
- angular vein from the
eye
POSTERIOR FACIAL VEIN
- from the parotid gland
- posterior auricular vein
from pinna and back
of the head
TRANSVERSE VEIN
- connects the anterior
and posterior facial
veins
- across the ventral side
of the throat
ANGULAR VEIN
POSTERIOR AURICULAR VEIN

FROM THE POSTCAVAL VEIN


Also called the vena cava
posterior or the inferior and
ascending vena cava
Enters the RIGHT AURICLE
FROM BEHIND
Passes through the RIGHT
MEDIAN LOBE OF THE
LIVER
PHRENIC VEINS
HEPATIC VEINS
- from the liver
RIGHT
ADRENOLUMBAR
VEIN
RIGHT AND LEFT ADRENAL
GLAND

RIGHT AND LEFT RENAL


VEIN
- from kidney to the postcaval
vein
RIGHT
AND
LEFT
ADRENOLUMBAL VEIN

RIGHT
AND
LEFTAORTA AND ITS BRANCHES
INTERNAL
SPERMATIC
Large trunk: Aorta
VEIN
Dorsal to the pulmonary
- male cats
artery (from the left ventricle)
- traced to the scrotum
Right and left CORONARY
LEFT AND RIGHT OVARIAN
ARTERIES are from the
VEIN
base of the aorta
- female cats
LEFT
CORONARY
ILIOLUMBAR VEINS
ARTERY:
between
the
POSTCAVAL
pulmonary artery and left
auricle ventral and left side
Formed dorsal to the
of the heart
forking of the aorta by the
RIGHT
CORONARY
union
of
two
large
ARTERY groove between
COMMON ILIAC VEINS
the right auricle and right
SACRAL AND
CAUDAL
ventricle and brnaches to the
VEINS
right and dorsal surfaces of
ILIAC: INTERNAL ILIAC OR
the heart
HYPOGASTRIC
AND
ARCH OF THE AORTA
EXTERNAL ILIAC
neck, head and forelimbs
MIDDLE HAEMORRHOIDAL
- there are two in the CAT
VEIN
DEEP FEMORAL VEIN
EXTERNAL
SPERMATICARTERIAL SYSTEM
VEIN
BRANCHIOCEPHALIC OR
INFERIOR
EPIGASTRIC
INNOMINATE
ARTERY
VEIN
(RIGHT SIDE)
FEMORAL VEIN
SUBCLAVIAN
ARTERY
(LEFT SIDE)

PULMONARY VEINS

Lung region
Lungs and to the left auricle
Carries oxygenated blood

PULMONARY ARTERIES

RIGHT
AND
LEFT
PULMONARY ARTERIES
Extends from the base of the
RIGHT VENTRICLE forward
and between the auricles
Carries deoxygenated blood

Three branches in the CAT


FROM THE SUBCLAVIAN
ARTERY
1. RIGHT SUBCLAVIAN
2. RIGHT
COMMON
CAROTID
3. LEFT
COMMON
CAROTID
LEVEL OF THE FIRST RIB
1. INTERNAL MAMMARY
2. VERTEBRAL
3. COSTOCERVICAL AXIS
4. THYROCERVICAL AXIS
INTERNAL MAMMARY

SUPERIOR
EPIGASTRIC
ARTERY
- abdominal wall
COSTOCOCERVICAL
ARTERY

VERTEBRAL ARTERY
SUPERIOR INTERCOSTAL
ARTERY
- intercostal branches
- supplying
deep
muscles of the back
TRANSVERSE ARTERY OF
THE NECK
- serratus ventralis and
the
rhomboideus
muscles
THYROCERVICAL AXIS

DEEP CERVICAL ARTERY


TRANSVERSE SCAPULAR
ARTERY
- neck
SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY OR
AXILLARY ARTERY
- first rib into the axilla
VENTRAL
THORACIC
ARTERY
- medial ends of the
pectoral muscles
LONG THORACIC ARTERY
- posteriorly alongside
the middle pectoral
muscles
- latissimus dorsi
- arm
SUBSCAPULAR ARTERY
THORACODORSAL
ARTERY
- thoracic artery
- latissimus dorsi

COMMON CAROTID ARTERY

Arise
from
the
branchiocephalic
and
immediately diverge
Pass anterior in the neck
and one to each side of the
trachea
SUPERIOR
THYROID
ARTERY
INTERNAL
CAROTID
ARTERY
- dorsally with nerves and
enters the skull by a foramen
through the tympanic bulla
OCCIPITAL ARTERY
EXTERNAL
CAROTID
ARTERY
- jaw
- all parts of the head
LINGUAL ARTERY
- tongue
INTERNAL
MAXILLARY
ARTERY
- masseter
- lower and upper lips
- jaw

THE THORACIC AORTA

Arterial
ligament
or
ligament of Botallus
connection between the
pulmonary and aorta
Aorta that courses along
the thorax
Within the MEDIASTINUM
INTERCOSTAL ARTERIES
BRONCHIAL ARTERIES
ESOPHAGEAL ARTERIES
THORACIC ARTERIES
Thoracic duct

THE ABDOMINAL AORTA

Beneath the DIAPHRAGM


region
Posterior to the diaphragm:
celiac
and
superior
mesenteric arteries
Dorsal aorta
1.
Median
visceral
branches digestive
tract
2.
Lateral
visceral
branches kidneys
and
reproductive
organs
3.
Somatic branches
body wall
COELIC ARTERY

passes through the


stomach
- Three branches
COELIC ARTERY
1. HEPATIC ARTERY
- left end of the
pancreas, and to the
dorsal side of the
lesser curvature to the
hepato-duodenal
ligament
2. LEFT
GASTRIC
ARTERY
OR
CORONARY ARTERY
3. SPLENIC ARTERY
- omentum, spleen
and forks
SUPERIOR
MESENTERIC ARTERY
- greater part of the
intestine
MIDDLE COLIC ARTERY
POSTERIOR
PANCREATICODUODEN
AL ARTERY
pancreas
and
duodenum
ILEOCOLIC ARTERY

caecum
posterior part of the
ileum
RIGHT
COLIC:
ascending colon

DORSAL AORTA

Adrenal glands
ADRENOLUMBAR
ARTERY
RENAL ARTERY
PHRENIC ARTERY
INTERNAL SPERMATIC
ARTERIES
OVARIAN ARTERIES
LUMBAR ARTERIES
LEFT COLIC ARTERY
SUPERIOR
HAEMORRHOIDAL
ARTERY
EXTERNAL
ILIAC
ARTERIES
INTERNAL
ILIAC
ARTERIES
MEDIAN SACRAL OR
CAUDAL ARTERY

EXTERNAL ILIAC

DEEP
FEMORAL
ARTERIES
(thigh
region)
EXTERNAL SPERMATIC
ARTERY
INFERIOR EPIGASTRIC
ARTERY

INTERNAL ILIAC

UMBILICAL ARTERY
MIDDLE
HAEMORRHOIDAL
ARTERY
UTERINE
ARTERY
(FEMALE CATS)

- passes through the pancreas


a.
middle
gastroepiploic
vein
(omentum and stomach)
b. pancreatic vein (pancreas)
c. right splenic vein (spleen) and left
splenic vein (omentum and stomach)

HEPATIC PORTAL SYSTEM

Attached to the liver


Dorsal to the common bile duct:
Hepatic portal vein or the portal
vein
Ligament:
Hepato-duodenal
ligament
Small veins that enter the
PORTAL VEIN
1. Coronary vein
- from the stomach and lies in
the curve between the pylorus
stomach
- formed from the lesser
curvature of the stomach
- both sides of the stomach
2.Anterior
pancreaticoduodenal vein
- pancreas and duodenum
3. Right gastoepiploic vein
- pyloric region
greater curvature of the stomach
adjacent to the greater omentum
4.Gastrosplenic vein

Superior mesenteric vein


-

pancreas
and
duodenum
posterior
pancreaticoduodenal
vein

Inferior mesenteric vein


-

descending colon and


rectum
converges
intestinal
branches from small
intestine, caecum and
ascending colon